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THE 



" american 
Journal of Pharmacy 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 

EDITED BY 

HENRY KRAEMER 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE FOR IQI5 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER M. I. WILBERT 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND CHARLES H. LaWALL 

JOSEPH P. REMINGTON GEORGE M, BERINGER 

AND THE EDITOR 

— \<^ G 

VOLUME 87 



PHILADELPHIA 
1915 



THE AMERICAN 



JOUKNAL OF PHARMACY 




By Edwin L. Newcomb, College of Pharmacy^Mib!s^ 



The available outer morphological descriptions of Atropa Bella- 
donna and Hyoscyamus niger are quite complete and but little can 
be added. It was noted that a few of the Belladonna plants were 
especially characterized by being very hairy, and such plants were 
found growing mostly in plots which had been fertilized with cyan- 
amide or sodium nitrate. 

Excellent anatomical descriptions of Belladonna and Hyoscyamus 
have been prepared by various workers, but some exceedingly char- 
acteristic features appear to have been omitted. Microscopical exam- 
inations which I have made from time to time as the plants grew 
revealed the presence of distinct branching hairs on Atropa Bella- 
donna, Hyoscyamus niger, annual and biennial, and on H. albns. 

The branching hairs in H. niger and H. albus are very much alike, 
probably identical, while those found on Belladonna were of the 
same general forms, but usually much shorter and not so thick at 
the base. A number of different types of branching hairs were 
observed, as is indicatecLby the illustrations. 

In Hyoscyamus these hairs occur on the basal margins of the 
sessile leaves and on the edges of the petioles of the petioled leaves, 





(Continued from December, 1914.) 



Part II — Morphological Studies. 



1 Presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy for 'the degree of 
Master in Pharmacy in course. 

(1) 



2 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( January, 1915. 



being most abundant on the latter. They are present on the seedlings 
of a few months' growth, as well as on the mature plants. They 
may attain a total length of as much as five millimetres, and a width 
at* the base of from seventy-five to eighty microns. They are richly 
protoplasmic when in the living condition, and they have thin, non- 
lignified walls, the walls being from one to two and one-half microns 
thick. The stalks (i.e., the cells below the branching) vary in length 
from one hundred to twenty-seven hundred microns, and usually 
consist of from one to five cells, occasionally more. The branches, of 
which there may be one or two, rarely three, consist of lateral pro- 
longations of cells from the main hair or of from one to ten or more 
distinct cells arising from the joints or sides of cells in the main 
axis. The apices of the branching hair are obtuse or rounded, 
occasionally enlarged and spherical. The latter form does not 
appear to contain oil, but is richly protoplasmic. 

In Belladonna branching hairs were observed on each of a large 
number of plants examined, the selection of plants representing some 
from each lot wintered by different methods. The branching hairs 
on Belladonna are mostly found on the young shoots, as the plant 
begins growth in the spring and they are located on the same part 
of the leaf as found in Hyoscyamus. The greatest length of a 
branching hair observed in Belladonna was thirty- four hundred 
microns, and the greatest width at the base seventy-eight microns. 
The form of branch represented by the lateral prolongation of a cell 
is only occasionally found in Belladonna and the length of the indi- 
vidual cell is usually somewhat less than in Hyoscyamus. In other 
respects the branching hairs of Belladonna resemble those of Hyo- 
scyamus. The branching hairs in Belladonna are not confined to 
those plants which are especially hairy. 

The young, rapidly-growing leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and 
N. repanda also' possess branching hairs which closely resemble those 
of Belladonna and Hyoscyamus, and which are quite different from 
any which have heretofore been described. 

The broken- joint portions of these branching hairs I have 
observed in commercial Hyoscyamus powdered in my laboratory. 
They are more abundant in drug which represents basal first-year 
leaves than in flowering tops. In either case their detection is diffi- 
cult, due to the thin, delicate structure of the hairs, which results 
in their breaking up more or less completely. The branching hairs 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January. 1915. 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



are comparatively fewer in Belladonna than in Hyoscyamus, and 
practically one can but rarely observe them in the drug Belladonna. 

Calcium oxalate, occurring as sphenoids in Belladonna and as 
single or twin monoclinic prisms, or occasionally rosette aggre- 




Fig. 6.— Various forms of hairs occurring on a single leaf of Hyoscyamus niger. 

gates, in Hyoscyamus. has been held for some time as a means of 
distinction between these two plants. In the last edition of the 
German Pharmacopoeia attention is called to the presence of sphenoids 
of calcium oxalate in Hyoscyamus, and quite recently Anselmino and 
E. Gilg stated that the crystal sand described in the German Pharma- 



4 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ January, 1915. 



copoeia appears only in young leaves, and is, besides, too rare to 
serve as a basis of recognition. I have studied the presence of 
these crystals of calcium oxalate during the entire life history of 
Hyoscyamus, and I find that sphenoidal crystals occur during all 
stages of growth. The sphenoidal crystals I have found in the young 
leaves and also in the mature leaves. The sphenoidal crystals occur 




Fig. 7. — Branching hairs found in the different forms of Hyoscyamus niger and in H. albus. 



in a few cells of the parenchyma layers immediately surrounding 
the vascular bundle of the midrib. The average transverse section of 
a mature leaf contains from ten to fifteen cells with sphenoids. The 
crystals vary in size from three to ten microns long. The number 
of these crystals in powdered Hyoscyamus is not great, but they are 
always present. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
January, 1915. j 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



5 



The stems, leaves, and flowers of Hyoscyamus niger contain the 
cell-sap coloring principle anthocyanin. Warm aqueous extractions 
of the corollas yield solutions of a blue color, which give a deep 
pink with dilute acids and a rich grass-green color with lime water. 
When strong alkalies are added to a solution of the coloring principle 




a dark green evolves, quickly changing to yellow and yellowish-brown. 
Hyoscyamus alb us does not contain this cell-sap coloring principle, 
and will not give any of the above reactions. Very small seedling 
plants of the two species of Hyoscyamus mentioned above may be 
differentiated by making longitudinal sections of the young petioles 



6 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



(Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ January, 1915. 



and mounting in dilute hydrochloric acid, which with H. niger imparts 
a deep pink or rose-red color to the many cells containing antho- 
cyanin. The young seedlings may also be differentiated, although 
less accurately, by noting the purplish hue of the petioles and buds 
of H. niger. A few grammes of the official leaves and flowering 
tops of H. niger, when powdered and shaken for a few moments 
with hot water, impart a faint bluish color to the water. If the 
mixture is filtered and dilute hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, 
it becomes pink. The intensity of the color depends upon the care 
which has been taken in the collection and drying of the drug and 
upon the amount of basal leaves or foreign matter. 

The purple color of the corolla, the fruit, and of the stems of 
Atropa Belladonna gives the same reactions as anthocyanin from 
Hyoscyamus niger. The extraction of the coloring principle from 
Belladonna flowers is slow, and other extractives tend to cloud the 
reactions. The tests with Belladonna are best made by placing frag- 
ments of the corolla in the reagents, either in test-tubes or on 
microscopic slides. 

The pollen grains of Hyoscyamus are quite characteristic, being 
flattened and triangular, from forty to fifty microns broad and from 
thirty-four to forty microns thick. In outline they appear either 
rounded, elliptical, or triangular, depending on the point of vision. 
The surrounding membrane of the pollen grain consists of two parts, 
a continuous layer of intine and an outer layer of exine which is 
usually ruptured over the angles at the maturity of the grain, leaving 
thin places for the development of the pollen tube. The exine layer 
is quite smooth and yellowish in color. Occasionally pollen grains 
may be observed with the pollen tube protruding through one of the 
thin places. The number of pollen grains found in the powdered 
drug Hyoscyamus is proportional to the amount of stem, first-year 
basal leaves, and other extraneous matter ground with the flowering 
tops. If powdered Hyoscyamus is prepared from flowering tops 
with a somewhat uniform amount of stem, the number of pollen 
grains is fairly constant. This is due to the fact that the flowering 
tops seldom have less than two or more than four blossoms mature 
at one time. In a number of commercial samples of Hyoscyamus, 
consisting of the flowering tops with a minimum amount of stem, 
I have found, after powdering, the following numbers of pollen 
grains : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1915. J 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



7 



No. of sample. Weight of sample. No. of pollen grains. 

A 5 mg 931 

B 5 mg 766 

C 5 mg • 890 

D 5 mg 986 

E 5 mg 1045 

A commercial sample consisting entirely of the basal leaves of the 
biennial Henbane, when powdered and examined, showed only 
occasional pollen grains in five-milligramme portions. A commer- 
cial sample which by garbling was found to consist of eighty-nine 




Fig. 9. — Branching hairs found on the young growth and on the new shoots of Atropa Belladonna. 



per cent, basal leaves and eleven per cent, of flowering tops, when 
powdered and examined in five-milligramme portions, was found 
to contain from seventy-five to one hundred pollen grains in each 
portion. From these observations it is evident that the number of 
Hyoscyamus pollen grains in a sample of powdered Hyoscyamus indi- 
cates the amount of flowering tops in the drug which was powdered. 

Alkaloids and Ash in Hyoscyamus. 
Numerous results on the amount of alkaloids in Hyoscyamus 
have been published, but for the most part these results have been 
based upon the examination of commercial drug material, and, while 
the assays have probably served to indicate, in a general way, the 
medicinal value of such samples, they cannot be accepted as scientific 



8 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1915. 



data upon which to base conclusions concerning what species, varie- 
ties, or parts of the plant are most valuable medicinally. Especially 
is this true when the facts concerning the natural hybridization of 
Hyoscyamus are considered. Again, practically nothing is known 
of the methods of culture, drying, storage, etc., of most of the various 
specimens reported upon. No attempt has been made thus far to 
study the alkaloids in the plants that I have cultivated, but the pure 
cultures now being developed will be examined in this respect. 
Siim-Jensen reported on a study of the amount of alkaloids in 
carefully-collected samples of Hyoscyamus niger, and the nature of 
the work done seems of sufficient importance to call attention to it 
at this time. The following table gives his results : 

Part of plant. Total alkaloids. 

Root of biennial plant 155 .16 .17 

Leaves of biennial plant, first year. . . .059 .066 .069 

Leaves and tops, second year 065 .06; .068 

Leaves and tops, annual 064 .068 .070 

Carefully-cleaned leaves, collected in the medicinal plant garden, 
and commercial samples of Hyoscyamus have been examined for the 
per cent, of ash. The following table gives the result of this work : 



Part of plant. Source. Per cent, of ash. 

Basal leaves, 89 per cent. . 

Commercial sample 21.09 



r cent. J 
( Basal leaves, 89 per cent. . 



\ .basal leaves, 89 per cent. . . . ) „ . « , 

2. 1 1 Commercial sample 10-07 

/Flowering tops, 11 per cent. ) 

3. Flowering tops Select commercial sample 9.68 

4. Flowering tops Select commercial sample 9.48 

5. Basal leaves, first year Medicinal plant garden 16.02 

6. Basal leaves, first year Medicinal plant garden 16.17 

7. Flowering tops Select commercial sample 9.54 

8. Flowering tops Select commercial sample 9.06 

The results of work like the foregoing on Belladonna and Hyo- 
scyamus indicate that a complete understanding of vegetable drugs 
can come only after thorough studies have been made of the plants 
yielding drugs. Such studies necessitate the more or less continuous 
observation of the growing plant throughout its life, and also much 
experimental work along physiologic and pharmacognostic lines. 
During the time that the work embodied in this paper has been in 
progress I have taken a large part in planning and constructing a 
medicinal plant laboratory, wherein the origin and nature of vegetable 
drugs may be, and is, studied in connection with the medicinal plant 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1915. J 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



9 



the work embodied in this paper. Along with the development of 
this medicinal plant laboratory, although beginning somewhat earlier, 
I have developed a medicinal plant garden, wherein much of the 
material for the work embodied in this paper has been grown. All 
that is embodied in this paper, including the illustrative material, 
represents my own work. 

Literature Cited. 

Literature consulted in connection with the preparation of this 
paper : 

1. " Pharmacographia," Fliickiger and Hanbury. Macmillan & Co., Lon- 
don, 1874. 

2. Karsten, H. : " Deutsche Flora." J. M. Spaeth, Berlin, 1880-1883. 

3. Hoche, Friedrich August : " Labiaten, Scrophularinum und Solanum." 
Dissertation, Freiburg, 1886. 

4. Tschirch : " Augewandte Pflanzenanatomie." Urban and Schwarzen- 
berg, Wien and Leipzig, 1889. 

5. Gerrard : Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, London, 1891, 
p. 148. 

6. Moeller, J.: " Pharmakognostischer Atlas." J. Springer, Berlin, 1892. 

7. " Berg und Schmidt's Atlas der Officinellen Pflanzen," Band I. Arthur 
Felix, Leipzig, 1893. 

8. Tschirch und Osterle, " Anatomischer Atlas der Pharmakognosie und 
Nahrungsmittelkunde." Chr. Herm. Tauchnitz, Leipzig, 1895-1900. 

9. Solereder : " Systematische Anatomie der Dicotyledonen." Stuttgart, 
Verlag von Ferdinand Enke, 1899. 

10. Siim-Jensen, Johannes : " Hyoscyamus niger L." An inaugural dis- 
sertation, p. 86, Marburg, 1900. 

11. Moller, J.: " Leitf aden zu Mikroskopische-Pharmakognotischen Ubun- 
gen." A. Holder, Wien, 1901. 

12. Mez : " Mikroskopische Untersuchungen." J. Springer, Berlin, 1902. 

13. Greenish and Collin : " Anatomical Atlas of Vegetable Powders." 
Churchill, London, 1904. 

14. " Real-Enzyklopadie der Gesamten Pharmazie," Zweiter Band und 
Sechster Band. Urban und Schwarzenberg, Berlin, 1904-1905. 

15. Holmes, E. M. : " Cultivation of Medicinal Plants," through abs. 
Yearbook of Pharmacy, p. 311, 1905. Churchill, London, 1905. 

16. Gilg, E. : " Pharmakognosie." J. Springer, Berlin, 1905. 

17. Moeller, J. : " Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie." A. Holder, Wien, 
1906. 

18. Koch : " Analyse der Drogenpulver," III Band. Borntraeger, Leip- 
zig, 1906. 

19. Koch und Gilg: " Pharmakognostisches Praktikum." Borntraeger, 
Berlin, 1907. 



io Development of the Sugar Industry. \ A ^/uTry, ims™' 



20. Collin, E. : " Traite de Toxicologic V egetale." Octave Doin, Paris, 
1907. 

21. Strasburger, Dr. E. : " A Text-book of Botany," translated by W. H. 
Lang. Macmillan & Co., London, 1908. 

22. Greenish : " Materia Medica." Churchill, London, 1909. 

23. Karsten und Oltmarms : " Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie." Gustave 
Fischer, Jena, 1909. 

24. Kraemer : " Botany and Pharmacognosy." J. B. Lippincott Compan}', 
Philadelphia, 1910. 

25. Greenish : " The Microscopical Examination of Foods and Drugs.'' 
P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Philadelphia, 1910. 

26. DeVries, Hugo : " Species and Varieties, Their Origin by Mutation." 
Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1906. 

27. DeVries, Hugo: "Plant Breeding." Open Court Publishing Com- 
pany, Chicago, 1907. 

28. DeVries, Hugo : " The Mutation Theory," Vols. I and II. Open Court 
Publishing Company, Chicago, 1909-1910. 

29. DeVries, Hugo : " Intracellular Panganesis." Open Court Publishing 
Company, Chicago, 1910. 

30. C. Correns : Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 
XXI, 1903, p. 195. 

31. O. Anselmino and E. Gilg: "Commercial Henbane Leaves," Arch. 
Pharm., pp. 251, 367-76; "Through Chemical Abstracts." 

Department of Pharmacognosy, 
College of Pharmacy, 
University of Minnesota. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY.* 

By C. A. Browne."!* 

In previous lectures before the students of this course, the sub- 
jects of sugar manufacture, 1 the production of raw sugar in some 
of our colonial possessions 2 and the utilization of by-products of 
the sugar industry 3 were treated. These have all been printed in 
the School of Mines Quarterly, and to save time and avoid repetitions 
I refer you to this publication for many details. As a topic for 

* A lecture in the Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, April 
17, 1914, and reprinted from The School of Mines Quarterly, April, 1914, 
pp. 223-241. 

f Chemist-in-charge, New York Sugar Trade Laboratory, 80 South Street, 
New York. 

1 School of Mines Quarterly, April, 191 1. 

2 Ibid., January, 1913. 

* Ibid., July, 1913. 



A jan J u°a U ^ : Si 5™" } Development of the Sugar Industry. n 

this- year's lecture, it occurred to me that a short account of the 
development of the sugar industry would be of interest. The his- 
torical study of a subject is usually most instructive; it fixes in our 
minds the progress of the past and enables us to> forecast the possibili- 
ties of the future. 

Sugar is derived, at present, principally from two plants, the 
sugar cane and the sugar beet. The production of sugar from the 
maple, palm, and other minor sources, is of comparative insignifi- 
cance and will not be touched upon. For the year 19 12-19 13, tne 
total production of cane and beet sugar for the whole world was 
18,144,638 tons, of which 9,178,574 tons was cane sugar and 8,966,064 
tons was beet sugar, being in the proportion of 50.5 per cent, for cane 
and 49.5 per cent, for beet sugar. The production of sugar in order of 
importance, for the ten leading countries during that year, was as 
follows : 

Sugar Production of the World. 

Country. Production of sugar, tons. 

1. Germany 2,700,913 (beet) 

2. British India 2,583,600 (cane) 

3. Cuba 2,428,537 (cane) 

4. Austria 1,901,615 (beet) 

5. United States and Colonies .... 1,770,837 (1,146,773 cane) 

( 624,064 beet) 

6. Russia 1,374,500 (beet) 

7. Java 1,331,180 (cane) 

8. France 960.900 (beet) 

9. Holland 316,177 (beet) 

10. Belgium 298,584 (beet) 

The consumption of the world's output of sugar in the ten leading 
countries during the same year was as follows : 

Sugar Consumption of the World. 

Country. Gross consumption, tons. ^pXpoSnd?" 

1. United States 3,743,150 85.40 

2. British India 3,225,ooo(?) 2.4o(?) 

3. England 1,966,690 95-52 

4. Germany 1,470,000 48.95 

5. Russia i,454,7oo 24.33 

6. France 767,430 4341 

7. Austria 653,300 28.12 

8. Turkey 204,000 19.84 

9. Italy 166,900 10.76 

10. Spain 142,610 16.24 



12 Development of the Sugar Industry. { A ™ an {° a "y - 19™' 

The home of the sugar cane, as of many other of our cultivated 
plants, is India. We find the cane mentioned in earliest Sanskrit 
writings and it seems to have thrived there from time immemorial. 
The Greek soldiers of Alexander the Great found the cane growing 
in India at the time of their conquest of Asia in 327 B.C., and reports 
of the sugar cane, which they brought home, are among the first 
historical accounts that reached Europe. It is doubtful, however, 
whether sugar was manufactured from the cane so early as this. The 
cane was at first simply eaten, just as in primitive countries at the 
present time, the expressed juice being used also as a beverage or 
fermented into a kind of wine. At a later period cane juice seems 
to have been evaporated in the household for making preserves or 
sweetmeats, and the sweet crystalline deposits which separated from 
the evaporated juice probably gave the early people of India their 
first ideas of sugar making. It is not until after the third century 
of the Christian era that we find in old Chinese writings the first 
mention of sugar as a commodity of commerce, although it is prob- 
able that sugar was made on a small scale long before. 

From its native home in India the sugar cane was carried east- 
ward and westward. It was introduced by the natives through the 
islands of the East Indies, the Philippines, and the rest of that great 
archipelago. Thence it was carried to Samoa, Tahiti, and the other 
islands of the southern Pacific, and from there it was transported 
by daring native navigators to the Hawaiian Islands, where it was 
found growing by Captain Cook at the time of his voyage of discovery. 
The Pacific Islanders, however, cultivated the sugar cane simply for 
the purpose of eating its stalk or drinking its juice ; none of them 
ever advanced far enough to manufacture sugar, and for the develop- 
ment of this art we must turn to the western nations. 

The first nation to transport the sugar cane westward was natu- 
rally the Persians, whose country adjoined India. The Persians not 
only grew cane for eating, or for its juice, but also made some 
progress in sugar manufacture. Traces of Persian influence sur- 
vive to the present day, as, for example, in our word candy, which 
is derived from the Persian hand, meaning hard or refined sugar. 
For raw sugar the Persians had a different word, schakar, the same 
as our word sugar, a word very much alike in all languages, and 
derived from the original Indian or Sanskirt word sakkara. 

It is to the Arabs, however, that we owe the introduction of the 
sugar cane to the nations of Europe. The sympathy of Arabian 



A January 1915™' } Development of the Sugar Industry. 13 

Caliphs with agriculture, the sciences, and the useful arts was one 
great means of preserving the civilization of the ancient East and 
transmitting it to Europe. The Mohammedans, in their conquests 
of Persia and India, came early in contact with the sugar cane and 
transplanted it to the conquered nations of the west. Improve- 
ments in cultivation and irrigation were introduced, and the famil- 
iarity of Arabian alchemists and physicians with the process of 
recrystallizing salts led them, no doubt, to apply the same principle 
in refining sugar. In the books of the great Arabian scientist 
Avicenna, who lived about the year 1000, we find sugar described 
as we now know it, and from this time onward the use of sugar 
was destined to increase, until from one of the rarest and most 
expensive articles of luxury it became one of the cheapest and 
most abundant commodities. 

From the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates the Arabs carried 
the sugar into Egypt and Palestine and, with the extension of their 
conquests westward, transported its culture to Asia Minor, northern 
Africa, to the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus, Rhodes, Crete, 
Malta, and Sicily, and finally to the continent of Europe itself, where 
it was widely cultivated in southern Spain, where its culture survives 
to the present day. 

One great factor which favored the introduction of sugar to 
Europe was the Crusades. Readers of Joinville's chronicle will 
remember how the crusaders found the sugar cane growing in 
Palestine and, like the soldiers of Alexander 1500 years before, 
brought back stories of the wonderful reed whose sweet juice in- 
vigorated them after weary conflict or march. One of the chief 
benefits of the Crusades was the expansion which followed in the 
commerce between Asia and Europe, the chief city for the impor- 
tation of Eastern commodities being Venice. The Venetians im- 
proved the art of refining sugar, which they learned from the Arabs, 
and during all of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries held a 
monopoly for supplying Europe with sugar. 

With the increase in consumption of sugar, the areas for the 
cultivation of the sugar cane widened. In 1420 the Portuguese 
transplanted the cane from Sicily to Madeira, and shortly after this 
time it began to be cultivated in the Canaries, Azores, and other 
western islands. 

Immediately after the discovery of America followed the trans- 
planting of sugar cane to the western hemisphere. Columbus on 



Development of the Sugar Industry, j 




his second voyage, in 1493, carried with him sugar cane from the 
Canaries to San Domingo. The cane thrived so well in its new 
surroundings that the sugar industry spread rapidly to Cuba, Mex- 
ico, Brazil, and other provinces of the New World. In Louisiana, 
several unsuccessful attempts were made to introduce cane culture, 
but it was not until 1794 (three centuries after the first cane was 
brought over by Columbus) that the industry was established on a 
paying basis. 

The processes of manufacture in the beginning were very primi- 
tive, and yet the essential stages of the process were the same as 
now; first came the crushing of the stalks and expression of the 
juice ; second, the evaporation of this juice ; and third, the crystal- 



lization and separation of the sugar. In all three of these stages 
the improvements during the last one hundred years have been 
greater than in all previous time, the great reason for which is that 
it is only about one hundred years ago that the steam engine was 
introduced into sugar manufacture. 

After visiting a large modern sugar factory with its enormous 
steam-driven machinery, it is difficult for us to imagine how they 
secured power, previous to Watt's invention. In windy localities 
they often made use of wind-mills, and this source of power is still 
largely utilized in Barbados. Where water power was available the 
crushing of the cane was done by water wheels. Fig. 1 is an old 
illustration of sugar manufacture, as it was carried out in Sicily 
about 1570. The picture shows in detail all the processes of manu- 




Fig. 1. — Primitive sugar factory, Sicily. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
January, 1915. 



Development of the Sugar Industry 



15 



facture; the stalks of cane were brought in from the fields on 
mules, were chopped into small pieces and carried in- baskets to a 
hopper, where they passed to a crusher driven by a water wheel. 
The crushed cane was squeezed in a screw press operated by man- 
power. The cane juice was then evaporated in a series of large 
kettles over the open fire; the thick mass of crystals which resulted 
was finally poured into conical moulds, where it solidified upon 
cooling. The loaves of raw sugar thus obtained were packed in 
bags and exported for refining. 

Very similar to this were the early processes of sugar manufac- 
ture in the Western Hemisphere. Fig. 2 illustrates sugar manufac- 
ture, as carried out about 1630 in Brazil, when it was owned by the 
Dutch. In the distance is a sugar factory operated by water power. 




Fig. 2. — Primitive sugar factory, B azil. 

In the foreground is a stone mill driven by man-power ; this is 
probably the oldest form of cane mill. The stalks were crushed 
between the heavy stone roller and the hard floor, the juice then 
being scooped up in pans and evaporated in kettles. The resulting 
mass of crystals was ladled into pots, which were then conveyed by 
natives to a cool place, where the sugar was allowed to harden. 

Another old Dutch print of about the same time shows the in- 
terior of a sugar factory operated by water power (Fig. 3). The 
three vertical rollers for crushing the cane, and the method of 
transmitting power from the large water wheel will be noticed. In 
the foreground the operations of evaporating and filling the sugar 
moulds are shown. In the background is a second cane mill worked 
by oxen, this mill also consisting of three vertical rollers. In some 



Development of the Sugar Industry. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1915 



of these ox-driven mills the number of sweeps was increased to 
four or eight, so that several teams of oxen could be used ; the power 
of the mill could thus be multiplied considerably. 

The raw sugar made by these early methods of manufacture 
varied greatly in quality. The methods of clarification, before the 
days of chemical control, were naturally crude. One of the earliest 
and most available materials for eliminating the impurities of the 
juice was wood ashes. Milk was used as a clarifying agent as early 
as 600 a.d. in Persia, and it is interesting to note that milk is some- 
times used for this purpose to-day in making maple sugar. As experi- 
ence widened it soon became evident, however, that lime was the 
best and cheapest clarifying agent, and caustic or hydrated lime, 



which was used in Egypt as early as 700 a.d., is still the substance 
most universally employed. The evaporation of the cane juice 
was performed in open kettles over the direct fire, which method 
is always attended by caramelization and darkening of the sugar. 

The elimination of the mother liquor, or molasses, from the 
crystals of sugar was not attempted in many early processes of 
manufacture, just as is the case to-day in primitive countries. For 
example, the Philippine concrete sugar, made by evaporating the 
juice to a very thick magma, which, after hardening, is broken up, 
contains all the soluble impurities of the juice. The juice is some- 
times evaporated only to a semi-solid consistency, as in the case 
of certain Jamaica sugars. Sometimes this semi-solid mass of crys- 

4 From Reesse's " De Suikerhandel van Amsterdam." 




Fig. 3. — Early sugar factory, Brazil. 4 



A January" m5 m '} Development of the Sugar Industry. 17 

tals is poured into hogsheads having openings at the bottom for the 
drainage of the molasses. The residue of sugar in the cask, as 
made by this process, is usually termed muscovado. 

In some raw sugar factories the semi-liquid mass of sugar crys- 
tals, or masse culte, was poured into a conical mould having an 
opening at the point for the escape of molasses. The loaves of 
sugar thus made varied in color from yellow to nearly black. In 
some cases the loaves of raw sugar were whitened by packing them 
in wet clay. The clay absorbed the molasses by capillarity and left 
a loaf of sugar which was nearly white. It was recognized that the 
loss by this process, through solution of sugar, was considerable; 
nevertheless this crude method of refining was formerly quite 
common. 

, Most of the raw sugar made in tropical America during the 
early days was sent to Europe for refining. Before this time the 
refining monopoly of the Venetians had been broken, and had passed 
to Amsterdam, which held the supremacy in this branch of sugar 
manufacture for several centuries afterwards. 

We come now to the birth of the modern sugar industry, which 
may be said to date from 1806, when Napoleon announced his famous 
blockade of the continent of Europe against England. While his 
famous edict failed in its main purpose, it had a great influence 
in other ways, for it stimulated manufacturing and the arts to an 
unprecedented degree. In order to relieve the hunger of the people 
for sugar, heroic efforts were made to devise a substitute. In some 
parts of Europe, as Bohemia, maple sugar was manufactured, but 
the yield was not sufficient to supply even local demands. The 
famous chemist, Proust, then devised a process for obtaining the 
crystallizable sugar, dextrose, from grape juice. Another chemist, 
Kirchhof, also invented a process at this time for manufacturing 
dextrose from starch, and efforts were begun to establish a new 
starch-sugar industry. Dextrose, however, lacked the sweetening 
power of sucrose, and the consumers of sugar refused to content 
themselves with such a substitute. 

About 50 years before this a German chemist, Margraf, had suc- 
ceeded in isolating sucrose from the juice of the beet. Another 
chemist, Achard, followed up this discovery and in 1800 built a small 
factory for obtaining beet sugar on a commercial scale. The new 
industry, however, did not prosper at first and it was not until some 
ten years later that improvements made in France showed possibili- 



18 Development of the Sugar Industry. ) Am Jan J l ^; p 1 h 9 ;? n - 

ties of success. Napoleon at once ordered large tracts of land to be 
set aside for beet culture. Under his powerful patronage and the 
guidance of the best scientists of the time, several factories were 
erected and the new industry was soon established upon a prosperous 
basis. 

The overthrow of Napoleon and the abolition of the blockade 
opened again the markets of Europe to the supplies of tropical cane 
sugar and it seemed for a long time as if the new beet sugar could 
not compete with cane sugar, the cheaper product of tropical slave 
labor. French statesmen, however, were far-sighted enough to 
protect the new industry with bounties and tariff regulations, so that 
the manufacture of beet sugar increased. The financial difficulties 
which the industry encountered stimulated greater improvements and 
economies in agriculture and manufacture. This policy, after fifty 
years, placed the beet-sugar industry far ahead of its rival. The 
cane-sugar industry, temporarily handicapped by the abolition of 
slavery, was in its turn forced to make improvements, and this it 
could do only by adopting the newer inventions and discoveries that 
had been worked out in beet-sugar manufacture. It is worth our 
while to mention a few of the most important improvements which 
have been made in sugar manufacture since the foundation of the 
beet-sugar industry. 

The first improvement was the vacuum pan, invented by the 
English refiner, Howard, in 1813. Previous to that time, sugar 
juices had been boiled in open kettles at high temperature, with great 
losses of sugar by inversion and caramelization. By boiling the 
sugar solution in a closed apparatus, from which the air had been 
pumped, the temperature of evaporation was greatly reduced ; losses 
from inversion and caramelization were prevented, and a much 
whiter sugar was obtained. The efficiency of the vacuum pan was 
afterwards increased by the addition of the condensing column, which 
was invented by Davis in 1829. The condensing column consists 
simply of an upright pipe, some 35 feet or more in height. Cold 
water passing downward through the pipe condenses the vapors 
from the vacuum pan ; this condensation, aided by the barometric 
weight of the water column, produces a high degree of vacuum. 

Another great invention, of about that time, was the multiple 
effect, devised by a native of New Orleans, Norbert Rillieux. He 
conceived the idea of evaporating sugar juice, not in one but in 
several vessels, and of so connecting these that the hot steam from 



A jauwy,^9T5. m '} Development of the Sugar Industry. 19 

the evaporating solution in the first effect boiled the solution in the 
second, and the steam from the second effect boiled the solution in the 
third, and so on. By increasing the vacuums in the effects as the 
heating power of the steam diminished, it was found possible to boil 
off the water in a number of vessels by the heat which was supplied 
to the first unit of the series. The original patent of Rillieux, No. 
4879, December 10, 1846, gives the following description : " A series 
of vacuum or partial-vacuum pans so combined together as to make 
use of vapor from the evaporation of the juice in the first to heat 
the juice in the second, and the vapor from this to heat the juice in 
the third, which latter is in connection with a condenser, the pressure 
in each succeeding one being less." The original evaporator of 
Rillieux was a triple effect and this is now probably the most common 
form of multiple evaporator, although there are quadruple, quintuple 
and even sextuple effects. Where more than three effects are 
joined, the juice in the first unit is usually boiled under, or slightly 
above, atmospheric pressure, in order to supply sufficient heat for 
carrying through to the last member of the series. 

In 1835 the great French physicist, Biot, invented the polariscope, 
and no single piece of laboratory apparatus has done more to advance 
the science of sugar manufacture. It was possible, now, to determine 
sugar quickly and accurately and the foundation stone of chemical 
control in sugar manufacture was thus laid. More than this, the 
polariscope made it possible to analyze quickly the sugar beets used 
for seed selection. By selecting for seed each year the beets of 
highest sugar content the sugar percentage of the beet has been 
raised from 8.8 per cent, in 1838 to 18. 1 per cent, in 1908, or more 
than doubled. 

In 1844 the centrifugal was invented by Schotler and now it 
became possible to eliminate the molasses from the magma of sugar 
crystals in a few minutes, whereas months were consumed by the 
old process of drainage. In 1853 the filter press was invented by 
Needham and it was possible now for the first time to filter off the 
impurities of the clarified juice with neatness and dispatch. It is 
thus seen that, within twenty years, four great epoch-making inven- 
tions were introduced into sugar manufacture : the multiple effect, 
the polariscope, the centrifugal, and the filter press. 

The appliance that we think of as most peculiarly connected with 
beet-sugar manufacture, the diffusion battery, was of comparatively 
late origin and was not introduced until 1864, by Jules Robert. 



20 Development of the Sugar Industry, {^nu^m™' 

Previous to that time, the juice of the beets had been removed by 
pressing the ground pulp ; the diffusion battery accomplished the 
extraction so much better and cheaper that its adoption became 
universal within a few years. 

In 1884 Wulff perfected the crystallizer, a machine in which 
thick mixtures of sugar and molasses could be slowly rotated while 
cooling. The sugar crystals were in this way brought constantly 
into contact with fresh portions of liquid and were thus built up 
at the expense of the sucrose dissolved in the molasses. Previous to 
this invention, crystallization took place by allowing the mixture 
of sugar and molasses to stand for weeks and months. 

The abolition of slavery in the West Indies, Cuba, Louisiana, 
and other tropical sugar-producing countries, and the consequent 
loss of cheap labor, at first caused the cane-sugar industry a serious 
setback. This loss was aggravated by the favoring bounties and 
protection which the beet-sugar industry received. In order to com- 
pete with its younger rival the cane-sugar industry found it necessary 
not only to avail itself of all the improvements which the beet-sugar 
industry had developed, but to strike out in new directions of its own. 

The greatest loss in cane-sugar manufacture has always been 
the inability of the mills to express all of the sugar from the cane. 
Attempts to apply the diffusion process to the cane industry had to 
be abandoned, simply for the reason that the residue of cane fibre 
was left in so wet a condition that it could not be used for fuel. 
The lack of coal and cheap fuel in the tropics makes it necessary for 
the cane-sugar industry to depend upon the extracted fibre, or bagasse, 
for generating steam for engines and evaporators. 

The two great improvements which the cane industry had to 
develop for itself were better bagasse burners and better mills, and 
these two appliances stand in most intimate relationship, since the 
better the mills the drier and more combustible the bagasse. In the 
old days of weak mills, and before blowing engines were used,. the 
bagasse was so moist that it had to be dried in the sun before it 
could be used for fuel ; in case of rain it had to be raked under shelter 
and spread out again when conditions were favorable. This process 
is still followed in primitive countries. In the most modern fac- 
tories the bagasse is transported by carriers directly from the mill 
to the boilers, where it is burned by a forced draught from blowing 
machines ; the combustion is perfect and the supply of bagasse is 
sufficient to supply all the fuel for operating the factory. 



A jknu°a U ry 19*5™'} Development of the Sugar Industry. 21 

In the improvement of sugar-cane mills a great amount of effort 
has been and 1 is still being spent. The cane mill is one of the most 
fascinating of engineering problems and one which has exercised, 
the ingenuity of the greatest inventors. Such men as Henry Besse- 
mer, the inventor of Bessemer steel, and John Hyatt, the inventor 
of celluloid, have patented methods for crushing and grinding sugar 
cane. Without going into a description of the various inventions, 
it need only be said that the employment of the steam engine and 
the hydraulic press has enabled inventors to increase the grinding 
capacity of cane mills many thousand fold beyond that of the old 
ox-driven machines, and with much more efficient extraction. 

Let us now follow hastily the course of sugar from the time it 
leaves the field until it is bagged for shipment, basing our observa- 




FiG. 4. — Harvesting cane in Cuba. 5 



tions on modern Cuban practice. When the sugar cane has reached 
the proper stage of ripeness, which in Cuba occurs in December, the 
operation of harvesting begins. The cane is cut entirely by hand, 
as shown in Fig. 4, this first step of the process having undergone 
no real change since the industry began. Harvesting by hand is 
expensive, yet inventors have spent their lives and fortunes in efforts 
to perfect a cane harvester. The great difficulty lies in the irregular 
growth of the cane, the stalks in some cases being so crowded and 
intertwined that the field is an impassable jungle. Consider also 
the mechanical complications of a machine to cut the cane close to 
the ground, strip the leaves, and clip off the green top, while wasting 
none of the valuable part of the stalk. Several inventors have almost 

5 This and the following illustrations are from photographs by the Ameri- 
can Photo Company, Havana, Cuba. 



22 



Development of the Sugar Industry. •{ 




solved this problem, and the one who first succeeds will be enrolled 
among the great benefactors of the sugar-cane industry and, inci- 
dentally, will reap a considerable fortune. 

. The cane is next piled by hand upon carts and hauled to. the 
f actory. In the old days oxen or mules were the sole means of trans- 
portation between field and mill, and the area upon which a factory 
could draw for its supply of cane was limited by the hauling distance. 
Since the advent of the steam railroad, cane is now sometimes 
hauled fifty miles or more to the factory. The ox-teams deliver the 
cane to cars at the nearest siding, where it is transferred by hoists, as 
shown in Fig. 5. When enough cars are filled, a train is made up and 



hauled to the factory. This method of transporting has vastly 
increased the cane areas upon which a factory may draw, and has 
rendered possible the erection of those large central establishments, 
some of which manufacture 50,000 or more tons of sugar in a season. 
One estate owns over 100 miles of railroad, and has some 1000 cars 
and 20 large locomotives. A train despatcher and force of signal- 
men are needed to keep trains moving with regularity. 

The grounds before one of these factories resembles a large 
freight yard with its numerous tracks and switches (Fig. 6). As 
the trains of cane arrive, the cars are rapidly switched to the proper 
stations and are emptied by mechanical means to a large conveyor, 
as shown in Fig. 7. The conveyor carries the cane up a long incline 




FlG. 5. — Loading cane on steam trains. 



™-} Development of the Sugar Industry. 23 



and the mass of tangled stalks finally falls between two huge corru- 
gated rollers forming the crusher. This reduces the stalks to an 
even blanket of pulp and squeezes out at the same time a large 




Fig. 6 — Yard of a Cuban sugar factory. 




Fig. 7. — Dumping cane at factory. 



amount of juice which flows away at the bottom (Fig. 8). From 
the crusher the cane passes to the first mill, which consists of three 
powerful rollers, two below and one above; it is next conveyed to 



24 



Development of the Sugar Industry, j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1915. 



a second and a third mill, and in some cases to fourth, fifth, and 
sixth sets of rollers ; in the latter case there would be 18 rollers in 
the milling plant in addition to the two rollers of the crusher. Be- 
tween the mills a thin stream of water is sprayed on the cane, which, 
being eliminated by the succeeding rollers, carries with it more and 
more of the residual sucrose. This process is called maceration 
and requires to be carefully controlled. 

The pressure on the mills is gradually increased, as the cane 
advances, by powerful hydraulic presses ; when the fibre leaves the 




Fig. 8.— Roller mill. 



final rollers it still contains between 40 and 50 per cent, of moisture 
(usually nearer 50 per cent.) with a small residue of unextracted 
sugar. The best mills extract over 95 per cent, of the total sugar 
in the cane. 

The expressed juice from the crusher and mills is then pumped 
into tanks, called defecators, where it is treated with milk of lime 
to neutralize its acidity; after this it is heated to boiling by steam 
coils. The lime combines with the organic acids of the juice to 
form insoluble compounds, and the heat coagulates the albuminous 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1915. 



J Development of the Sugar -Industry. 



25 



matter. A flocculent precipitate is formed, which partly rises to 
the surface to form a blanket of scum and partly settles to the 
bottom as a sediment. After standing a short time the clear juice 
is drawn off, while the sediment and scums are passed through filter 
presses and washed to remove adhering sugar, the runnings from the 
presses being then added to the main body of clarified juice (Fig. 9). 

The clarified juice is next evaporated in the multiple effect to a 
syrup, which is then further concentrated in a vacuum pan to the 
point at which the sugar separates as a thick mass of crystals, the 
masse cuite. The latter is then purged in the centrifugals, the sugar 
remaining behind and the molasses escaping. 




Fig. 9. — Filter presses. 

The general lay-out of a modern sugar factory may be seen from 
Fig. 10, a view taken from the top of the cane mill. The bagasse 
from the last rollers falls upon a conveyor, which carries it to the 
burners. The defecators for clarifying the juice are at the left. 
In the distance, on a high platform, is a triple effect and on the 
same level is the vacuum pan, which is connected with a high con- 
densing column. Underneath the vacuum pan are the crystallizers 
and centrifugals. 

The molasses which escapes from the centrifugals still contains 
a considerable quantity of sucrose, and many processes have been 
devised to reduce this amount to the minimum. Owing to the accu- 



26 



Development of the Sugar Industry. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ January, 1915. 



initiation of soluble impurities, such as invert sugar, salts, amids, 
gums, etc., in the molasses, and the high viscosity, the sucrose crystal- 
lizes out with much greater difficulty than from the original evapo- 
rated juice. In order to promote the crystallization, use is made 
of crystallizers (Fig. n). The molasses is sometimes boiled down 
to a second crystallization and then emptied into the crystallizer, 
where it is slowly stirred by revolving arms. Or a certain amount of 
molasses may be drawn into the vacuum pan and boiled down with 




Fig. ^.-"-Interior of sugar factory, general view. 



the masse cuite from the pure juice, the whole being afterwards 
run into the crystallizer. Whatever the process, of which there are 
many modifications, the crystallizer simply facilitates the building 
up of crystals by keeping the particles of sugar always in contact 
with fresh portions of molasses. When the crystallization is fin- 
ished, as is determined by analyzing a sample of the filtered mother 
liquor, the contents of the crystallizer are run off into centrifugals, 
the sugar purged, and the waste molasses pumped into tanks, from 
which it is usually sent to distilleries. The utilization of molasses 
was described in the School of Mines Quarterly, July, 1913. 



A janwy, i9i5 m '} Development of the Sugar -Industry, 27 

The sugar is dumped from the centrifugals into conveyors which 
carry it to chutes, where it is loaded into bags, and then placed in 
the warehouse ready for shipment. The Cuban bags of raw sugar 
weigh 325 pounds each, or about seven to the ton. The raw sugar, 
testing about 96, is nearly all shipped to New York, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, or New Orleans, where it is refined. 

The great progress in sugar manufacture has been due not simply 
to the invention of better appliances in manufacture, but also, and 




Fig. 11. — Battery of crystallizers. 



in very large part, to the introduction of rigorous chemical control. 
The best appliances may do wasteful work unless constantly checked 
by strict chemical supervision. It is the duty of the sugar factory 
chemist to determine how much sugar enters the factory in the cane, 
and what percentage of this is obtained in the final product ; to control 
the work of the mills by determining how much of the sugar in the 
cane is extracted and how much is lost in the bagasse; to control 
the work of clarification by determining the purity of the juice 
before and after defecation ; to control the work of evaporating and 
boiling by checking losses from inversion or entrainment ; to control 



28 Development of the Sugar Industry. | A 



m. Jour. Pharm. 
January. 1915. 



the work of the crystallizers by ascertaining that the final molasses 
has been reduced to the lowest possible sucrose content ; and finally 
to control the quality of the raw sugar as to polarization, moisture, 
alkalinity, acidity, or any other factors which may affect the price 
or keeping quality of the product. Xight and day, holidays and 
Sundays, the sugar factory chemists must be at their posts, for 
when the sugar campaign begins there is no let-up until the grinding 
season is finished. The moment a wrong turn occurs at any stage 
of the process, the fact must be quickly noted, lest large financial 
losses result. 

The chemistry of sugar production has one other important side, 
which, unfortunately, is too much neglected. I refer to the chemical 
processes which take place where the cane is growing. We must 
never lose sight of the fact that the sugar which we eat is made 
in the field and not in the factory. If we determine all the factors 
that enter into the cost of sugar making, we shall find that about 
three-fourths of the expense is due to the agricultural operations 
of ploughing, planting, cultivating, and harvesting, and about one- 
fourth to the operations inside the factory. Strictly speaking, then, 
the agricultural side of sugar making should receive three-fourths 
of the attention bestowed by chemists and trained scientists. This 
has been largely true of the beet-sugar industry, a great part of the 
success of this branch of sugar making being due to the care given 
to chemical selection of seed and to other agricultural matters. The 
day is fast approaching when it will be equally true for the sugar- 
cane industry. 

Unfortunately there still exists in some quarters a sort of con- 
tempt for that branch of chemistry which occupies itself with soils, 
fertilizers, tillage, irrigation, and the varied phenomena of plant 
life. This is a most narrow, mistaken point of view ; the problems 
of agriculture are, in fact, the most important and most interesting 
in the whole field of applied chemistry, and the truly great chemists, 
such as Liebig and Humphry Davy, have recognized this. I predict 
that the opportunities of the chemist in the future will be found upon 
the agricultural side of sugar making, and that the ultimate goal 
in that field will be far more remunerative. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1915. j 



Oxidation of Nitrogen. 



29 



THE OXIDATION OF NITROGEN AND HOW CHEAP 
NITRATES WOULD REVOLUTIONIZE OUR 
ECONOMIC LIFE. 1 

By Dr. W. W. Strong. 

How is Atmospheric Nitrogen Oxidized ? 

It is not many years ago ( 1898) that Sir William Crookes sounded 
the note of alarm concerning the possibility of a future famine in 
the world's supply of nitrates and other nitrogen compounds. At 
that time the supply of these salts was largely confined to certain beds 
of guano and Chile saltpetre. During the past few years most im- 
portant advances have been made in our knowledge of the fixation 
of atmospheric nitrogen, and some of the processes have been placed 
upon a purely commercial basis. 

In addition to drawing on the air directly for nitrogen it has been 
found that large amounts of ammonia and other nitrogen compounds 
may be obtained as by-products from coal and. peat in connection with 
the manufacture of coke, illuminating^ gas, and the metallurgy of 
iron. The treatment of various shales, peats, silts, and organic refuse 
often yields nitrogen compounds. The nitrogen in these substances 
has probably been derived from the atmosphere by one or more of the 
processes which will now be described. 

The amount of nitrogen that enters into the plant and animal 
growth ("nomadic" nitrogen) has been estimated to be about 20 
Gms. per square yard of land. Part of this is being constantly 
changed into nitrogen gas by the action of nitrifying and denitrifying 
bacteria. In nature an equilibrium is maintained between the action 
of these bacteria and the oxidization of nitrogen in the air by means 
of electrical discharges and the action of plants, such as clover. The 
natural processes of fixing nitrogen are therefore electrical and by the 
action of bacteria in the legume crops of clover and similar plants. 
In former geological times certain nitride and other chemical com- 
pounds may have been formed directly with the air nitrogen, but it is 
doubtful if any such direct chemical reactions take place at present. 

The natural oxidation of nitrogen by electrical discharges takes 
place during electrical storms, the aurora discharges at high levels, 



1 Reprinted from Science, Dec. 18, 1914. 



30 



Oxidation of Nitrogen. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1915. 



and possibly in a slight degree in the bombardment of the higher 
strata of air by cathode and similar rays, ultraviolet light, and possibly 
by other radiations. The disintegration of radium and thorium prod- 
ucts yields a small amount of oxides of nitrogen. It has been esti- 
mated that in this way about 100,000,000 tons of fixed nitrogen are 
carried to the earth every year by rain water. 

The other natural method of fixing atmospheric nitrogen is that 
of the action of bacteria in the root nodules of the clovers, peas, 
vetches, and other legumes. The chemical processes are very com- 
plicated and are at present unknown. This process is, however, of 
tremendous importance to the farmer, and is probably the cheapest 
method now known of obtaining nitrogen as a fertilizer. This 
method is, however, quite expensive, in that cloverseed is expensive 
and the raising of a crop of clover requires attention, time, and the 
exclusion of other crops. On the poor soils where humus is the most 
needed it is found very difficult to get clover to grow. Restoration 
of fertility to run-down soils by this method is, therefore, slow and 
expensive. 

The commercial methods of manufacturing nitrogen salts include 
the cyanamide process, the direct synthesis of ammonia, the various 
nitride processes of making ammonia, and the electrical methods of 
oxidizing nitrogen. 

A process that is being used commercially is that of treating cal- 
cium carbide with nitrogen gas, thus yielding cyanamide, which itself 
makes a good fertilizer. Although the reactions are known to be 
complex, they may be represented, as regards the end products, as 
follows : 

CaO + 3 C ^± CaC 2 + CO, 
CaC 2 + N 2 -> CaCN 2 > C. 

The latter reaction begins at 1000 C. or at even lower temperatures. 
The N 2 may be prepared by the Linde process or by passing air over 
hot copper. According to Caro, the energy consumption for fixing 
one ton of nitrogen (including making the CaC 2 , azotizing, machine 
driving, grinding, charging, air liquefaction) is less than 3 H.P. years. 

The direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen into ammonia 
is very successful when done on a small scale with pure gases, but, so 
far as is generally known, this process is not being worked on a large 
scale. A German company, however, is planning to make large quan- 
tities of ammonia by this process. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1915. J 



Oxidation of Nitrogen. 



31 



The nitride (including the Serpek) processes have not as yet 
proven to be successful from the commercial point of view. It is quite 
possible that these methods may be used in connection with the manu- 
facture of aluminum and other metals with which these chemical 
methods are intimately connected. 

The Electrical Methods for Fixing Nitrogen. 

Several electrical methods are used for oxidizing the nitrogen of 
the air into nitric acid and various salts of nitrogen. These methods 
all produce chemical reactions between gaseous oxygen and nitrogen 
in intense electric fields. Potential differences of thousands of volts 
are used, and in the arc methods large currents and high temperatures 
accompany the use of intense electric fields, In all these methods 
the aim is to have the electrical discharge take place in the gaseous 
oxygen and nitrogen and to eliminate as much as possible the effect 
of the metallic electrodes. Large arcs are therefore necessary when 
the electric current is large. In the Birkeland-Eyde method the arc 
is drawn out by a magnet ; in the Schonherr process by a helical cur- 
rent of gas, and in the Pauling process by horn electrodes and currents 
of gas. In the author's method a corona current is used, and this 
seems to give the most perfect type of a purely gaseous discharge. 

The various electrical processes give about the same order of effi- 
ciency when this is measured by the number of grammes of nitric 
acid produced per kilowatt hour of consumption of electrical energy. 
About 60 to 80 Gms. of nitric acid are formed per hour per kilowatt 
of electrical energy. 

The Complexity of Chemical Reactions. 

Although single atoms, ions, and possibly molecules have been 
isolated, the condition under which the isolation takes place is entirely 
unique, the particles travelling with a very great velocity. In general, 
chemical reactions will not take place under these conditions in any 
way that they can be studied individually. Our knowledge of chemi- 
cal reactions is, therefore, entirely statistical, and our laws apply to 
a very large number of reactions. There are numerous instances 
where experimental evidence indicates that the chemical reactions 
are frequently complex. The speaker's work on the absorption spec- 
tra of uranyl and uranous salts indicated the possible existence of 
various intermediate compounds in chemical reactions in solutions. 

In gases chemical reactions are undoubtedly much less complex 



32 



Oxidation of Nitrogen. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1915. 



than they are in solutions, although here the reactions may not be as 
simple as they are sometimes represented. The spectroscope is be- 
ginning to show indications that the light centres are more numerous 
than the possible number of atom, ion, and molecule types. In the 
case of nitrogen we have various types of line spectra, and quite 
recently Grotrian and Runge 2 have made convincing claims that the 
so-called cyanogen spectrum is due to nitrogen. (These experiment- 
ers worked with large Schonherr arcs about a metre in length.) 



Chemical Reaction Centres. 

Under conditions such as exist in the arc, spark, or whenever the 
temperature is high, many kinds of " centres " may exist. These 
" centres " may be the sources of light and heat emission or absorp- 
tion, the ions that show deflections by electric and magnetic fields, 
and the particles that take part in chemical reactions. It must not 
necessarily be assumed that the " centres " of the various physical 
phenomena are the same. They may be widely different. 

Among the centres which may exist in arcs and sparks and which 
have been shown to exist in vacuum tubes are 

- - + ++++ 

o 2 , o, o, o 3 , o 6 , o, o, 2 , 



++ + 

N, N, 



+ + +++ 

N 2 , N 3 , N, N, N 2 . 



Negative electrons also exist in comparatively large numbers. 

The formation of nitric oxide in the electric discharge may take 
place in a large number of ways. Some of these possible chemical 
reactions are as follows : 

-f N + e+ e + e = NO (1) 

+ N = NO (2) 

+"K = NO + N (3) 
+ 

+ N = e + e = NO (4) 
+ 

+ N + e = NO (5) 
+ 

+ N 2 + e = NO+N (6) 
+++ 

+ N 3 + e = NO+N 2 (7) 
+ 

N 2 + 2 = 2 NO. 



2 Phys. Zeit., June 1, 1914. 



A j;nu°a u ry isST* } Oxidation of Nitrogen. 33 

- - + +-f 

In the place of O we might place 2 , 2 , O, O, 3 , O e . and O. We 

thus have 56 possible chemical- reactions to represent the fixation of 

nitrogen. No doubt, only a few of these reactions actually take place, 

though all are possible, provided all these kinds of ions exist where 

the oxides of nitrogen are being formed. 

The comparative probability of some of these reactions is very 
small, especially when more than two products take part in the reac- 
tion. Since the oxides of nitrogen are apparently not removed from 
the gases by the electric field, it is probable that the oxides of nitrogen 
centres are not charged. Hence it follows that reactions which in- 
volve the presence of an electron are improbable. The apparent fact 
that the reaction is " electrical " would indicate that the reactions 
N 2 + O2 an d N + O are not probable. The latter is in accord with 
the view that active nitrogen consists of N and that N does not take 
any active part in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. 

It seems quite probable, therefore, that the main reaction that 
results in the formation of oxides of nitrogen is 
+ 

N 2 + O2 + 43,000 calories = 2NO 

This type of ionization is produced by cathode rays or rapidly- 
moving electrons, according to Thomson and others, and accordingly 
this equation would indicate that the oxidization of nitrogen is in- 
directly due to cathode rays. It may be for this reason that thermi- 
onic electron radiations may play an important role in the formation 
of oxides of nitrogen in the various arc processes. In contrast to the 
above reaction is the reaction resulting in the formation of ozone. 
Ozone must necessarily be formed under conditions where some 2 
is dissociated. 

The above reaction may be only one of several reactions, and 
under different conditions of pressure ^nd temperature these reac- 
tions may be of relatively quite different degrees of importance. 

Efficiency of the Nitrogen-fixing Process. 

We can get some idea of the inefficiency of the present methods 
of oxidizing nitrogen when we consider that when gramme molecular 
weights of the gases are used one has : 

N 2 -f- 2 -f- 43,000 calories = 2NO 



approximately. The amount of energy used in this reaction is there- 
fore about 1.7 (io) 12 ergs for about 126 Gms. of nitric acid. Assum- 



34 



Oxidation of Nitrogen. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1915. 



ing 80 Gms. of nitric acid to be made per kilowatt hour, we should 
have an energy consumption of about 5 (10) 13 ergs, or an efficiency of 
about 4 per cent. 

Nitrogen Fixation and Our Economic Life. 

The small percentage efficiency of the present methods for oxidiza- 
tion compared with the theoretical efficiency indicates that improve- 
ments in the present methods would yield most important results. 
At the present time sodium nitrate sells for about $45 per ton. If the 
efficiency of the oxidation method could be increased so that calcium 
nitrate could be sold for $6 or $8 per ton, it would change our eco- 
nomic life fundamentally. Food products would be greatly decreased 
in value, real intensive farming could be pursued, suburban homes 
could easily be made self-supporting, and " abandoned " farms could 
be reclaimed. Probably no other one scientific development would so 
materially add to the material well-being of the people as this. 

One of the reasons for the high cost of living is the fact that our 
soil fertility is difficult to maintain. Continued cropping will even- 
tually impoverish the most fertile soils if the crops are not replaced. 
Cheap nitrogen fertilizers will not only practically restore virgin fer- 
tility, but will permit of the continual removal of crops. In this 
way the percentage of the crops that can be removed from the soil will 
be very much greater than under present conditions. 

The cheapening of nitrogen fertilizers will permit of doubling, 
trebling, or even more greatly increasing farm crops. In addition to 
these results, cheap nitrogen fertilizers will permit a very much 
greater percentage of crops to be removed from the farms. Cheap 
nitrogen fertilizers will also permit of the most intensive farming in 
the immediate vicinity of industrial centres, thus lessening the time 
and cost of food distribution. 

Surely the problem of nitrogen fixation should appeal to every 
one interested in the conservation of our resources. Our waterfalls 
represent an equivalent of nitrogen salt continuously going to waste 
instead of being used. And, surely, work of this kind is of greater 
importance than the building of dreadnoughts or the training of 
armies. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1915. J 



Hookworm Disease. 



35 



HOOKWORM DISEASE. 
The Use of Oil of Chenopodium in Its Treatment, 1 

By Murray Galt Motter, Technical Assistant, Division of Pharmacology, 
Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health Service. 

Among the inconveniences entailed by the European wars is the 
failure of the supplies of thymol, used so largely in the southern 
hookworm campaign. As a substitute for this drug, now almost 
unobtainable, American wormseed oil (Oleum Chenopodii U. S. P.) 
has been suggested. 

As indicated by the name, wormseed has long had a reputation 
as an anthelmintic. The plant from which the oil is distilled grows 
" in waste places from New England to Florida and westward to 
California." It has, however, been cultivated particularly in Mary- 
land, and the oil has been known as Baltimore oil, in contradistinc- 
tion to the western oil, which is no longer much of a commercial fac- 
tor. While the oil is almost wholly a Maryland product, it is said 
that the seed is harvested in considerable quantities in Florida, where 
the plant is one of the most pestiferous of the weeds. 

Renewed interest in the possibilities of American wormseed oil, 
especially against round worms, seems to date from the publications 
of Briming, in 1906, who, with Gockel, Kobert, Linke, Schmitz, 
Thelen, and others, has investigated the pharmacology of the oil. 
The chemistry of oil of chenopodium has been studied in Germany 
by Wallach and others and in this country by Kremers and by 
Nelson, of the Department of Agriculture. 

Clinically, its value, especially for the treatment of round worms, 
was well established. In 19 12, Schuffner and Vervoort presented to 
the Fifteenth International Congress on Hygiene and Demography 
a paper in which they sought to demonstrate the superior advantages 
of oil of chenopodium in the treatment of hookworm disease as com- 
pared with other vermifuges. These authors, in the course of eight 
months, had given oil of chenopodium in 1457 cases. Giving euca- 
lyptus oil a coefficient of 38, naphthol 68, and thymol 83, oil of 
chenopodium surpassed them all with a coefficient of 91. 

Toxicologically, a search of the Index Catalogue and the Index 



1 Reprint from the Public Health Reports, vol. 29, No. 40, Oct. 2, 1914. 



36 



Hookworm Disease. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jannary, 1915. 



Medicus revealed but 12 published cases of poisoning by wormseed 

011 in something over 50 years, the first having been published in 1852 
and the last in 1903. Of these cases 8 were fatal. The report of one 
of the fatal cases is cited by Wood, with the added comment: " It is 
plain that the wormseed was not the direct immediate cause of all 
these symptoms or of the fatal result." All of the reported cases, 
however, show a certain general similarity, indicating that the toxic 
action is exerted particularly upon the central nervous system. Salant, 
in a preliminary report of his studies on the pharmacology of this 
oil, notes the possibility of cumulative action, indicated by the fact 
that non-toxic doses, when repeated in a day or two, were fatal in 
the rabbit. In the reported cases of poisoning the dose appears to 
have been excessive and, in some cases, repeated. B riming asserts 
that when properly used this remedy does not cause any unpleasant 
secondary actions, an experience confirmed by that of subsequent 
workers. 

It is to be noted that oil of chenopodium is a paralyzant, rather 
than a parasiticide. It narcotizes the parasite, which must then be 
got rid of by free purgation. Moreover — and here it differs radically 
from aspidium and thymol — it is probably best administered with 
castor oil. In the case of aspidium and thymol the coincident or 
subsequent use of any oil is to be avoided, because, their constituents 
being soluble in oils, they are thereby rendered more toxic to the 
human subject. With reference to chenopodium, which in itself 
appears to be constipating, the castor oil does not add to its toxicity, 
but offers a ready method of ridding the host both of the parasites 
and the drug. 

Schiiffner and Vervoort administered 16 drops of oil of chenopo- 
dium with sugar every two hours for three doses. Two hours there- 
after they gave a tablespoonful of castor oil with a teaspoonful of 
chloroform. Gockel gives the single dose as 8 to 16 drops, according 
to age — 6 to 8 years, 8 drops ; 9 to 10 years, 10 drops; 11 to 16 years, 

12 drops ; over 16 years, 12 to 16 drops. Should untoward symptoms 
arise, particularly inordinate sleepiness or depression, the chenopo- 
dium should be withdrawn at once, active purgation induced, and 
stimulation begun with strong hot coffee by the mouth or by the 
rectum. 

Owing to its increased vogue in continental medicine, the demand 
for this product has increased in the past few years. Schimmel re- 
ports that the acreage put to wormseed increased from about oo acres 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1915. J 



Book Reviews. 



37 



in 1910 to perhaps 225 acres in 1912, while the yield rose from 2800 
pounds in the former to 6700 pounds in the latter year. In view of 
the fact that October is the time of harvest and that, with the dimin- 
ished or disappearing supply of thymol, the demand will probably 
be still further increased, every effort should be made not only to 
husband this year's crop to the best advantage, but to provide for a 
largely increased seeding next spring. 

Physicians having hookworm cases under their care should give 
this remedy a thorough trial and report promptly their results in the 
medical journals. Case notes should be accompanied by information 
as to the sources of the oil used and, if possible, as to the method of 
its distillation ; it has been alleged that chenopodium grown in dif- 
ferent localities, and oils distilled by different processes have shown 
varying degrees of efficacy. For use in the South, where the plant 
grows as a weed, the possible efficacy of a decoction, made by boiling 
one ounce of the fresh plant in a pint of milk or water, administered 
in wineglass ful doses, should be remembered and tried under careful 
supervision. Data of this kind should aid in rehabilitating a truly 
American remedy, said to have been used by the Indians as a vermi- 
fuge before the landing of Columbus, and in helping the American 
profession to do without some of the products which, hitherto, have 
been almost wholly " made in Germany." 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Essentials of Botany, by Charles E. Bessey and Ernst A. 
Bessey. With 306 diagrammatic illustrations. New York : Henry 
Holt and Company. 

This new volume is to be considered as the eighth edition of the 
Essentials of Botany by Doctor Bessey, and is entirely rewritten. The 
book consists of three parts ; namely, morphology, physiology, and 
the classification of plants. Morphology is considered in the first 
three chapters, which are devoted to the consideration of protoplasmic 
contents, plant cells, the tissues of plants, and the tissue system. This 
portion of the book is characterized by a number of laboratory studies 
and titles of books of reference, making it of great value in those 
courses where practical laboratory work is given. This is one of the 
excellent features of the book. The time has gone by when a course 
in botany can be considered adequate unless provision is made for a 



38 



Book Reviews. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1915. 



number of practical studies of plants. If the exercises are reasonable 
and represent definite problems, these courses must have a cultural 
influence equal to the studies in mathematics and the classics. Under 
plant physiology a great variety of subjects are treated, of which the 
following may be mentioned, showing the rather comprehensive 
treatment by the author : Under nutrition are considered water, im- 
bibition, osmosis, turgor, path of water, evaporation of water, root 
pressure, solutions, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis, carbohydrates, 
proteins, root nodules, hysterophytic plants, respiration, anaerobic 
and aerobic respiration, fermentation, temperature relations, effect of 
poisons. Under growth are considered the relation to nutrition, tem- 
perature, light. Under reproduction are considered asexual and sex- 
ual forms, behavior of chromosSmes, diploid and haploid number, 
inheritance, Mendelism, natural selection, survival of the fittest, vari- 
ations, mutations, evolution, phylogeny, plant breeding. Under move- 
ments are given hygroscopic movements protoplasmic movements,- 
turgor movements, growth movements, nutation, tropisms, photo- 
tropism, geotropism, thigmotropism, chemotropism, hydrotropism. 
Under pathology we find physiological diseases and diseases due to 
parasites. In connection with this part of the book quite a number of 
experiments are outlined, and these are frequently indicated by illus- 
trations which, although they are reduced considerably, nevertheless 
show the construction of the apparatus employed and the results 
likely to be obtained. 

There is also a classification of the important plant constituents, 
which, though very brief, shows their nature and probably will cause 
students to investigate the subject further. More than one-half of 
the book is devoted to the classification of various plants and the 
consideration of the phyla or groups of plants. This is exceedingly 
well done and interesting, being supplemented with a large number 
of laboratory studies and numerous references to the important lit- 
erature. While there are some who might feel that certain portions 
of this book might be more extended and more detailed, yet it is 
important to bear in mind that there are a great many students who 
do not wish to specialize in botany, and for them the ideal book 
is one which contains a sufficient amount of accurate and authentic 
information and which causes them to continue their interest in the 
subject. As an elementary text-book this new work of Bessey's is to 
be commended. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
W January, 1915. J 



Book Reviews. 



39 



A Laboratory Manual of Qualitative Chemical Analysis 
for Students of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmacy, by A. R. Bliss, 
Jr., of the Birmingham Medical College. Philadelphia and London: 
W. B. Saunders Company. 

Of manuals in Qualitative Chemical Analysis there seems to be no 
end, and one wonders that authors will be willing to take their time 
in writing works which, as a rule, contain only another point of view 
or the usual matters of fact stated in a little different manner. The 
great interest and value of the present book is in the fact that it is 
more complete, showing that the courses of chemistry in the various 
professional schools are becoming more elaborate as time progresses. 
The book has been brought up to date with the inclusion of the newer 
medicinal substances, and these are considered under the various 
classes of compounds to which they belong. Valuable information 
is given concerning their solubilities, with special tests for their de- 
tection and usually some explanatory information. The tables for 
the separation of the elements are well worked out, and, with the 
cross references for identity tests, will be found quite valuable. The 
book consists of nearly 250 pages, and is supplemented by a good 
working index. 

Food Products, by Henry C. Sherman. New York : The Mac- 
millan Company. $2.25 net. 

By virtue of the exceptionally rapid development of food legisla- 
tion and the scientific investigation of certain important aspects of the 
composition and value of food substances during the past few years, 
there have been published a number of important books on these 
products. Many of them have much to commend them, but none are 
probably as comprehensive as this book of Dr. Sherman. It contains 
a vast amount of practical information which is not usually avail- 
able and that will appeal to a wide circle of readers and investigators. 
The general plan is to devote a chapter to each important type of food 
covering ( 1 ) an account of its production and preparation for market, 
with such brief statistical data as will indicate the relative economic 
importance of the industry; (2) the proximate composition and gen- 
eral food value; (3) questions of sanitation, inspection, and stand- 
ards of purity; (4) special characteristics of composition, digestibil- 
ity, nutritive value, and place in the diet. Lists of references 
appended to the different chapters will facilitate the extension of the 



40 



Current Literature. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ January, 1915. 



work covered by the text along either chemical, economic, sanitary, 
or nutritional lines. 

The contents of the book include : The Principal Constituents 
and Functions of Foods; Food Legislation; Milk; Cheese and Mis- 
cellaneous Milk Products ; Eggs ; Meats and Meat Products ; Poultry, 
Game, Fish, and Shellfish ; Grain Products ; Vegetables, Fruits, and 
Nuts ; Edible Fats and Oils ; Sugars, Syrups, and Confectionery ; 
Food Adjuncts and Unclassified F,ood Materials ; Rules and Regula- 
tions for the Enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act; Food Inspec- 
tion Decisions ; Methods, and Standards for the Production and Dis- 
tribution of Certified Milk; Meat Inspection Law and Regulations; 
and a Table of ioo-Calorie Portions. 

Year-Book of Pharmacy, comprising Abstracts of Papers Relat- 
ing to Pharmacy, Materia Medica, and Chemistry. Contributed to 
British and Foreign Journals. From July I, 1913, to June 30, 1914, 
with the Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference at 
its Fifty-first Annual Meeting, held in Chester, July 20-23, 1914. 

The Year-Book of Pharmacy constitutes one of the very best 
works of reference on pharmacy. The abstracts are concise and con- 
tain the salient features of the various research papers. The volume 
also contains the scientific papers presented to the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference at the meeting in 1914. To the student and 
research worker this volume is indispensable as a reference book. 
The work is supplemented with a very complete index, and reflects 
credit upon J. O. Braithwaite, editor of the Abstracts ; Reginald R. 
Bennett, editor of the Transactions, and Thomas Stephenson, com- 
piler of New Remedies Section. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

Algal Stalactites in Bermuda. 1 

The hills of Bermuda are formed of a friable limestone, which 
represents particles of calcareous sand, which in the early geologic 
history of this group of islands was drifted by the wind into elevated 
dunes and afterwards by water action was compacted into a harder, 
or a softer, lime rock. This native rock is sawed out of the hillsides 



1 John W. Harshberger, in Torreya, October, 1914. 



Am. jour. Pbarm. ) Current Literature. 41 

January, 191o. J ~ 

and is used in the construction of house walls (large, thick blocks) 
or house roofs (large, thin slabs). When exposed to the air, this 
soft quarried rock hardens into a form of limestone, much like 
concrete in appearance. As in all limestone formations of any 
considerable thickness, caverns and underground tunnels are worn 
into the softer strata by the action of rain and underground water. 
Several caverns of this character are visited by tourists in Bermuda, 
and some of them have pools of salt water replenished by under- 
ground supplies from the ocean. There are limestone sinks, which 
represent caves, the roofs of which have fallen in. A number of 
these sinks are dry, others are filled with water. One of the most 
frequently visited of these depressions, filled with salt water, which 
comes underground from the ocean, is Devil's Hole, in which are 
.kept a number of the characteristic fishes of the Bermuda archi- 
pelago, such as the grouper, the angel-fish, the red-snapper, and 
others equally celebrated. The walls of the Devil's Hole are rather 
steep, and in places overhanging, so that the fresh water from the 
rocks above drips into the pool beneath. Here were found stalac- 
tites from an inch to two inches in length and coated with a covering 
of blue-green algae. 

Several of these stalactites were broken off from the overhanging 
wall in Devil's Hole, June, 1905, and kept dry for subsequent study, 
but the material was overlooked until the present summer (1914), 
when a study was made of it. Small pieces of stalactite were crushed 
in water and examined under the microscope. The blue-green algae, 
which alone were present, were identified with Josephine Tilden's 2 
first volume of " Minnesota Algae." The algae found on this examina- 
tion consisted of Chrootheca Richteriana Hansg., Gleocapsa aerugi- 
nosa (Carmichael) Kuetzing, and G. gelatinosa Kuetzing, G. quart er- 
nata (Brebisson) Kuetzing, and Gleotheca linearis Naegeli. At- 
tached to a small red alga (not identifiable) which was fastened to 
a piece of stalactite was found Microcystis Hos-aqua (Wittrock) 
Kirchner. The most abundant blue-green alga was Chrootheca Rich- 
teriana Hansg., which, according to Josephine Tilden, consists of a 
somewhat gelatinous plant mass, thick or more or less expanded, of 
a blue-green or yellowish color. The cells found in these masses are 
18 to 24 microns in diameter, once to twice as long as wide, single 



2 Tilden, Josephine, " Minnesota Algae," vol. i : " The Myxophycese of 
North America and Adjacent Regions, including Central America, Greenland, 
Bermuda, the West Indies, and Hawaii/' Bot. Ser. viii, 1910. 



42 



Current Literature. 



f Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
1 January, 1915. 



or in pairs, with thick sheaths up to 6 microns in diameter. This 
species, figured by Miss Tilden, has been reported from Bermuda 
by Farlow and from Montego Bay, Jamaica, by Pease and Butler. 
Of the three species of Gleocapsa enumerated above, the following 
is the distribution recorded in the " Minnesota Algae " : 

G. aeruginosa, Greenland, New York, West Indies (Porto Rico). 

G. gelatinosa, United States, West Indies. 

G. quarternata, West Indies, Hawaii. 

The note with reference to G. aeruginosa in " Minnesota Algae " 
is apropos : " West Indies. Forming a dark green layer on stone in 
cave. ' El Convento,' near Penuelas, Porto Rico (Sintenis)." Gleo- 
capsa quarternata is described as forming a gray-green, mucilaginous 
coating on wet cliffs in Hawaii. The distribution of Glotheca linearis 
is given in " Minnesota Algae," as : " West Indies. On damp walls 
of dam, Sharp's River, St. Vincent (Elliott)." 

That these algae are active in the formation of the stalactites is 
indicated by their close attachment to the surface of the stalactites 
in the Devil's Hole, Bermuda. They remove in the case of the car- 
bonated waters, containing calcium bicarbonate (CaHCO s ) 2 in solu- 
tion, the gaseous carbon dioxide, which is used by the blue-green 
algae in photosynthesis of organic compounds, so that the stalactites 
are formed by the continual deposit of calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ). 
Josephine Tilden has studied the formation of algal stalactites in the 
Yellowstone National Park,, where such algae as Gleocapsa viblacea, 
Phormidium {Leptothrix) laminosum, Schisotkrix calcicola, and 
Synecococcus ceruginosus are active. Associated with the older part 
of the Bermuda stalactites, I found a small gasteropod mollusc 
(Kaliella turbinata Gulick), hid away in small holes, or irregularities 
of their surface. In conclusion, we find, by the study of the material 
from Bermuda, that other algae are concerned in the formation of 
stalactites besides those described from Yellowstone Park, and if a 
comparative study were made of stalactitic material from all parts 
of the world, the writer has no doubt that the list of algae concerned 
would be a respectable one. 

Inexperienced Growers of Drug Plants Not Likely 
to Succeed. 

The cessation of the harvesting and shipping of many crude drugs 
because of hostilities in Europe has caused a sharp advance in their 
market price. As a result, many individuals and firms have written 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1915. J 



Current Literature. 



43 



the U. S. Department of Agriculture inquiring about the possibilities 
of the American farmer growing drug plants profitably. The depart- 
ment's specialist in charge of drug-plant investigations has written 
a number of these correspondents that, although it is probable that a 
number of important drug plants could be grown profitably here if 
the present high prices continue, nevertheless there is a possibility 
of the early restoration of shipping facilities, and, in any event, the 
inexperienced grower of drug plants would be more liable to meet 
with failure than with success. 

Some medicinal plants, says the department's specialist, may be 
grown as easily as ordinary garden crops ; others, however, require 
the special knowledge and skill of a practiced gardener. There are 
many varying factors in the commercial production of drug plants. 
The constituents of many of them vary in quantity, according to the 
time of gathering and method of drying, and a knowledge of proper 
methods of harvesting and curing is absolutely essential for the 
production of drugs of high quality. 

Even if the prospective grower possessed some knowledge of 
drug plants, beginning now, he could scarcely hope to harvest a crop 
before the late summer of 1915. In the case of some varieties he 
might even have to wait until the end of the second or third year 
after planting. Therefore, the farmer who began at once might 
not find himself with a supply of crude drugs on hand until after 
prices had returned to their former level. 

In any case, the quantity of crude drugs required by the market 
is relatively small as compared with fruits, vegetables, or staple crops. 
Therefore, numerous or extensive plantings by individuals throughout 
the country might easily result in overproduction, which would cause 
a decline in the market price independent of the conditions abroad. 

For successful production of drug plants on a commercial scale 
there must be an available market. Its accessibility must be con- 
sidered above all things by the successful grower. The cost of pro- 
duction must be carefully estimated, and to this must be added the 
cost of packing and shipping to this market. The packing and 
shipping expenses might easily make the enterprise unprofitable. 

Drug plants, to be profitably grown, should yield returns at least 
equal to those from other crops which may be grown on the same 
land. The farmer must determine that this is the case. The fact 
that much hand work is necessary in the production of most drugs 
is liable to make the cost of labor high. 



44 



Current Literature. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1915. 



Among the inquiries regarding drug plants addressed to the 
department have been requests regarding plants which cannot be pro- 
duced in this country at all. Others that might be grown here are 
also produced in South America and other localities not involved 
in the war, where they can still be produced more cheaply than here. 

There are, nevertheless, certain drug plants now produced chiefly 
in Europe which under suitable conditions may be grown in parts 
of the United States. Among these are the following: 

Althaea, Anise, Belladonna, Burdock, Calamus, Caraway, Conium, 
Coriander, Dandelion, Digitalis, Elecampane, Fennel, Henbane, Hore- 
hound, Marjoram, Sage, Thyme, and Valerian. 

Seeds of many of these plants may be obtained from the large 
seed houses. Even the above-mentioned, however, need peculiar 
conditions in order to thrive, for drug plants vary widely in their rela- 
tions to soil and climate. Satisfactory yields can be expected only 
when the requirements of these plants are understood and met. 

Of course, well-established companies, already engaged in similar 
work, and with gardeners possessing training and experience, could 
undoubtedly meet with more success in growing drug plants than the 
inexperienced individual. These companies would understand at 
the beginning many essential details regarding soil, climate, and 
desirable varieties. They would, however, have to prepare for unex- 
pected changes in market values, and remember that the principal 
reason certain plants have not been previously raised here is that 
under normal conditions they can be more cheaply grown in Europe. 

Good Soil for Colox Bacilli. 

Charles Leon Cowles, a student in the Department of Biology 
and Public Health at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
has been investigating means for detecting the presence of Bacillus 
coli in water. The position with regard to the identification of the 
bacilli is that they all look much alike, and, to tell the difference be- 
tween them, it is necessary to apply some other tests. Stains, resist- 
ance to acids, and the ability to produce gas are among the methods 
of determining the species. Another way is to find foods or soils 
in which some particular species will grow. Of this kind of test, 
the mixing of lactose bile, obtained generally from the organs of 
oxen, has been a means of distinguishing between the B. coli and 
others, the medium being favorable to the growth of this particular 
bacillus. 



JLni. Jour. Pharm. | 

January, 1915. / 



The British Pharmacopoeia. 



45 



The B. coli is an intestinal organism of man, and its presence in 
water may be termed the red flag for typhoid and other diseases, 
and, like the innocuous red flag at the railway crossing, is a warning 
of great danger. It is important, therefore, to gain some quick and 
reasonably accurate means of determining the presence of B. coli 
in domestic water supplies. The ordinary test with lactose bile media 
is not considered very delicate ; in fact, some authorities have pro- 
nounced it only twenty per cent, efficient. 

What Mr. Cowles has done is to add one to two per cent, of bicar- 
bonate of soda to the medium, with the result that the B. coli grows 
rapidly and other forms slowly, besides which the soda will prevent 
the growth of moulds and spreaders, the latter quick-growing things 
that come, perhaps, from the atmosphere and cover and obscure the 
plate. The whole story, which already bears useful results, is but a 
report of progress, and is suggestive of the untouched flelds for 
investigation that are here waiting for the biologist.— Science Con- 
spectus, Xo. 2, 1914. 



THE BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA, 1914. 

On October 1, 1914, the General Medical Council (the statutory 
authority for preparing and publishing the British Pharmacopoeia) 
issued to the Press specimen copies of the new edition of the work, 
which on December 31, 1914, will come into force in Great Britain 
and Ireland, replacing the previous edition of 1898. A comprehen- 
sive preliminary survey of the new edition appeared in The Chemist 
and Druggist, October 3, p. 49, and further details in succeeding 
issues. In the Chemist and Druggist Diary for 191 5 is described the 
chemistry and materia medica of the new work, which contains forty- 
three new articles and preparations, but 168 of the old monographs 
have been omitted, these including several from the Indian and 
Colonial Addendum. 

One of the most striking features of the Pharmacopoeia is the 
evidence of its having been subjected to a boiling-down process. 
Drugs which are seldom used have been expurgated ; crude products 
from which alkaloids are made are deleted, and in many cases only 
the active principles are given. The descriptions in the monographs 
are more terse and reduced to as few words as possible, often so 
as to remind one of Browning's style, vigorous but somewhat abrupt. 
Particles, pronouns, conjunctions, and even auxiliary verbs, are fre- 



4 6 



The British Pharmacopoeia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 January, 1915. 



quently omitted, and many sentences occur without a verb in them. 
Nevertheless, this style does not uniformly characterize every mono- 
graph. The cutting-down process has also been applied in omitting 
altogether the references to illustrations of official plants. This may 
save a little room, but, from the botanist's point of view, is undesir- 
able, as it leaves the reader in the dark as to the plant actually meant. 
Thus, the rose which yields otto is denned in some Pharmacopoeias 
as the produce of Rosa damascena, Mill., and without the reference 
to the illustration it would be difficult to understand why the Pharma- 
copoeia gives Rosa damascena, Linn., the fact being that the illustra- 
tion quoted shows that it is not the typical Rosa damascena, Mill., 
which is a single rose, while the Bulgarian rose is semi-double, and 
is stated in " Pharmacographia " to be a variety of Rosa damascena, 
Mill., although Mr. J. G. Baker thought it near to R. gallica. Under 
these circumstances a figure that represents the semi-aouble character 
of the flower and the shape and size of the leaves gives a better idea 
of the plant than a description. 

Senna is now indifferently the two kinds formerly known as 
Tinnevelly and Alexandrian senna, derived from two different species 
and regarded by most therapeutists as differing somewhat in strength. 
The statement is made that Alexandrian senna is usually smaller than 
Tinnevelly senna, but no other distinction between them is given, 
and this character applies not only to small varieties of Tinnevelly 
senna, but equally to the Mecca senna of commerce, which possesses 
the characters of both kinds, and is usually regarded as inferior to 
either the Tinnevelly or Alexandrian kinds. Under senna-pods no 
distinctive character is given for the two kinds. Again, Alstonia 
constricta and Alstonia scholaris, two barks very different in appear 
ance, and used in different countries, are included in the same mono- 
graph under one name, so that if tincture of alstonia were ordered 
in this country one would hardly be certain to get a product uniform 
in character from two different drug houses or pharmacies, since 
one firm might use A. scholaris and another A. constricta. Aloe, 
which may now be one of three kinds, is practically in the same 
category. 

Under oil of cajuput, the oil is said to be distilled from the leaves 
of M. Leucadendron and " other species of Melaleuca. 3 ' The words, 
" other species of Melaleuca," allow the possibility of entrance into 
pharmacy of the Niaouli oil from M. viridiHora, Soland., which 
Messrs. Smith and Baker consider a distinct species, and that of 



January 1915™'} The British Pharmacopoeia. 47 

Melaleuca Smithii, R. T. Baker, the oil of which is said by those 
authorities to show " no resemblance to cajuput oil." 

A few of the old drugs that have borne the test of centuries, such 
as galbanum, saffron, sarsaparilla, ficus, and conium, have now disap- 
peared, the last-named a useful but in these days not well-understood 
remedy, while saffron cannot be said to have ever been regarded seri- 
ously from the physiological point of view. Mylabris and coca and 
jaborandi leaves are perhaps outside the domain of prescriptions, 
though all appear regularly in commerce, but these have now dis- 
appeared. 

Under cascara sagrada and ergot the curious direction is given 
that the former should be collected at least one year before being 
used, and the latter should not be used if more than one year old, 
but how the pharmacist is to ascertain when the bark was collected 
in North America is not explained. The direction that ergot should 
not be used if more than one year old must leave the pharmacist in a 
quandary, since he cannot possibly tell (if the drug has been care- 
fully dried) whether it was more than a year old when he received 
it. Belladonnas folia consist now of the dried leaves, not the fresh 
leaves and branches, as in the last edition. This opens up the possi- 
bility of adulterated leaves from the Continent being used, the 
cheaper price of which will probably lead to a cessation of cultiva- 
tion of belladonna in this country when the war is over. The require- 
ment that the leaves should contain " 0.30 per cent, of alkaloids " is 
rather indefinite. That belladonna-root must be " the root collected 
in autumn and dried " indicates that probably English root is in- 
tended, but, in any case, the description given of the root would 
ensure its being autumn-collected, even if foreign root, since the 
spring-collected root is porous and almost free from starch. 

Under catechu pallidum and catechu nigrum the statement is 
made that the crude drug should not yield more than 5 per cent, of 
ash, and the powder not more than 8 per cent. — a new official idea. 
The leaves of Digitalis purpurea, are directed to be thoroughly dried 
at a " low temperature," but there is no explanation of what is meant 
by the word low. It is also directed that when powdered no portion 
should be rejected, probably so as to be in accordance with the pub- 
lished statement that the midrib is as active as the lamina. But digi- 
talis leaves, retaining, as dried leaves usually do, about 12 per cent, 
of moisture, without which they cease to be pliable, are still open to 
the deteriorating action of their own enzymes, even if kept in a tight 
container. A tincture properly made from the fresh leaves, with 



4« 



The British Pharmacopoeia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

( January, 1915. 



means taken to destroy the enzymes present, would probably give 
much better physiological results. 

Under embelia the fruit of either Embelia ribes or E. robusta is 
allowed, but the commercial article nearly always consists of the fruit 
E. robusta, easily recognized by its longitudinally striated surface. 
Grindelia is now referred to Grindelia camporum, Greene, in accord- 
ance with the information published by Mr. P. E. F. Perredes in 
1909-10. Hyoscyami folia are now the dried leaves only, not " the 
fresh leaves and flowers with the branches to which they are at- 
tached," as in the last edition, nor need the leaves be obtained from 
the biennial plant. In this case also the boiling-down process seems 
to have been carried too far, since the inferior Continental annual 
henbane can be used, as no alkaloidal percentage is required. Kino 
is slightly lowered in quality, only 75 per cent, being required to dis- 
solve in boiling water, as against 80 per cent, in the last edition. 
Kino eucalypti must, however, have 80 per cent, soluble in water, 
but whether hot or cold is not stated. Under menthol, Mentha pipe- 
rita is no longer given as a source of menthol, although it may be 
included under " and probably other species of Mentha." 

Under myrobalanum, the official dried immature fruits are said 
to be usually distinguished in commerce as Chebulic myrobalans. 
This is not correct ; they are distinguished as black Chebulic myro- 
balans, the mature fruit being larger and of a pale-brown color. 

In Aid of Belgian Pharmacists. — The people of the United 
States are well aware of the devastation and havoc wrought by the 
unfortunate European War to the people of Belgium. The American 
people have as usual responded in a magnanimous manner to the 
appeals for food, and various organizations have been sending con- 
tributions for the assistance of their colleagues on the other side of 
the water. An appeal is sent out , by a number of Pharmacists of 
Amsterdam, Holland, for the financial aid of the Pharmacists of 
Belgium and it is to be hoped that the Pharmacists of the United 
States will heed the appeal and render such assistance as they can 
to re-establish their colleagues of Belgium. Surely those of us 
who have visited this country will recall the hospitality with which 
we were received and probably no nation has rendered greater inter- 
national service to Pharmacy than Belgium. Subscriptions will be 
received by the American Journal of Pharmacy and correspon- 
dence solicited that effective plans of relief might be perfected at 
once. 



THE AMEEICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHAKM 



CAMPHOR— NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ^ 



By Percy A. Houseman, Ph.D., 



FEBRUARY, 1915 




Camphor has acquired a special interest within the last ten or 
twelve years on account of its synthesis on a commercial scale. It 
represents a good example of a growing tendency to replace natural 
products by artificially-prepared substances, which are either iden- 
tical in properties with the materials occurring in nature, or can be 
profitably used as substitutes for them. The commercial synthesis 
of India rubber presents a similar problem which has yet to be 
solved. 



Natural camphor has been known and prized for many hundred 
years. The camphor tree (Cinnamomum C amphora) belongs to the 
laurel family, and is indigenous to China, Japan, and Formosa. The 
substance known as Borneo camphor is closely related to the true 
camphor. Its chemical name is borneol, and it is obtained from 
Dryobalanops aromatica, which grows chiefly in Borneo and Sumatra. 
Borneo camphor commands a much higher price than Japanese 
camphor. It is used by the natives for ritualistic and medicinal 
purposes. Camphor is also obtained from an evergreen semishrub 
(Blumea balsamifera) which is found in Eastern India and Burma, 
and which yields the so-called " Ngai camphor." Within recent 
years, many attempts have been made to cultivate the camphor tree 
in other countries. 1 These experiments, however, are somewhat 

* See, e.g., Board of Trade Journal, July, 1907, "Camphor Trees in 
Federated Malay States." B. J. Eaton. Agric. Bull. Straits Settlements and 
Federated Malay States, 1909. Colonial Office Report, 1907, No. 527, " Cam- 
phor Trees in Ceylon." Battandier, /. Pharm. Chem., 1907, 182, " Camphor 
Trees in Algeria." Chemist and Druggist, 1907, 109, " Camphor Trees in the 
United States." " Camphor Industry in Foreign Countries," U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, 1910. 



Natural Camphor. 



(49) 



50 Camphor— Natural and Synthetic. {^ra^^i™' 

hazardous, for, though the tree thrives well in almost any subtropical 
climate, and appears not specially subject to attack by insect enemies, 
about fifty years must elapse before good yields of camphor are ob- 
tainable. Individual trees show great variability in the amount of 
camphor they yield, a phenomenon the cause of which is not well 
understood. 

The question then naturally arises as to the extent of the camphor 
forests now existing. Until recent years no attempts were made to 
plant young trees in place of those cut down, but this wasteful policy 
has now been checked, especially since the Japanese assumed control 
of the camphor industry after the Chino-Japanese War of 1894. 

Between the years 1900 and 1906 some 3,000,000 trees were 
planted by the Japanese monopoly, and, with the old trees assuring 
a sufficient supply of camphor for at least fifty years, there is no 
immediate prospect of a shortage in the supply of natural camphor. 
The competition which natural camphor encounters with the synthetic 
article will be treated of later. 

The following table 2 shows the value of the camphor (presum- 
ably crude and refined) exported from Japan and Formosa for the 
years 1911-1912 : 

Destination 1911 1912 

Hongkong $15,43$ $10,956 

British India 285,500 322,000 

Straits Settlements 4,034 4,000 

England 327,700 362,000 

France 308,000 251,500 

Germany 260,000 244,500 

United States 358,000 228,500 

Canada 6,000 10,400 

Australia 47,000 37,850 

Other countries 24,000 57,8oo 

Totals $1,725,672 $1,530,406 

The camphor output of Japan during 191 1 was larger than at 
any time since 1902, over 2,640,000 pounds having been produced, 
of which 860,000 pounds were exported, 1,254,000 pounds taken by 
local refineries, 460,000 pounds by Japanese celluloid factories, the 
remainder going to general consumers. 3 

2 Die Chemisette Industrie, 36, 355, The figures should be accepted with 
reserve. 

8 Daily Consular and Trade Reports No. 229 (15th year), Sept. 28, 1912. 



A FebraTrv P i h 9i™'} Camphor— Xatural and Synthetic. 51 

The imports of crude natural camphor from all sources into the 
United States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 191 1, amounted to 
3,726,319 pounds, valued at $1,118,586. For 1912 the amount was 
2,154,646 pounds, valued at $682,669.* 

China produces less camphor than Japan and Formosa. In 19 12 
China exported 165 tons, valued at $130,521, and in 1913. 124 tons, 
valued at $94,298. 5 

The world's production of camphor for 1913 6 is estimated at 
about 12,000,000 pounds, of which 4,600.000 pounds are credited to 
Formosa, 2,000,000 pounds to Japan, and 1.300,000 pounds to China, 
the remaining 4,000,000 being left for natural camphor produced in 
other countries, and for synthetic camphor. 

Extraction and Refixixg. 

The extraction of the crude camphor from the tree is a simple 
process. The wood is cut into chips and subjected to the action of 
steam in stills of primitive construction. The number of camphor 
stoves in Formosa in 1910 is given as 7834. and the number of cam- 
phor workers on the island as nearly 30,000/ Formosa supplies about 
one-half of the total crude camphor produced. Camphor is ob- 
tainable from all parts of the tree: s leaves, twigs, wood, and roots. 

The crude camphor is divided into three grades, A, B, and BB, 
and is refined by steam distillation, sublimation, or crystallization. 
Refined camphor comes into the market as " flowers," " bells," or 
" blocks." Camphor oil is obtained as a by-product in the extraction 
of camphor. The oil is used in perfumery, soaps, etc., and contains 
many essential oils, as well as some dissolved camphor. 

4 Daily Consular and Trade Reports No. 261 (15th year), Nov. 5, 1912. 

5 Daily Consular and Trade Reports Xo. 262 (17th year), Nov. 7, 1914. 

6 Daily Consular and Trade Reports Xo. 75 (16th year), April 1, 1913. 
All of the statistics are given as they appear in the original sources of 

information. In some cases these statistics seem to be contradictory — 
possibly owing to a lack of clearness in separating figures applying to crude 
camphor from those applying to the refined article. 

7 " Camphor Industry in Foreign Countries," Special Consular Reports, 
vol. xliii, part 3, 1910. 

s See, e.g., B. J. Eaton. Agric. Bull. Straits Settlements and Federated 
Malay States, 1909. Beille and Lemaire. Bull. Soc. Pharm. Bordeaux, 53, 521. 
Daily Consular and Trade Reports No. 255 (16th year), Oct. 31, 1913. 



52 Camphor — Natural and Synthetic. 

Properties and Uses. 

Camphor is a colorless, crystalline substance melting at 175 C. 
It is volatile at ordinary temperature, and its characteristic odor is 
said to be detectable at a dilution of 0.000005 gramme camphor in 1 
litre of air. One part of camphor requires about 1000 parts of cold 
water for solution. It dissolves in organic solvents with ease. 

Japanese camphor has a strongly dextrorotatory action on the 
plane of polarized light, = 44.2 in alcoholic solution. The laevo- 
rotatory camphor occurs in the oil of Matricaria parthenum and is 
known as Matricaria camphor. It is identical with Japan camphor, 
except for its opposite rotatory power. 

Camphor finds application chiefly in three directions : 

1. In Pharmacy. — Camphor is used in more than thirty different 
forms. It is antispasmodic, a stimulant, cardiac and local anodyne, 
and is used in fevers, dysmenorrhea, colic, etc. Camphor is also 
used as a disinfectant. 

2. In Explosives. — Camphor is said to exercise a preservative 
action on blasting gelatine, but only a small quantity is used in the 
manufacture of explosives. 

3. In Celluloid. — Celluloid was invented in 1869 Dv Hyatt in 
America, while Daniel Spill worked at the same time in England. 
The process of manufacture, expressed in a few words, consists of 
the incorporation of camphor with nitrocellulose and a suitable 
solvent such as acetone. 

The celluloid industry consumes about three-fourths of the total 
camphor produced, a fact which will be readily understood when one 
thinks of the enormous number of articles now made of celluloid. 



Chemical Constitution of Camphor. 

This has been a subject of such importance that it is desirable to 
pass in review the steps leading up to the establishment of the chem- 
ical structure of camphor. 

Camphor belongs to the important class of compounds called 
terpenes, the parent substances of this group being unsaturated hy- 
drocarbons possessing the empirical formula C 5 H 8 . The terpenes 
fall into four classes: (1) Hemiterpenes (C 5 H 8 ), (2) Terpenes 
(C 10 H 16 ), (3) Sesquiterpenes (C 15 H 24 ), (4) Polyterpenes (C 5 H 8 ) n . 

Camphor is a derivative of the second of the above classes, and 
possesses the formula C 10 H 16 O. It is a saturated compound and 



A FebSy P i9 a i5 m ' } Camphor — Natural and Synthetic. 



53 



contains the ketonic group C— CO — C ^> forming a well-de- 
fined oxime, and yielding a secondary alcohol (borneol) by reduc- 
tion electrolytically or with sodium amalgam. 

When camphor is distilled with phosphorus pentoxide the hydro- 
carbon cymene (I) is obtained. Cymene is para-methyl-isopropyl- 
benzene, and the same complex is therefore assumed to be present in 
camphor. 

CH3-CH-CH3 
CioHieO-H 2 = I 

/\ 



CH 3 

Camphor (I) Cymene 

On boiling with iodine, camphor is converted to carvacrol (II) 
another substance of known structure. 



CioHiaO— H2 



CH 3 -CH-CH S 



QOH 



I 

CH 3 

Camphor (II) Carvacrol 

The reactions of camphor considered above are satisfied by the 
formula (III) proposed by Kekule in 1873. This formula, however, 
does not account for the saturated character of camphor, nor for its 
oxidation to camphoronic acid. 

Formula (IV) was put forward by Kannonikow in 1883 and 
(V) by Bredt in 1884. That Bredt was correct and Kannonikow 
incorrect in the position assigned to the carbonyl group is proved 
by the conversion of camphor to carvacrol, considered above. 

CH 3 -CH-CH 3 CH 3 -CH-CH 3 CH 3 -CH-CH 3 

I I 

CH C 

CH 2 ^\ CH 2 CH 2 f 7 ^ CO 



CH CO CH 2 CH 2 

c c 

I I 

CH 3 CH 3 

(III) Kekule, 1873 (IV) Kannonikow, 1883 




54 



Camphor — Natural and Synthetic. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1915. 



Bredt later modified his formula to that shown by (VI). 
The oxidation of camphor to camphoronic acid is then formulated 
as follows : 



CHi 



-CH 



-CH 5 



CHj-C-CH, 
I 

CH 2 C 

I 



CO 



CH 2 CH— COOH 

CH3-C-CH3 

CH 2 C— COOH 

CH 3 

(VII) Camphoric acid 



COOH 

COOH 

CH3-C-CH3 

I 

CH 2 C— COOH 



CH 3 

(VIII) Camphoronic acid 



CH 3 

(VI) Camphor (Bredt, 1893) 

Camphoronic acid has been synthesized and is of known con- 
stitution (a-a-/?-trimethyl tricarballylic acid). Lastly, two other 
points may be mentioned in connection with this complicated question 
of the structure of camphor. 

The first is the partial synthesis of camphor by the distillation of 
the calcium salt of homocamphoric acid 9 (IX). 

This reaction is shown thus — 




COO 



CH, 



-CH 2 



CH3-C-CH3 



CH S 



+CaC0 3 



-CO 



CH 3 

(IX) Calcium homocamphorate 



CH 3 

Camphor 



The second point is the evidence derived from stereochemical 
considerations. From Formula (VI) it will be seen that camphor 
contains two asymmetric carbon atoms (printed in heavy type). To 
these asymmetric atoms camphor owes its optical activity. If now 
the carbonyl (CO) group be reduced to (CH 2 ), the asymmetry of 
both carbon atoms is destroyed, and the resulting compound must be 
inactive. This is entirely supported by the experimental results. 
Bredt's formula for camphor is the only one to interpret satisfactorily 
all the reactions discussed above, and his formula is now generally 
accepted. 

Synthetic Camphor. 

The raw material for the synthesis of camphor is turpentine, the 
resinous liquid exuding from various Coniferce. American turpentine 
is mostly obtained from Pinus palustris, the French variety from 



9 Bredt and Rosenberg, Annalen der Chemie, 289. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

February, 1915. 



| Camphor — Natural and Synthetic. 



55 



Pinus maritima, and the Russian from Pinus sylvestris. Russian 
turpentine is not suitable for the manufacture of camphor, on account 
of its low content of pinene. 

The turpentine is very carefully fractionally distilled, in order to 
obtain anhydrous pinene (C 10 H 16 ), which boils at about 155 to 
160 C, and which should constitute 90 per cent, of a good sample 
of oil of turpentine. 

Starting out from pinene, there are a great number of variations 
in the processes for the preparation of camphor. Hundreds of 
patents have been taken out. 10 Some of the typical processes will 
be mentioned here. 

In many of the processes the pinene is thoroughly cooled, and 
is then saturated with dry hydrochloric acid gas. A white crystal- 
line mass of pinene hydrochloride is thrown out. Pinene hydro- 
chloride is sometimes called " Artificial camphor " — an unfortunate 
name, for it is still far removed from the true synthetic camphor, and 
is not suited to the purposes for which true camphor is used. 

The next step is to split off hydrochloric acid from the pinene 
hydrochloride, in order to obtain the hydrocarbon camphene (C 10 - 
H 16 ), which is isomeric with the pinene from which the process 
started. 

The following formulae indicate the first two steps — the addition 
of hydrochloric acid to pinene in the position 1.2, and its removal 
from another part of the molecule, viz., the position 2.3 : 



CH, 



€H 



CH3-C-CH3 

I 

CH 2 C- 



I 

-CH 2 



CH 3 

(X) Pinene 



CH 2 - 



-CH- 



CH 3 — C— CH 3 



CH 2 - 



-CH— 



-CI CH 2 CH CH 

I I 
I CH3-C-CH3 

I I 
-H CH 2 C CH 



CH 3 

(XI) Pinene hydrochloride 



CH 3 

(XII) Camphene 



The conversion of pinene hydrochloride to camphene ,may be ac- 
complished in a great variety of ways, among which may be men- 
tioned : 

1. Heating with ammonia or with organic bases, such as methyl- 
amine, pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, or piperazine. 



10 Cf. O. Kausch, Kunststoffe 4, 1-4, 24-5. F. Rochussen, Chem. Zeitung 
(1909), 33, 704. 



56 Camphor — Natural and Synthetic. {^f^^l^m^' 

2. Heating with caustic soda and a salt of a higher fatty acid, 
such as stearates of sodium, lead, or copper. 

3. Heating with phenolates or naphtholates of sodium, potassium, 
calcium, magnesium, etc. 

4. Heating with glacial acetic acid and anhydrous acetates of lead, 
zinc, or alkaline earth metals. 

5. Treatment with magnesium as used in the Grignard reaction. 
It is worthy of note that camphene is the only solid terpene hydro- 
carbon. It is a white solid melting at 50 C. 

The next stage in the process is the conversion of camphene to 
bornyl acetate. 11 This is accomplished, as Bertram and Walbaum 12 
showed, by treating the solution of the camphene in glacial acetic 
acid with about 5 per cent, of sulphuric acid at a slightly elevated 
temperature. Acetic acid is added on, in accordance with the formula 
below. Bornyl acetate is an oil boiling with some decomposition 
at about 225 C. It is readily volatile in steam. 

The final steps in the camphor synthesis consist in the saponi- 
fication of the bornyl acetate to borneol, and the oxidation of the 
borneol to camphor. 

CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 



I 

CH 3 — C— CH 3 
I 



I 

CH 3 — C— CH 3 

I 



I 

CH3-C-CH3 
I 



C H 2 C C HOOC -C H 3 C H 2 C C HO H C H 2 C CO 

CH3 CH3 CH 3 

(XIII) Bornyl acetate (XIV) Borneol (XV) Camphor 

The saponification is accomplished with alcoholic caustic soda, 
yielding sodium acetate as a by-product. The borneol so obtained 
is, with the exception of its optical inactivity, identical with the 
Borneo camphor occurring in nature. 

The oxidation of borneol to camphor can be accomplished by a 
great variety of oxidizing agents — air, ozone, chlorine, nitric acid, 
potassium permanganate, potassium bichromate, and sulphuric acid, 
and finely divided metals such as nickel and cobalt. 13 When potas- 

11 The term bornyl acetate and borneol are used for simplicity. In reality 
wo-bornyl acetate and uo-borneol are produced. The nature of the isomerism 
is not clearly understood. 

12 Jour. f. prak. Chem., NF., 49, 1. 

13 Schering, German patents 271 147 and 271 157. Also patent of Port 
Chester Chemical Company, New York (1911). 



A re'bSar r y P i9i5 m '} Camphor— Natural and Synthetic/ 57 

sium bichromate and sulphuric acid are used, chrome alum is obtained 
as a by-product. 

The type of process outlined above thus involves six distinct 
stages before the final product is obtained : 

turpentine — h*- pinene — >- pinene hydrochloride — camphene — > 
bornyl acetate — >■ borneol — >■ camphor. 

According to a German process, the anhydrous rectified oil of 
turpentine is heated directly with anhydrous oxalic acid. Some 
camphor is formed, and the oxalic and formic esters of pinene, which 
are also present, are saponified and oxidized. Salicylic acid may 
also be employed instead of oxalic acid. 

The crude camphor obtained by any of these methods is refined 
by steam distillation or sublimation, in the same manner as the crude 
natural camphor is purified. 

Properties of Synthetic Camphor. 

Synthetic camphor is identical with the natural article in all its 
chemical and physical properties, with the exception (in common 
with other synthetic organic compounds) that it is optically inactive. 
The question of the differences of physiological action of the dextro, 
lsevo, and synthetic modifications appears not to be settled. 14 The 
differences seem to be of degree and not of kind. 15 Johnston 16 
makes a plea for the recognition of synthetic camphor in the British 
Pharmacopoeia, on the ground of its therapeutic equivalence to 
natural camphor. 

As regards the chemical purity of synthetic camphor, celluloid 
manufacturers state that it must be quite free from chlorine for 
use in the preparation of celluloid. 

History and Future of Camphor. 

The short history of synthetic camphor since it was first made 
about 10 years ago has been a very troubled one, and the future of 
the industry still seems to be a matter of great uncertainty. This 
checkered career has been caused, largely by a great fluctuation in 
the price of natural camphor. Forty years ago the price of Japanese 

"Langgaard and Maass, Therapeut. Monatsh. (1907), 20, 573. Bruni, 
Gazz. Chem. Ital. (1908), 38, (II), 1. Hamalainen, Skan. Arch, fur Physiol. 
(1908). 21, 64. 

15 See, e.g., W. E. Grove, Journ. Pharmacol., 1, 445. 

18 P harm. Journ., 83, 534. 



58 Camphor— Natural and Synthetic. {^bm^mT' 

camphor was about 8 cents per pound. The Japanese Government 
assumed a monopoly of camphor in 1899, after the Chino-Japanese 
War. In 1903 the price was about 30 cents per pound. At the 
time of the Russo-Japanese War, in 1905, the price of camphor rose 
to over a dollar per pound, and in 1906 and 1907 it was about 60 
cents per pound. While camphor was at its highest price chemists 
succeeded in working out the synthetic processes outlined above, 
and the manufacture was commenced in Germany, France, and 
England. In 1909 the Japanese, with large stores on hand, reduced 
the price of Japanese camphor to about 30 cents per pound, a price 
at which it was impossible to manufacture the synthetic article. 
The French and English companies were unable to overcome financial 
difficulties, and it is believed that in 1910 only one factory was still 
making synthetic camphor — the Chemische Fabrik a. A. vorm. E. 
Schering. The price of camphor at the end of 19 10 was about 35 
cents per pound, and the profits from the Formosan monopoly for 
the fiscal year ending March 31, 19 10, amounted to no less than 
$1,982,966, with a total production of 4,000,000 kilogrammes. 17 
During the last four years the price of camphor has not varied greatly, 
but the outbreak of the present war has resulted in another rapid 
advance in price to about double the normal value. 

Synthetic camphor is now being manufactured in Germany by 
the Rheinische Kampfer Fabrik in Dusseldorf. How long this 
company will be able to continue in operation is a matter of con- 
jecture. 

When much is being said of the opportunity of American chem- 
ical manufacturers to produce materials hitherto imported from 
Germany, it is gratifying to be able to record that a start is to be made 
on the manufacture of synthetic camphor in Philadelphia, early in 
191 5, by the American Camphor Corporation. 

As to the future of synthetic camphor, it would be rash to 
prophesy. 

The Japanese Government is now thoroughly alive to the im- 
portance of the conservation of camphor trees. Extensive replanting 
has been commenced, but many years will elapse before these trees 
will yield camphor. All of the trees in readily accessible locations 
have, been cut down, and, though immense camphor forests still 
exist, they are in mountainous districts of the interior, inhabited by 
savage tribes. 



17 C hem. Abst., 1910, 3120. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. J 



Arsenic Antidote. 



59 



Synthetic camphor has had other enemies besides its Oriental 
rival. The price and supply of turpentine have been subject to con- 
siderable variation. The American manufacturer should, however, 
have less reason than his European competitors to fear a shortage of 
turpentine. 

Then again, a substance may be found capable of replacing cam- 
phor in celluloid, 18 or a substitute may be found for celluloid itself. 
A great many experiments have already been made in this direction, 
largely on account of the inflammable nature of celluloid, and the 
work of Cross and Bevan, Knoll and Knoevenagel and others, on 
the non-inflammable esters of cellulose, may supply a satisfactory 
substitute for celluloid in the near future. 

All of these questions are matters of speculation, which time will 
answer. In any case, synthetic camphor, whatever its commercial 
future may be, stands as a splendid example of achievement in the 
field of chemical synthesis. 

Philadelphia, November, 1914. 



ARSENIC ANTIDOTE. 
By Joseph W. England. 

At the 191 2 annual meeting of the New York Pharmaceutical 
Association, Mr. Otto Raubenheimer suggested (Proc. N. Y. Pharm. 
Assoc., 1912, 321, vide Journ. A. Ph. A., 1913, 529) the use of 
magma magnesia, N. F., or milk of magnesia, in place of magnesium 
oxide in the present official formula for making " Ferric Hydroxide 
with Magnesium Oxide," and the importance of the suggestion de- 
serves much more attention than it has so far received. 

To furnish an antidote against arsenic trioxide or arsenous anhy- 
dride (As 2 O s ), commonly called arsenous acid or arsenic, the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia (VIII) recognizes, under the exceedingly cumber- 
some title of " Ferri Hydroxidum Cum Magnesii Oxido," a prepara- 
tion containing ferric hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and mag- 
nesium sulphate. It is almost identical in composition with the 
" Antidotum Arsenici " of the German Pharmacopoeia, which title, 
by the way, is much more descriptive than that of our Pharmacopoeia. 

18 e.g., German Patent 219918, 1908 (Chem. Fabrik Griesheim Elektron), 
which covers the use of dioxydiphenylsulphone. 



6o 



Arsenic Antidote. 



f Am. Jour. Phann. 

( February, 1915. 



If the intent of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia (VIII) was to indicate the 
chemical composition of the preparation, the title should have been 
made " Ferri Hydroxidum Cum Magnesii Oxido et Magnesii Sul- 
phate." By the time a physician finishes writing a prescription for a 
preparation with a title like this, the patient may be dead ! 

Officially, the preparation is made by adding a mixture of mag- 
nesium oxide (light calcined magnesia) and water (which becomes 
magnesium hydroxide) to a diluted solution o'f ferric sulphate, and 
shaking them together until a uniformly smooth mixture results. 

In making the preparation, the ferric sulphate and magnesium 
hydroxide are decomposed into ferric hydroxide and magnesium sul- 
phate, an excess of magnesium hydroxide being employed, which 
latter is partially neutralized by the free acid of the ferric sulphate 
solution. 

The reaction is: 

Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + 3Mg(OH) 2 = 2Fe(OH) 8 + 3MgS0 4 
397-05 173.82 212.28 358.59 

The chemical reaction that takes place when ferric hydroxide 
comes into contact with arsenic trioxide or arsenous anhydride is a 
peculiar one. According to Attfield, the arsenous compound is 
oxidized, while the ferric compound is reduced — insoluble ferrous 
arsenate and ferrous hydrate being formed. 

The reaction is : 

4 Fe(OH) 3 + As 2 3 = Fe 3 (AsOJ 2 + Fe(OH) 2 + 5 H 2 
424.56 196.44 442.34 89.26 89.40 

In the official process for making " Ferric Hydroxide with Mag- 
nesium Oxide " there is used solution of ferric sulphate, 40 Cc. ; mag- 
nesium oxide, 10 Gms. ; water, a sufficient quantity. Mix the solu- 
tion of ferric sulphate with 125 Cc. of water and keep the liquid 
in a well-stoppered bottle. Rub the magnesium oxide with ccld 
water to a smooth and thin mixture, transfer this to a bottle capable 
of holding about 1000 Cc, and fill it with water to about three- 
fourths of its capacity. When the preparation is wanted for use, 
shake the magnesium oxide mixture to a homogeneous, thin magma, 
add it gradually to the diluted ferric sulphate solution, and shake 
them until a uniformly smooth mixture results. The diluted solution 
of ferric sulphate and the mixture of magnesium oxide with water 
are directed to be always kept on hand ready for immediate use. 



Aui. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. / 



Arsenic Antidote. 



6] 



The Committee of Revision has decided to follow, in the ninth 
revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, the present official process for 
making " Ferric Hydroxide with Magnesium Oxide," but will re- 
verse the order of mixing the iron and magnesia. 

Mr. Raubenheimer suggests the following formula: 

Solution of ferric sulphate ; . 40 Cc. 

Magnesia magma (milk of magnesia) . . . 300 Cc. 
Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix 40 Cc. of solution of ferric sulphate with 260 Cc. of water 
in one bottle, and mix 300 Cc. of magnesia magma, or milk of mag- 
nesia, with 300 Cc. of water in another bottle having the capacity 
of 1000 Cc. When the antidote is required, add the iron solution 
gradually to the magnesia mixture, shake well, and the preparation 
is ready for instant use. 

Using wine measure, it will be found convenient to keep 1%. 
fluidounces of solution of ferric sulphate diluted with 8^4 fluid- 
ounces of water in one bottle, and 10 fluidounces of magnesia magma 
previously mixed with 10 fluidounces in water in a second bottle, 
having the capacity of one quart. 

The advantages claimed for the preparation made by this method 
are: 

1. The finely-suspended magnesium hydroxide in the milk of 
magnesia forms a smooth and finely-divided magma of ferric 
hydroxide. 

2. Such a magma unquestionably has therapeutic advantages in 
combining more readily with the arsenic. 

3. By pouring the iron solution into the diluted milk of mag- 
nesia a more voluminous magma will be obtained than by the reverse 
as directed in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 

4. Milk of magnesia, if properly prepared, is practically free 
from carbonate, while magnesium oxide always contains some car- 
bonate, except when recently calcined. 

It has been suggested to the Committee of Revision that, if the 
present official formula for the preparation be retained, an alterna- 
tive process of using magnesia magma instead of magnesium oxide be 
authorized in the next revision of the Pharmacopoeia. 



62 Substitute for Potassium Permanganate. f Am - Jour - Pharm - 



February, 1915. 



A SUBSTITUTE FOR POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE TO 
LIBERATE FORMALDEHYDE GAS FROM A 
WATER SOLUTION. 1 

By Samuel G. Dixon, M.D., LL.D., Commissioner of Health, Commonwealth 

of Pennsylvania. 

Almost immediately after the declaration of war by Germany 
I requested the department's chemist, Mr. Charles Lawall, to proceed 
at once to find a substitute for potassium permanganate that would 
liberate formaldehyde gas from a water solution for the purpose 
of disinfecting. 

In the literature no mention of any other specific substance was 
found except in an English patent application (4885, /. 6". C. L, 
1908, p. 915), where a combination of sodium bisulphite and formal- 
dehyde solution was acted on by potassium permanganate or other 
peracid salt and the dry fumigation formula : 

Formaldehyde, 37 per cent, solution 2 parts 

Saturated alum sulphate solution 1 part 

Eight ounces of this solution are used to 1 pound of lime to 
1000 cubic feet. 

Dr. George Rosengarten suggested sodium dichromate as a 
cheap oxidizing agent, and hydrochloric acid to increase its energy. 
Lawall found on experimenting that sodium dichromate was more 
energetic and satisfactory in the presence of sulphuric acid. 

Numerous experiments, confirmed by calculations on the relative 
oxidizing power of potassium permanganate and sodium dichromate, 
and also working out the optimum proportion of sulphuric acid, led 
to the conclusion that the following proportion gave the best results, 
which are in every way comparable to those with potassium perman- 
ganate. 

Sodium dichromate, 10 ounces avoirdupois. 
Saturated solution of formaldehyde gas, 1 pint. 
Sulphuric acid, commercial iV 2 fluidounces. 

The sulphuric acid and formaldehyde gas form a stable solu- 
tion. \ This, after it cools, should be poured over the crystals of 
sodium dichromate spread out in a thin layer over the bottom of a 
vessel having ten times the capacity of the volume of ingredients 
used. 

1 Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Sept. 19, 1914, p. 1025. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1915. / 



The Function of Enzymes. 



63 



It was found that the process was more rapid than with potas- 
sium permanganate. This would necessitate the health officer's with- 
drawing promptly from a room in which the process had been started. 

Lawall, when working on a small scale, found in every case 
a corrosive residue. Much to his surprise, the residue in ten minutes 
was dry and pulverulent, and a galvanized bucket which had been 
used showed very little effect of the reaction after washing out with 
soap and water. 

He made a quantitative determination by both the permanganate 
and dichromate methods to determine the amount of volatile ma- 
terial given off, and found that in each case it approximated 8 
ounces avoirdupois (or about half the weight of the formaldehyde 
solution taken). 

As formaldehyde solution contains between 35 and 40 per cent, 
of gaseous HCOH, and as the residue in each case was found to 
be dry and particularly devoid of odor after two hours' standing, 
Lawall concluded that the two methods are equally effective from 
the quantitative standpoint. 

Formaldehyde solution and commercial sulphuric acid may be 
kept in stock and shipped in the mixed form (10 parts of formalde- 
hyde solution and 1 part sulphuric acid, both by volume). Lawall 
found the solution would be perfectly stable. 

The solution would have to be handled with more care than 
the plain formaldehyde on account of the acid making it slightly 
corrosive. 



THE FUNCTION OF ENZYMES. 

Products of Living Cells that Affect the Chemical Opera- 
tions of Living Matter but Do Not Become a Part 
of the Final Reaction. 1 

By Samuel C. Prescott. 

The study of the chemical or physiological activity of cells, 
whether of microbes or of men, is at once one of the most interesting 
and one of the most difficult problems of the biologist, for it seeks 
to disclose the secrets of life processes. How does a disease germ 
produce its poison, or a yeast cell bring about its characteristic fer- 



1 Reprinted from Science Conspectus, vol. iv, 1914, No. 3, pp. 76-79. 



64 The Function of Enzymes. { A reb^, m™' 

mentation? How do we carry on those transformations of food 
material by which beefsteak and bread and butter at once become 
available sources of energy and matter for our living machine ? How 
does a potato manufacture starch in its leaves, transfer it to the 
growing tubers, and there store it up for future use? 

In each case by means of enzymes, which we may define as the 
tools of cells and the reagents by which the chemical reactions of 
cells of all kinds are effected. 

The term " ferments " was first used early in the nineteenth 
century by Schwann and Berzelius. Afterwards the word was used 
somewhat indiscriminately, meaning either a micro-organism of 
fermentation or a chemical substance which in some way was re- 
lated to living cells. To distinguish between these, the physiologist 
Kiihne suggested the term " enzyme " to designate the digestive 
ferments such as pepsin, trypsin, and ptyalin. The word has now 
been universally accepted as the name of a group of chemical bodies, 
products of living cells, which have the peculiar property of effect- 
ing the chemical operations of living matter but which do not enter 
into the final products of these reactions. 

Chemistry cannot produce enzymes, for they are found only as 
the products of protoplasm of living cells, and it makes no difference 
whether we are dealing with the ultra-microscopic bacterium or the 
giant redwood or the whale, the chemical activities are due to en- 
zymes. Furthermore, the same kind of enzyme may be produced 
by organisms of widely different character, as, for example, the 
trypsin of certain bacteria, of the carnivorous plants like the Venus 
Fly Trap, and of the human intestinal tract. 

Since the variety of chemical processes carried out by living cells 
is large in number, it follows that the number of enzymes is legion. 
Even the number produced by a minute bacterial cell hardly visible 
with a high power of the microscope may be several, while with 
organisms of highly specialized form and physiological division of 
labor the number is greatly increased. In man, at least fourteen 
are known to be developed in the alimentary canal, and to take 
part in the process of digestion, while, if we added all the other 
chemical changes which may be elaborated in the body as a whole, 
our catalogue would be greatly increased. Moreover, we may assume 
that there are many enzymes which are still unknown, for the en- 
zymes may be intra-cellular, that is, acting only within the cell, as 
well as extra-cellular, or extruded outside the cell and so possibly 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
February, 1915. J 



The Function of Enzymes. 



65 



capable of detection. The positive knowledge of the action of intra- 
cellular enzymes is still very meagre, although when Biichner dis- 
covered zymase and a method for its preparation in 1897, the first 
great step forward in their study was made. 

What an enzyme really is, cannot be exactly stated. An enzyme 
is known only by its reactions. " By their works ye shall know 
them," is essentially true in the ferment world. We cannot even 
tell their composition or to what class of chemical substances they 
belong, for they have never been obtained in pure condition. It is 
generally assumed, however, without proof, that enzymes are protein- 
like in character. In spite of this indefmiteness and the elusive 
character of these bodies, certain general properties regarding them 
have become known and on these points all enzymes behave in like 
manner, although differing distinctly from other chemical substances. 

We may thus regard enzymes as forming a special and peculiar 
group of chemical compounds, differing in certain ways from other 
substances, and especially in their relation to the law of mass action 
as shown by the great disproportion between the amount of the 
active substance and the amount of material changed. A good 
example of this is rennet, which, it has been stated, can coagulate 
from 500,000 to 800,000 times its weight of casein without being 
used up. All enzymes possess the same characteristic but not neces- 
sarily in the same degree. The activity is largely dependent upon 
the physical and chemical conditions of the environment. Thus 
very slight changes in the reaction of the medium on which an 
enzyme is acting may control very largely its power, or make the 
difference between high efficiency and practical inactivity. Some en- 
zymes require neutral solutions for action, others are most vigorous 
in slightly acid or slightly alkaline media. 

Similarly, temperature may play a very important part in the 
control of enzyme reactions. In this respect, these substances behave 
closely like living cells and like certain kinds of proteins. Each 
enzyme has a maximum, a minimum, and an optimum temperature 
of activity, just as microbes have, and, like these, if heated above the 
maximum, will be rendered inactive and finally destroyed. This 
thermal death point, as it may be called, is very near the coagulating 
point of albumin and not far from the death point of most vegetative 
bacteria. Another similarity to the proteins lies in the fact that both 
enzymes and albumins are precipitated by concentrated salt solutions 
such as ammonium sulphate, by alcohol and by salts of heavy metals. 



66 



The Function of Enzymes. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm- 
\ February, 1915. 



Furthermore, they may be more or less completely mechanically pre- 
cipitated with flocculent or bulky precipitates, as by use of phosphoric 
acid and lime water. Certain poisons may also inactivate enzymes. 
Substances which kill living cells, like formaldehyde, hydrocyanic 
acid, or mercuric chloride, will in general " kill " enzymes, providing 
the solutions used are strong enough and sufficient time is allowed 
for the destructive action. The enzyme has a somewhat greater 
resistance than has the living cell, but the difference is one of degree 
rather than of kind. In fact, so closely do enzymes correspond to 
microorganisms in behavior toward physical agencies, poisons, etc., 
that we use the same terminology in discussing them and speak of 
the " poisoning " or " killing " of the enzyme. Other substances, such 
as toluene, chloroform, and a few others, permit enzyme reaction but 
restrain the activity of living cells, this giving a differentiation of 
great value in studying them. 

Enzymes also have many properties in common with the toxins, 
and, so far as body reactions go, seem to belong to the same class of 
organic compounds. When a toxin is injected in small amount into 
the body, certain chemical changes are set up, and there is soon 
formed a so-called antitoxin which neutralizes or inactivates the 
toxin. Similarly, the action of enzymes upon the tissues of the 
living body is effected by the secretion of anti-enzymes, and the in- 
jection of foreign proteins into the body may be followed by the 
manufacture of a " precipitin " which will precipitate that particular 
protein and no other. This specific action is characteristic of enzymes 
and toxins as well as of proteins. In view of the fact that enzymes 
and toxins are, like proteins, the products of living cells, it may not 
be strange that this similarity is found. However, we are not able 
to say that enzymes are protein in character, but rather that they 
are found in association with proteins. The purest enzymes yet 
prepared do not give protein reactions. Moreover, mineral salts 
seem essential for their action. 

We may explain the mechanism of fermentation and putrefac- 
tion changes on the basis of the enzymes, produced by the inciting 
organisms, for in recent years it has been shown that the enzymes, 
carefully prepared and fed from living cells, will carry on the same 
changes with almost mathematical precision. In yeast, for example, 
Biichner found within the cells an enzyme which could only be 
extracted by grinding with fine sand and subjecting to enormous 



Aru. Jour. Pharm. ) 

February, 1915. J 



The Function of Enzymes. 



6 7 



pressure, but which, when thus obtained, produced alcohol and carbon 
dioxide from sugar in exact accordance to the chemical equation 
which had long been used to represent the fermentation. Thus it 
was shown that intra-cellular enzymes exist, and we now believe that 
many processes taking place in living cells — perhaps all the processes 
— are the results of enzyme activity. 

Since the chemical nature of enzymes is so largely unknown, 
we can classify them only by their action on various compounds. 
It is possible, however, to group them into the four classes of hy- 
drolyzing, or causing the addition of water to certain substances. 
Most enzymes acting on carbohydrates are of this class. So also 
are those that affect fats, and the majority of those producing known 
proteolytic changes. These are best represented in the processes of 
digestion. A second group are the Zymase, or those producing the 
splitting of bodies into simpler cleavage products without any hy- 
dration. The alcoholic fermentation is the best known of this class. 

The remaining two classes are the oxidizing and reducing en- 
zymes, producing the types of change implied. Of the former, the 
production of vinegar is a familiar example, alcohol being oxidized 
to acetic acid by an oxidase produced by the acetic bacteria. Such 
familiar changes as the darkening of freshly-cut surfaces of fruits 
(apples) or the quick change of color when mushrooms and toad- 
stools are broken, also belong to this category. The reduction 
processes are of enormous variety in nature, both in plant and animal 
life. While typically distinguished by the reduction of hydrogen 
peroxide to water and oxygen, these Katalases, as they are called, 
may also reduce sulphates, nitrates, and various coloring matters, as 
well as other compounds. Upon the activity of enzymes may depend 
all the complex series of changes, oxidations, reductions, synthetic 
and analytic changes which characterize the processes of growth and 
decay, renovation and destruction in the cell and in tissues. The 
phenomenon on intra-cellular fermentation seems to be closely linked 
with enzymic activity, and the building up and breaking down of 
protoplasm itself is intimately connected with intra-cellular changes 
and energy liberation. 

There is reason to believe that some enzyme actions are like 
organic chemical reactions, reversible. Thus, maltase will split 
maltose into two moleculars of dextrose under the ordinary condi- 
tions of action. If, however, we add maltase to concentrated dextrose 



68 



The Function of Enzymes. 



\ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, i915. 



solutions a small amount of maltose (or isomaltose, a similar sugar) 
will be formed, the reaction proceeding until a certain equilibrium 
is established. This has not been demonstrated for all enzymes, and 
some eminent authorities divide enzymes into two classes, only one 
of which is catalytic and capable of synthesizing as well as splitting 
substances, while in the other no trace of synthesis has been observed. 

On the subject of the origin of enzymes and the causes stimulat- 
ing their activity many interesting observations have been made. 
Some enzymes are produced by cells in such form as to require no 
further aid to render them active. Others require the presence of 
a specific substance known as an activator. The pepsin of the 
stomach is produced by the cells of the gastric glands as a zymogen 
called pepsinogen, which, under the influence of the hydrochloric 
acid produced at the time the stomach is functioning, becomes changed 
to pepsin. We do not know how the enzyme and the acid are asso- 
ciated, but we know that the latter is necessary for the production of 
pepsin and also for its action. Bayliss has described another instance 
in which the activator itself, enterokinase, acts as an enzyme upon the 
zymogen, trypsinogen, thus producing trysin, but without entering 
into the actual formation of the finished enzyme — trypsin. If this 
view is correct, we have, in effect, one enzyme bringing a second into 
existence. In other instances, activation is effected by metals, as in 
the laccase, the oxidizing enzyme of the lac tree of Asia, which re- 
quires manganese ; or by salts, such as phosphates, as in certain al- 
coholic fermentations. 

In spite of the apparent lack of exact knowledge of the composi- 
tion of enzymes and of all their activities, we find in this group of 
substances agents which are of direct and certain application to 
industrial processes. Bread-making, brewing, cheese-making, certain 
phases of tanning, as well as the preparation of lacquers and castor 
oil, are a few of these applications. 

Here is a field of great promise and infinite interest, sure to 
yield results if investigated patiently and consistently by the scientist 
who combines a deep knowledge of organic chemistry with an in- 
timate acquaintance with cell behavior and activity, and this field 
of bio-chemistry is sure to find greater favor in the immediate 
future. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. j 



A Pilgrimage to Briinn. 



69 



A PILGRIMAGE TO BRUNN. 1 

By Dr. George H. Shull, Station for Experimental Evolution, of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, Cold Spring Harbor, L. I. 

Before me on the wall of my study hangs a little clock of old- 
fashioned design, its three-inch enamelled dial set in a small square 
of pressed brass borne on a single ebonized stave, the pendulum 
and cylindrical brass weights attached to long, thin cords hanging 
free below. A visitor's attention is at once arrested by this clock 
because its design is unlike that of any modern American time- 
piece, and because its very simplicity and unpretentiousness sug- 
gest that it must have a history. 

This rather obvious inference is correct, for this little clock 
once hung on the chamber wall of a man to whose memory the 
scientific men of all nations joined, in 19 10, in erecting a beautiful 
white marble statue in Briinn, Austria, the capital city of the prov- 
ince of Moravia. This man was Johann Gregor Mendel, an Augus- 
tinian monk, abbot of the old Monastery or " Konigskloster " of 
Briinn, who, by a careful study of garden peas during eight years, 
discovered the key to the age-long riddle of heredity ; and this little 
clock is a memento of my visit to Briinn, given to me by the present 
abbot, Mendel's successor, Father Salesius Barcina (pronounced 
Barsena). 

The life of Mendel presents one of the tragic romances in scien- 
tific history, for, after making his great discovery and after pub- 
lishing in the archives of the local scientific society a complete dis- 
cussion of those laws of heredity which are now known as Mendel's 
laws, his paper lay for more than thirty years unknown to those who 
were sufficiently interested in Jhe study of heredity and evolution 
to have appreciated their value and to have extended their applica- 
bility throughout the entire universe of plants and animals, includ- 
ing man, as has been done in the most complete manner during the 
last twelve years. Long after the patient, industrious, clear-sighted 
investigator had passed away in obscurity, three other men, working 
independently, simultaneously rediscovered the same laws, and, 
fortunately for the cause of justice, at the same time discovered and 
brought from its obscure hiding place Mendel's forgotten memoir. 
Thus it is that the only real laws of heredity yet known bear the 



1 Reprinted from The Antiochian, vol. 2, No. 8. 



70 



A Pilgrimage to Briinn. 



t Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1915. 



name of their original discoverer, Gregor Mendel, though he died 
in 1884 wholly unconscious of the esteem and homage the whole 
world would one day bestow upon him. 

Having myself had a share in establishing the truth of Mendel's 
laws and in demonstrating their applicability to different classes of 
organisms, it was but natural that Briinn should appeal to me as a 
Mecca when, in 1908, I was given the opportunity to visit the vari- 
ous plant-breeding establishments and experimental students of 
heredity in Europe. As no experimental work is now being carried 
on at Briinn, my sole motive in going there was the motive which 
actuates all true pilgrims — a desire to tread the ground made sacred 
by the labors of a man of heroic mould who has performed a great 
service in the cause of truth and humanity. 

It was early morning of the 5th of November, 1908, when I left 
the Victoria Hotel, Dresden, and hastened to the magnificent Bahn- 
hof, or station, to take the train for Briinn, and it was already too 
dark to see clearly the character of the country we were passing 
through when I landed at my destination in the evening. It was in 
many respects a delightful trip, as we followed the course of the 
beautiful Elbe River as far as Prag, Austria, and then cut across 
the water-shed nearly due eastward into the valley of a small trib- 
utary of the Danube, thus providing a wide diversity of scenery to 
feast the traveller's eyes, and prevent the long journey from becom- 
ing unduly monotonous. 

I had heard so often of the " obscurity " of the city in which 
Mendel had lived and worked, and in the Annals of whose scientific 
society he had published the account of his researches, that I was 
not prepared to find Briinn a busy city of a hundred thousand inhab- 
itants, and so full of high schools, colleges, and other institutions 
of learning that it took me a half <iay to find a particular Royal 
Technical High School of which I had unfortunately forgotten a 
part of the distinctive title. At this High School I was to meet the 
Professor of Botany, Doctor Hugo litis, the secretary of a com- 
mittee (of which I also was a member) which was making prepara- 
tion for the erection of a suitable memorial to Mendel — a work 
which has since been consummated, as already mentioned. I had 
communicated with Doctor litis, and was depending upon him to 
escort me to the Monastery and act as guide. When, after a weary- 
ing search from one High School to another, until no less than six 
had been visited in vain, I at last arrived at my goal in the old part 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1915. J 



A Pilgrimage, to Briinn. 



7i 



of the city, where the " Zweite Konigliche und Kaiserliche Tech- 
nische Hochschule " faces the Klosterplatz, a small public square 
enclosed on two sides by the very object of my visit, the Monastery 
of Alt-Briinn. 

A tall steel fence set on a- stone base encloses the Monastery 
grounds from the public square, and while the outside of the en- 
closure was entirely barren except for a few small trees, under 
which were hitching posts and rails, the Monastery yard was planted 
to shrubbery set in a well-kept lawn traversed by smooth, hard 
gravel walks. In company with Dr. litis I entered the grounds and 
slowly approached the well-built stone Monastery and its beauti- 
fully proportioned Gothic chapel. The Monastery is an oblong 
building, three stories high, the first story being constructed like a 
basement except for its unusual height, and the third story is en- 
closed by a roof, the light being furnished by a dozen little triangu- 
lar dormer windows on either side, and by a large skylight in the 
top. Over each of the second-story windows is cut an ornamental 
scroll, this being the only ornamentation which relieves the other- 
wise severe plainness of the cloister. 

Upon presenting ourselves at the convent door we were con- 
ducted by a servant to the reception room on the second floor to 
await the appearance of the abbot, Father Barcina. In due time the 
Father came, and I was introduced as one who is devoting his 
life to the kind of work that Mendel did, and this introduction was 
an open sesame to all the interesting features of the Monastery 
which could be in any close way associated with the life and work 
of Mendel. 

Father Barcina is a middle-aged man of rather stout build, 
round-faced, with ruddy complexion and a kindly expression. His 
greeting was most cordial, and, as it was already a little past noon, 
. he inquired whether I could dine without meat (it being Friday), 
and, when assured that I generally do so with pleasure, he invited 
me to be the guest of the house for dinner. But a few minutes 
elapsed before dinner was announced and we descended to the first 
floor or basement, to the dining-room. This is a long room with 
high ceiling, well lighted. by a row of windows on one side. Walls 
and ceiling are absolutely devoid of all decoration. In the centre 
of the room and extending nearly its whole length was a long, 
U-shaped table with chairs arranged along the outside of the U, 
the inside providing a free passage-way for the waiters who served 



72 



A Pilgrimage to Brilnn. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm e 

\ February, 1915. 



the meals. In the dining-room, when we entered it, were over 
twenty monks assembled, all dressed in long black gowns, their hair 
cut short and crowns shaven. Father Barcina took his place at the 
centre of the U, placing me on his right and Doctor litis on his left, 
the monks then arranging themselves along the sides. After a short 
grace spoken by Father Barcina a simple but bounteous meal was 
served. Eatables and drinkables of various kinds were there in 
abundance, but, being a teetotaler, I was permitted to devote my 
attention chiefly to the former. After the meal was finished, all 
stood while a lengthy responsive thanksgiving service was chanted, 
one long, thin, hollow-eyed monk taking the solo part, the rest 
responding in unison, making the great hall resound with their 
sonorous voices. This was all in Latin, of course, and, as I had been 
forgetting in eleven years what I had learned of Latin at Antioch 
in as many weeks, few of the words were intelligible to me, but the 
fervent expressions and the music belonged to that universal lan- 
guage which is neither learned nor forgotten ; they were understood. 

After dinner in company with the abbot and several other 
monks, we made a tour of the buildings and grounds. Several of 
the reception rooms have been purposely kept essentially in the con- 
dition in which they were when occupied by Mendel, even to hav- 
ing his chess-board resting open on a small table and arranged ready 
for his favorite game. A second favorite recreation was bowling, 
and the monks pointed out on the walls of the bowling-alley pen- 
cilled scores which they declared had been placed there by the 
former prelate. On the third floor, which is occupied by an exten- 
sive library containing many very old books, Mendel's telescope 
still stood on the ledge of one of the small dormer windows, for it 
must be remembered that Mendel's scientific interests were not 
narrowly limited to the problems of heredity, but he studied sun- 
spots, and made important contributions to meteorology as well, 
faithfully collecting for many years the first climatological data for 
that section of the world. The splendid results of his investigations 
in heredity tend to obscure the importance of his work in other 
lines. Just beside the Monastery is the little garden spot in which 
the classic pea-experiments were performed, still enclosed by a picket 
fence, but not now used as a garden. On a high terrace back of 
the chapel is a row of bee-houses, long since unoccupied and fallen 
into decay, in which Mendel was also attempting to carry on experi- 
ments in heredity, but of which no detailed account has yet been 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1915. J 



A Pilgrimage to B rutin. 



73 



found. Nearby is the shelter in which were kept the weather- 
recording instruments so faithfully used almost up to the day of 
Mendel's death, and so completely neglected during the quarter 
century which has elapsed since. Below the terrace, but still in the 
rear of the chapel, several pear trees were pointed out which were 
selected seedlings of much merit, the selection having been made 
by Mendel. 

It was with much interest that I examined Mendel's micro- 
scope, a small compound microscope without rack-and-pinion ad- 
justment, but with a sliding tube to be simply operated by hand. A 
number of microscopic slides made by Mendel were also carefully 
examined to see whether possibly their maker might not have known 
something more of modern microscopic methods than could or- 
dinarily be expected, for in recent years the development of micro- 
scopic technique has enabled cytologists to discover bodies in the 
cells of plants and animals, whose behavior in the germ-cells accords 
exactly with the observed behavior of unit-characters in Mendelian 
inheritance. It is now generally believed that these bodies — the 
chromosomes — are the producers of hereditary qualities. Not the 
slightest evidence was found, however, that Mendel could have 
anticipated the more recent discoveries regarding the structure of 
the living cell, though his inferences from the breeding of peas give 
an accurate picture of what has since been fully demonstrated by 
observation. His microscopic slides contained only the simplest 
objects, such as the epidermis stripped from the stems of plants, 
petals, trichomes, the feet and wings of a fly, etc. One could not 
fail to be impressed while examining these simple objects, and the 
modest instruments which Mendel had at his command, that great- 
ness lies within the human spirit and not in elaborate equipment. 

In the parlor of the Abbey hangs a splendid life-sized oil paint- 
ing of Mendel in his official robes, with mitre and crozier beside 
him. This painting is of such excellence that I secured the privilege 
of taking a photographic copy of it. Mendel is shown here, as in 
all the photographs of him which are extant, as a man of sturdy 
physique, with strong, handsome, square-set face, firm but sensitive 
mouth, a straight and shapely, rather pugnacious nose, strong but 
not too large, a prominent forehead and brow, and very clear, dark 
eyes that seem capable of penetrating to the very centre of whatever 
they look at. His was obviously a harmonious organization, char- 
acterized by great strength both of intellect and will, with keen 



74 



A Pilgrimage to Bri'mn. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ February, 1915. 



powers of analysis, indomitable courage, and unswerving devotion 
to whatever task he undertook. These were the qualities that led 
him to analyze the problems of heredity on the basis of single char- 
acteristics, and which led him (quite unlike all previous students of 
the phenomena of hybridization) to continue his studies on the sim- 
plest possible material until the problems zvere solved, though it 
required seven years of close application and painstaking labor. 
The same characteristics probably cost him the satisfaction of see- 
ing, before he died, the triumph which, by fortunate accident, has 
come to his work two decades after his death ; for about two years 
after the publication of his great work he was elected to the Prelacy 
of the Monastery, and his time and attention were thenceforth 
absorbed with heavy administrative duties, and his investigations 
in the field of heredity came to an end. The intensity of his devo- 
tion to the problems of his institution thus prevented his following 
up his first report with others which would have sooner or later 
attracted the attention of other students. 

As we proceeded on our tour of inspection, Father Barcina 
told me of this little clock which still hung on the chamber wall 
where it had been placed by Mendel, and said that when I departed 
he would give it to me as an " Andenken" of my visit. Such care 
had been obviously taken to preserve the relics of Mendel's exist- 
ence and work at the Monastery that I feared I might be misunder- 
standing the Father's rather swift-moving German, but when he 
had repeated the statement and sent one of his brethren to pack it 
up for me, I knew that I had not mistaken his intention. Thus it 
is that I have on my study wall this little alarm-clock which may 
many times have wakened Mendel to an early-morning competition 
with the bees in hybridization experiments on the peas in his gar- 
den. I have permitted it to awaken me in the same manner, and it 
has also assisted in keeping awake the enthusiasm which must sus- 
tain the long-continued effort necessary to the solution of evolu- 
tionary problems. 

Before taking my departure we also spent a few moments in 
the chapel which is attached to the Monastery by a short covered 
passage. This is said to be the most beautiful small chapel in cen- 
tral Europe. It is built of gray stone in Gothic style in the form of 
a cross, is splendidly harmonious in its proportions, and is not 
spoiled by over-decoration. The groups of statuary overlooking 
the apse are of real artistic merit as well as of allegorical signif- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. / 



A Pilgrimage 4o Brilnn. 



75 



icance, and so also are the large stained-glass windows. There is 
none of that cheap and tawdry over-display which spoils so many 
European chapels. 

With many expressions of mutual pleasure in my visit, I took 
leave of Father Barcina, and, bearing my precious little " Andenken" 
I went in company with Doctor litis to the rooms of the Natural 
History Society, where, in 1865, Mendel read the account of his 
experiments with peas. The room in which the scientific meetings 
are held is a plain second-floor room with simple seats and desks, 
resembling somewhat an ordinary school-room. Doctor litis en- 
deavored to find a copy of the report of that momentous meeting, to 
present to me, but the very limited supply had doubtless been 
exhausted. He then accompanied me to the station, where I took 
train about 4 p.m. for Vienna, feeling that my day in Briinn had 
been well worth all my effort. * 

In recognition of his great service to science, and regretful that 
this service should have been so long unknown and unappreciated, 
the biologists of the whole world united in 1910 in erecting in the 
public square beside the Konigskloster a marble statue to the mem- 
ory of Gregor Mendel. This statue is of heroic size and represents 
Mendel in his priestly robes standing before a wall against which 
pea vines are growing. On the pedestal are the kneeling forms of 
a man and woman clasping hands to symbolize marriage and human 
heredity, and the words " To the Nature-Student P. Gregor Mendel, 
1822-1884. Erected by friends of science." At the same time 
a memorial volume was issued containing Mendel's original memoirs 
and fourteen papers by investigators who are at the present time 
engaged in following out the lines of work suggested by those me- 
moirs. The contributions to this volume belong to seven nations 
and have been written in three different languages, thus bearing 
witness to the present widespread and eager interest in the work so 
well begun by a keen-minded Moravian monk more than fifty years 
ago. The name of Mendel will soon be as familiar a household 
word as that of Darwin, and as knowledge of the laws of heredity 
becomes generally diffused his name will be revered as a benediction 
to' the human race. 



7 6 



Current Literature. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1915. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

The Friedmann Treatment for Tuberculosis. 

The furor that attended the introduction of Friedmann's agent 
for the cure of tuberculosis has passed away. The nostrum, which 
bids fair to be one of the best sellers, is not on the American market. 
The history of these occurrences is interesting and offers sugges- 
tions well worth the thoughtful consideration of the pharmaceutical 
profession. 

In Bulletin No. 99 of the Hygienic Laboratory of the United 
States Public Health Service, under date of October, 1914, Anderson 
and Stimson report the results of their investigations of the Fried- 
mann treatment of tuberculosis, and draw the following conclusions : 

" The claims made by Dr. Friedmann for his method of treating 
tubercular infections are, in brief, that, by means of injections of a 
living acid-fast organism, harmless of itself, he is able to cure cases 
of tuberculosis, pulmonary or otherwise, which have not already 
advanced to that hopeless stage where death is imminent. From the 
manner of presenting these claims and from the fact that successes 
only and not failures are reported, the reader of these claims is bound 
to assume that such results are the rule ; in other words, that a sov- 
ereign remedy for tuberculosis has at length been discovered, and 
incidentally that a method has been devised for the administration 
of living acid-fast organisms which avoids abscess formation, a com- 
plication which has hitherto limited their employment. 

" The results of the investigation here reported do not confirm the 
claims made by Dr. Friedmann. We find, in brief, that the prepara- 
tion used by him is not strictly devoid of dangerous properties of 
itself, still less so when injected into tuberculous subjects ; that the 
favorable influencing of tuberculous processes by his methods is cer- 
tainly not the rule, and that if we are to ascribe to the Friedmann 
treatment the improvement noted in a few cases, we are equally bound 
to impute to it the serious retrogression observed in other cases ; and, 
finally, that the phenomenon of abscess formation has not been 
avoided by Dr. Friedmann's methods. 

" We find that the organism used by Dr. Friedmann differs in 
important cultural characteristics from any heretofore recognized 
tubercle bacillus. 

" The subcutaneous and intramuscular inoculation of animals 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
February, 1915. / 



Current Literature. 



77 



with the Friedmann organism caused the formation of abscess in 
over 25 per cent, of the animals treated. 

" The treatment of animals with th^ Friedmann organism — rab- 
bits and guinea-pigs — either before or subsequent to infection with 
virulent tubercle bacilli, is followed, as a rule, by an increased sus- 
ceptibility to the disease. 

" Inoculation of monkeys with the Friedmann culture did not 
show either curative or protective action in those animals against 
tuberculosis. 

" The claim of Dr. F. F. Friedmann to have originated a specific 
cure for tuberculosis is not substantiated by our investigation. 

" The claim of Dr. F. F. Friedmann that the inoculation of per- 
sons and animals with his organism is without harmful possibilities 
is disproved." 

The above quoted conclusions, emanating from the source they do, 
are accepted as unimpeachable evidence of the properties of Fried- 
mann's agent and the impropriety of Friedmann's treatment for 
tuberculosis. The broad scope of the investigations reported in Bulle- 
tin 99, the laborious thoroughness and scientific skill, the unpreju- 
diced attitude of mind with which they were executed is obvious 
throughout the monograph. It will serve as a most valuable guide 
to those engaged in any line of research. It is an inspiration to 
honest, efficient, unselfish service ; a monument to the integrity and 
value of the United States Public Health Service. 

The investigation included a critical study of the numerous pub- 
lished statements of Dr. Friedrich Franz Friedmann ; the observation 
of 94 patients before, during, and after treatment by Dr. Friedmann ; 
numerous tests of the effect of the agent upon guinea-pigs, rabbits, 
and monkeys, and an extensive bacteriological study of the spurious 
specific. This work, so important and extensive, is reported in clear, 
simple language, understandable to any layman, in 58 small pages — 
quite a feat in itself. 

We will all enjoy reading Bulletin 99 and will be glad to learn 
just what Friedmann's agent is. From its perusal we gain much 
valuable collateral information. In the humble opinion of the writer, 
the most significant facts to be gleaned from it are these : Congress 
passed a law for the control of the importation and sale of serums, 
viruses, and similar biologic products used in the prevention and cure 
of the diseases of man. The Secretary of the Treasury exercises this 



78 



Correspondence. 



jAm. Jour. Pharru. 
\ February, 1915. 



control. He bases his activities in these matters upon the findings 
and opinions of the Public Health Service. 

The Friedmann cure, on account of its character, came under 
the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Treasury. Therefore the 
Public Health Service investigated and disclosed the true character 
and effect of Friedmann's agerit. As a result, it cannot be sold to any 
appreciable extent in this country ; the charlatan cannot use this agent 
to quicken the hopes of victims of the white plague, extract their cash, 
and finally cast them into blackest despair, more complete poverty, 
and accentuated wretchedness. Pharmacists are delivered from a 
willing or unwilling prostitution of their profession without any finan- 
cial loss, eventually a financial gain. This all reminds us there are 
many nostrums, of virulence and ill-effect greater than the Fried- 
mann treatment, foisted upon the pharmaceutical profession and 
American public, to the detriment of both. Nostrums prosper in 
their nefarious trade because Congress has not provided for the 
proper control of them. 

Each new spurious cure placed upon the market is a vampire that 
degrades and reduces the financial profits of the pharmacists; a wolf 
that gnaws the vitals, mutilates the body, or destroys the minds of 
those who take it. When the pharmaceutical profession in America 
cooperate in an intelligent manner, Congress will provide for the 
same treatment of all spurious cures as that administered to the 
Friedmann agent. 

John A. Roddy. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 
In Aid of Belgian Pharmacists. 1 

Amsterdam, November, 27, 1914. 

Various Belgian apothecaries have been brought into great diffi- 
culties on account of the war. Attempts have been made, here and 
in foreign countries, to provide those who have been compelled to 
flee from their country with a temporary working sphere. With 
this, however, those who went away and those who could remain in 
their fatherland are not helped in the long run. 

When the destroyed house must now be again built up, when lost 
stock must be replenished, when life must again be infused into a 

1 Translation by Dr. A. W. Miller, Corresponding Secretary, Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 

February, 1915. j 



Correspondence. 



79 



paralyzed business, then money, and perhaps much money, is neces- 
sary. 

It is not possible for us Netherland apothecaries to provide de- 
cisive help with our own resources. Now, it is, however, possible 
that we, by means of our example, can open the hearts and hands 
of our colleagues in those lands that have been spared from the 
horrors of the war. 

There can naturally be no consideration of any plan for us to 
extend aid by means of giving alms. If we ourselves were in similar 
circumstances, we should not wish to accept these. We now present 
to you, in the name of a number of Amsterdam apothecaries, the 
following proposition:" 

We Netherland apothecaries begin with declaring ourselves ready, 
so that our own country may remain spared from the direct con- 
sequences of the war, to pledge our Association in the sum of 50 
gilders — or more — to be placed at the disposal of the Chief Direction, 
with the stipulation that the Chief Direction places the money thus 
obtained as an advance loan, without interest, at the disposal of a 
commission formed of Belgian colleagues, in order to do with it 
that which this commission may deem to be the most desirable for 
the resurrection of Belgian pharmacy. 

The chance is very great that this money will not be repaid, or 
only after a very long time. There is, however, also the possibility 
that the money will be returned within a reasonable time, in which 
case the Chief Direction is to return the money in its entirety, in 
divided portions or in instalments. 

In that case a whole or a partial restitution to those who have 
advanced money should become possible, and in the beginning such 
a restitution must be placed in prospect. 

In an assembly, attended by a comparatively large number of 
Amsterdam apothecaries, it was resolved to direct this circular to 
you, without taking counsel with the above-named Chief Direction, 
in consideration of the following: 

Should our plan miscarry, and there were pessimists among us 
who held a less favorable impression of the readiness of our col- 
leagues for making offerings, then nothing would be lost in this effort 
but an illusion on our part ; if, however, the Chief Direction takes this 
matter in hand, then the good name of the Netherland apothecaries 
towards our Belgian colleagues and towards foreign countries will 
not have been endangered by a failure, and we must then again en- 



8o 



Correspondence. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ February, 1915. 



deavor, in an unofficial manner, to find some other method of secur- 
ing help. We do not by any means conceal the fact that many 
Netherland apothecaries in these times are likewise laboring under 
great difficulties. Contributions have also been asked of them as 
citizens of our land in order to furnish support for our own fellow- 
countrymen, who are themselves in sorrow and trouble, but we hope 
that in these days not only cool reason may speak, but also the heart. 
The inclination to give somewhat more than seems to be defensible 
on the score of the intellect fortunately opens many purses. And 
so we live also in the expectation that, in spite of all the pessimists, 
the Chief Direction will in this manner obtain control of over 20,000 
gilders. Undoubtedly, however, there are amongst us those who, 
being in better circumstances for so doing, will demonstrate their 
sympathy for the plan by multiplying the asked-for, interest-free 
advance to 50 gilders. 

Only fancy, dear colleague, that our Chief Direction could write 
to the administrations of the Apothecaries' Associations in Denmark, 
Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, the United States of North 
America, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and other States of South America, 
where they are everywhere filled with earnest compassion for our 
southern neighbors, that the Netherland Company for the Promo- 
tion of Pharmacy places 40,000 francs, perhaps even 50,000 francs, at 
the disposal of our Belgian colleagues as an advance loan, without 
interest. Our Chief Direction can at the same time then with entire 
propriety, and, according to our conviction, with success, invite others 
to work along according to their ability. Counting then the heads of 
those who practise pharmacy in the neutral lands, then every 50 
francs that we pay in will become 1000 francs, and our 50,000 francs 
will become 1,000,000. Let not the pessimists among us have their 
way, but have the subscription blanks, which are printed next to this 
circular, be filled out without exception, for this loan without interest, 
and let them be in the possession of one of the undersigned before 
December 1. . 

L. A. Bouvy, Prinsengracht 578. 

H. Th. De Groot, Rinnen Rautammerstraat 13. 

J. C. Filedtok, Nassau Rade 357. 

J. Haak, Ferdinand Bolstraat 11. 

M. Polak, Weesperstraat 106. 

J. F. Suyver, N. Z. Voorburgwal 137. 

P. Van der Wielen, Willemsparkweg 209. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. J 



Book 'Reviews. 



81 



Subscription Blank for a Loan Without Interest in Behalf of the 
Belgian Apothecaries. 

The Undersigned , . Address 

obligates himself to place the sum of times fifty 

gilders at the disposal of the Chief Direction of the Netherlands 
Company for the Promotion of Pharmacy, so that an advance loan, 
without interest, may be given to a Commission for placing the 
Belgian Apothecaries in condition after the war to again build up 
their business. This promise becomes invalid in case the Nether- 
lands also become involved in the war. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Applied and Economic Botany. Especially adapted for the 
use of students in technical schools, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and 
medical colleges, and also as a book of reference for chemists, food 
analysts, and students engaged in the morphological and physiological 
study of plants. By Henry Kraemer, Ph.B. (in Chemistry), Ph.M. 
(in Pharmacy), Ph.D. (in Botany) ; Professor of Botany and 
Pharmacognosy and Director of the Microscopical Laboratory in the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; member of the Executive Com- 
mittee of Revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States ; cor- 
responding member of the Societe de Pharmacie de Paris, etc. 
Illustrated, with 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures. Pub- 
lished by the author, 145 North Tenth Street, Philadelphia. 

This text-book of applied and economic botany is a volume singu- 
larly in harmony with the drift of thought of practical workers and 
decidedly in advance of present-day practices in schools and 
colleges. Even a casual survey of the volume impresses one with the 
impracticability of reflecting an adequate appreciation of the book 
in the limited space that can be devoted to a review in a current 
journal, and nothing more will be attempted at this time than the 
.recording of a few thoughts on the probable uses of the work in 
the near future. To a man interested in observing the trend of com- 
mercial pursuits it is becoming more evident that a thorough knowl- 
edge of botany is essential to the practical worker, and that an in- 
timate knowledge of vegetable cells and cell-contents is of value not 
alone to the pharmacist and the medical man, but also to the chemist, 



$2 



Book Reviews. 



fAni. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1915. 



the agriculturist, the engineer, and the manufacturer. Botany as an 
applied and economic science is only now beginning to be recognized, 
and the very near future will emphasize the commercial importance 
and economic value of practically applied botany in the manufacture, 
sale, and use of the food that we eat, the clothes that we wear, and 
the nature and content of the houses in which we live. 

It goes without saying that plants and plant products enter into 
our everyday life to such an extent that we could not exist without 
them, and it is self-evident, therefore, that if we are to make ma- 
terial progress in the ways of benefiting humankind it will be neces- 
sary to bring botanical training and knowledge to bear on the prob- 
lems involved in the production and manufacture of plant materials 
in ways not hitherto thought of. 

Even at the present time an extended knowledge of botany and 
a very thorough preparation in certain phases of botanical work are 
required to assist the pharmacist, the chemist, and the agriculturist 
to meet and solve the many problems that arise in their everyday 
occupation, and the author of the book before us very properly points 
out that many of the present-day problems that are held to be chem- 
ical, and which are handed to the chemist for solution, are in reality 
of a botanical character, and could be solved more promptly and 
more economically by a properly-trained botanist. 

This text-book on applied and economic botany consists of a 
total of 806 large octavo pages, 30 of which are devoted to a three- 
column index, including some 6000 titles and more than 7000 refer- 
ences. The illustrations are in many respects unique, being largely 
original and particularly well adapted to illustrate the material in 
the text. 

The book is divided into seven chapters. The more important of 
these chapters are devoted to a consideration of: (1) Principal 
Groups of Plants; (2) Cell-contents and Forms of Cells; (3) Outer 
and Inner Morphology of the Higher Plants. More than one-half of 
the book is devoted to the discussion of Cell-contents, Forms of .Cells, 
and the Outer and Inner Morphology of the Higher Plants. A care- 
ful study of the two chapters involved should serve to furnish a 
well-balanced fund of information for the practical worker or 
student. 

The remaining chapters of the book are devoted to: (4) Botan- 
ical Nomenclature; (5) Classification of Angiosperms Yielding 
Economic Products; (6) Cultivation of Medicinal Plants; (7) Mi- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. J 



Book Reviews. 



83 



croscopic Technique and Reagents. The latter chapter is distinctly 
unique and one of the best in the book, as it presents in a compact 
yet sufficiently comprehensive way the information needed by the 
isolated worker to give him a good grasp on the technique necessary 
for the microscopic study of cells and cell-contents. In addition, 
much valuable information on microscopical technique is to be found 
wherever needed throughout the text-book. This is especially true 
of the chapter on cell-contents and forms of cells. 

This book must be recognized as being in the nature of a pioneer 
in a field that in the very near future must receive the recognition 
and attention that is properly due it. As a pioneer in this important 
field the book deserves recognition on the part of all who are inter- 
ested, directly or indirectly, in the economic application of a practical 
knowledge of botany to the everyday needs of the human race. 

M. I. W. 

Compte Rendu de XIme Congres International de Phar- 
macie. Tenu a La Haye-Scheveningue du 17 au 21 Septembre, 
1913. La Haye, De Avondpostdrukkerij, 1913. 

The Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of 
Pharmacy, held at The Hague, Holland, September 17 to 21, 191 3, 
have finally been published in two large octavo volumes, containing a 
total of 1352 pages, 32 of which-are devoted to the index. Many of 
the papers presented at the several sections of the Congress have 
been previously published in pharmaceutical and chemical journals, 
but their collective presentation in the handsome form in which the 
Dutch Pharmaceutical Association finally publishes them will be 
appreciated by all of the members of the Eleventh International 
Congress.. It may be said, without fear of contradiction, that these 
volumes present, perhaps, the most comprehensive and complete 
record of the proceedings of an international congress of pharmacy 
that has been published up to the present time. M. I. W. 

Year-Book of Pharmacy, Comprising Abstracts of Papers Re- 
lating to Pharmacy, Materia Medica, and Chemistry Contributed to 
British and Foreign Journals from July r, 1913, to June 30, 1914, 
with the Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference at 
its Fifty-first Annual Meeting, held in Chester, July 20-23, 1914. 
London, J. and A. Churchill, 7, Great Marlborough Street, 1914. 

This well-known Year-Book of Pharmacy comprises a total of 



84 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharni. 
\ February, 1915. 



513 pages, 306 of which are devoted to abstracts of articles of 
pharmaceutical interest prepared by the editor, J. B. Braithwaite, 
and conveniently arranged under the general headings Chemistry and 
Materia Medica. The articles under the former heading are further 
subdivided under: Alkaloids, Animal Products, Clinical Tests, Col- 
oring Matters, Essential Oils, Fats, Fixed Oils and Waxes, Gluco- 
sides, Sugars and Ferments, Gums, Oleoresins, and Resins, Inorganic 
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry: Unclassified, and Plant Analysis. 
Under Materia Medica we find the headings : New Remedies, New 
Applications of Remedies, Pharmacognosy, Dispensing, Galenical 
Pharmacy, Pharmacopoeia Revision Notes, and Notes and Formulae. 

The report of the Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference occupies 142 pages, and the book is further made avail- 
able for references by a double-column index of 38 pages. Alto- 
gether it is a creditable addition to the stately array of Year-Books 
published by our British confreres, and as a reference book will be 
much appreciated by pharmacists throughout the world. 

M. I. W. 

Units of Weight and Measure. Definitions and Tables of 
Equivalents. Circular of the Bureau of Standards No. 47, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1914. 

As its name suggests, this large octavo circular of 68 pages in- 
cludes definitions of all fundamental units, with the most common 
multiples and submultiples ; also a section calling attention to the 
distinction between the units of weight and measure and the standard 
weights and measures. The greater portion of the circular is devoted 
to tables giving the interrelation of all of the units and the funda- 
mental equivalents from 1 to 999 units. A summary of the present 
status of the international metric system of the United States is 
appended. M. I. W. 

Goldenseal Under Cultivation. By Walter Van Fleet, Physi- 
ologist, Drug-Plant and Poisonous-Plant Investigations, United 
States Department of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin 613. 

This pamphlet of 15 printed pages constitutes a valuable con- 
tribution to the literature relating to the cultivation of drug plants. 
The pamphlet includes an illustrated description of the goldenseal 
plant, a discussion of its propagation, both by root bud propagation 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
February, 1915. J 



Book' Reviews. 



85 



and by seed propagation, and an enumeration of some of the pre- 
cautions to be observed in the cultivation of the plant. The author 
concludes that as a minor money crop goldenseal is well adapted for 
small growers who can meet the special requirements of the plant. 
Ginseng growers who are already equipped for the culture of exacting 
woodland plants may find in goldenseal an admirable side or suc- 
cession crop. Prospective goldenseal growers should study the 
methods adopted by those who have been successful with ginseng 
and plan their equipments accordingly, as goldenseal requires essen- 
tially the same conditions as ginseng, but may be regarded generally 
as a less difficult crop to grow. M. I. W. 

Report of the Chemist, United States Department of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry, Washington, D. C, October i, 
1914. Advance sheets from Annual Reports of the Department of 
Agriculture, 19 14. 

A pamphlet of 10 printed pages, in which the work of the Bureau 
of Chemistry for the year ended June 30, 1913, is succinctly re- 
viewed. Pharmacists will be particularly interested to know that 
" As a part of the work of the Bureau of Chemistry, seeking to 
maintain the standards of the United States Pharmacopoeia in medic- 
inal preparations, a complete study of certain simple household 
remedies was made from every pharmacy in the District of Columbia. 
Much carelessness in compounding by retail pharmacists was dis- 
covered. Except in the District of Columbia and the Territories, 
this type of control devolves upon the State, and not upon the Federal 
Government. It was undertaken by the Bureau in the District of 
Columbia not merely to protect the consumer within the District, 
but also for the purpose of bringing to the attention of State officials 
the condition of simple preparations as often dispensed by the 
pharmacist." 

In connection with the enforcement of the food and drugs act 
and various other kinds of work, a number of analytical methods 
have been studied, including methods for the determination of citric 
acid ; acetanilid and antipyrine in headache mixtures ; nitroglycerin 
in tablets ; papain, pepsin, and certain of the heavy metals occurring 
in insecticide and fungicide preparations. Some of this work has 
been done in cooperation with the Association of Official Agricultural 
Chemists. 



86 Book Reviews. f A ™- Jour - p , h *™- 

( February, 1915. 

Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public 
Health Service of the United States for the Fiscal Year 1914. 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1914. 

This volume of 357 pages embodies a comprehensive report on 
the many and varied operations of the United States Public Health 
Service. The administrative supervision of the work of this service 
is conducted through the seven divisions of the Bureau, as follows : 
(1) Scientific research and sanitation. (2) Foreign and insular 
quarantine and immigration. (3) Domestic (interstate) quaran- 
tine. (4) Sanitary reports and statistics. (5) Marine hospitals and 
relief. (6) Personnel and accounts. (7) Miscellaneous. 

At the close of the fiscal year there were on duty in the Public 
Health Service 46 pharmacists, as follows : Pharmacists of the first 
class, 16; pharmacists of the second class, 24; pharmacists of the- 
third class, 5. 

Much of the work that is of direct interest to pharmacists is done 
in connection with the Hygienic Laboratory, which comes under the 
supervision of the Division of Scientific Research and Sanitation. 
In the Division of Pharmacology of the Hygienic Laboratory con- 
siderable work has been done on the standardization of drugs and 
the study of the action and pharmacological properties of drugs 
Among the publications from this division are the Digest of Com- 
ments on the Pharmacopoeia of the United States and on the 
National Formulary, and the Digest of Laws and Regulations Re- 
lating to the Possession, Use, Sale, and Manufacture of Poisons and 
Habit-forming Drugs. The publication of a number of articles on 
the chemistry, pharmacy, and pharmacology of drugs and related 
materials is also noted. In general, one is impressed by the fact 
that pharmacy and subjects more directly related to the practice of 
pharmacy are receiving increasing attention in work that is directly 
of public health interest. M. I. W. 

Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 98. Digest of Comments 
on the Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America (Eighth 
Decennial Revision) and on the National Formulary (Third Edi- 
tion). For the Calendar Year Ending December" 31, 1913. By 
Murray Gait Motter and Martin I. Wilbert. Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, November, 1914. 

This is the ninth bulletin of the present series of Digests of 
Comments, and represents a comprehensive reflection of the liter- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 

February, 1915. J 



Book -Reviews. 



87 



ature relating to Pharmacopoeial subjects published during the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1913. The bulletin includes a 
total of 518 pages, 125 of which are devoted to general comments on 
the nature and present status of the Pharmacopoeia, and 365 to 
comments on official articles. The preface states that the references 
to the more important articles and monographs are restricted to a 
brief statement of the title or content of the contributions referred 
to, and a consistent effort has been made to avoid even- word or 
phrase not essential to a bare suggestion of the intent of the reporter 
or contributor quoted. 

This restriction is probably imposed because of the compre- 
hensiveness of the material to be presented, but it would appear 
that in connection with quotations from less accessible foreign 
journals, at least, additional space might be devoted to the subject 
matter, so as to make the references something more than a bare 
index. Even as an index, however, these bulletins are of value to 
the laboratory worker in pharmacy, and will tend to prevent un- 
necessary duplication of work and the accompanying waste of time. 

From a practical point of view the material included in this series 
of " Digests " is of value in a variety of ways other than its direct 
value as an aid in revising our official standards. One of these many 
uses is suggested by the following paragraph from the Preface : 

" In this, as in previous bulletins, an effort has been made to in- 
corporate the results of analyses included in the published reports 
of State food and drug commissioners, or officials entrusted with the 
enforcement of State food and drug laws, so as to show the activities 
existing in various parts of the country, as well as the general con- 
ditions in the drug trade and the nature of the products used in the 
treatment of disease as dispensed to the consumer.'' 

The Pharmacopoeia is primarily intended to secure for the con- 
sumer pure and unadulterated drugs, and this reflection of adultera- 
tions or contaminations undoubtedly constitutes an important feature 
of the present series of the Digest of Comments, and is one of which 
the pharmacists of the country should be particularly appreciative. 

Another feature of more than passing interest is embodied in 
the quotations relating to the development of international uni- 
formity in the nature and strength of widely-used and potent medica- 
ments. This subject was liberally discussed at the Eleventh Inter- 
national Congress of Pharmacy, held at The Hague, September 
17-21, 191 3, and many of the papers presented at that time are re- 



88 



Obituaries. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 February, 1915. 



viewed at some length. While it is true that the disturbance that is 
evidenced in Europe at the present time may tend to delay the 
developments of international uniformity in medicines and medicinal 
compounds, the general subject is of such vital importance that it 
can no longer be postponed indefinitely, and agitation relating to it 
may well be continued. 

Pharmacists generally will agree that this bulletin constitutes a 
creditable piece of work and is a contribution of more than passing 
value to the progress of pharmacy. 

Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 99. The Friedmann 
Treatment for Tuberculosis. A report of the Board appointed for 
its investigation. By John F. Anderson and Arthur M. Stimson. 
Washington, Government Printing Office, October, 1914. 

This bulletin of 69 octavo pages presents the final report of the 
United States Public Health Service on the treatment of tuberculosis 
proposed by Dr. Friedrich Franz Friedmann, of Berlin, Germany. 
The authors, in the summary of their laboratory studies, conclude 
that the organism used by Dr. Friedmann is an acid- fast bacillus, 
morphologically similar to the tubercle bacillus. It is relatively but 
not completely avirulent, and apparently may, in very rare cases, 
cause a tubercular process on inoculation. Neither curative nor 
protective action against natural or inoculation tuberculosis was 
shown in monkeys. The claim of Dr. Friedmann to have originated 
a specific cure for tuberculosis is not substantiated by the investiga- 
tion, and the claim that the inoculation of persons and animals with 
this organism is without harmful possibilities is disproved. Copies 
of the publications of the Public Health Service may be secured by 
applying to the " Surgeon General, U. S. Public Health Service, 
Washington, D. C." 

OBITUARIES. 
Edward H. Hance. 

Edward Hance Hance, founder and senior member of Hance 
Brothers & White, Inc., of Philadelphia, died on December 14, 1914, 
at the Germantown Hospital. He was eighty-one years old and had 
been ill for some time. 

Mr. Hance had a long and active career. He was born in the 
Quaker City on November 1, 1833, and received his early education 



A.ni. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. J 



Obituaries. 



89 



at a private school at Gwynedd, Pa. Later he returned to Phila- 
delphia and entered the employ of Gilbert, Wentz & Co., and of 
Charles Ellis, Son & Co., and became a student at the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, from which he was graduated in 1854, the 
subject of his thesis being " Chimaphila umbellata!' He had as his 
classmate the late John Wyeth, both of them destined to become 
important figures in American manufacturing pharmacy. 

In 1855 Mr. Hance engaged in the manufacture of pharmaceutical 
and medicinal products on a large scale, the plant being first located 
near Fourth Street and York Road, in 1857 on Arch Street, and i860 
at 509 North Street. Manufacturing pharmacy was then in its 
infancy. In i860 he formed a co-partnership with Mr. J. Clarkson 
Griffith under the firm name of Hance, Griffith & Co. The business 
of the firm grew rapidly, and in 1867 the plant was moved to Callow- 
hill and Marshall Streets, where it is still located. In 1869 Dr. James 
W. White became associated with the firm, and it became Hance 
Brothers & White, continuing as such until its recent incorporation 
as Hance Brothers & White, Inc. 

Mr. Hance early identified himself with organization work. He 
became a member of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1857, 
and in the same year joined the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, becoming a life member. 

But it was in the work of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange that 
he took the deepest interest. Elected as a member of the Board 
of Directors in 1869, he served as such for several years, and in 
1873 was made president. During the following four years he was 
an active member of the Board of Directors. With Mr. Alexander 
H. Jones and Mr. H. B. Rosengarten, he was most zealous in securing 
protection for the drug and chemical industries of the country and 
promoting their development. He devoted a great deal of time to the 
subjects of mutual fire insurance for manufacturers and whole- 
salers and tax-free alcohol for use in the arts. He rendered especially 
valuable services at the time of the Centennial Exposition in pointing 
out the possibilities of growth of American manufacturing pharmacy. 
To his efforts and skill is credited most largely the widespread ad- 
vertising"that Philadelphia-made pharmaceuticals have received, both 
in this country and abroad. 

In 1878 he was elected treasurer of the Exchange, and was con- 
tinued as such until 1896, when he was, for the second time, made 
president. The following year he was again elected treasurer, and was 



90 



Obituaries. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
{ February, 1915. 



continued in that office until his demise — a total period of service 
as treasurer of thirty-six years. 

He was one of the earliest members of the Union League, but 
resigned some years after the Civil War was over, and was an active 
member of the Philadelphia Board of Trade. He was a prime mover 
in the organization of the "Philadelphia Bourse, being in hearty accord 
with the objects of that organization and actively working to make 
Philadelphia and its manufacturing industries most widely known. 

He took, also, a deep and active interest in the management of 
the Germantown Hospital, of which he was a director for many 
years. 

Mr. Hance was widely esteemed for his many lovable qualities 
of character. " To a large circle of friends," as has been stated, " his 
death has its personal, poignant regret ; to the mercantile and com- 
mercial world it marks the cessation of an active force which was of 
strong influence in the development and upbuilding of a large and 
important business ; while to the community in general it completes 
a career of erTort, and enterprise that was exceptional in its fruitful 
accomplishments and achievements." 

Mr. Hance is survived by two sons — Anthony M. Hance and 
Edward H. Hance, Jr. 

The funeral services were held at the late residence of the de- 
ceased, 104 West Tulpehocken Street, Germantown, Philadelphia, on 
Thursday, December 17, 19 14. 

The services were conducted by Rev. Dr. C. H. Arndt, rector of 
Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, Germantown, and Rev. Dr. 
Samuel J. Upjohn, rector of the Lasher Protestant Episcopal Church, 
Germantown. 

The honorary pallbearers were : William M. Coates, president of 
the Board of Trade; Harry H. Good, of New York; Harry B. 
Rosengarten, president of the Powers- Weightman-Rosengarten Com- 
pany ; Judge William H. Staake, of Common Pleas Court ; Francis D. 
Gowen, General Counsel Pennsylvania Railroad; George E. Bartol, 
president of the Philadelphia Bourse ; Joseph C, Fraley, of Fraley 
& Paul lawyers ; William R. Tucker, secretary and assistant treas- 
urer of the Philadelphia Board of Trade, and Consul for Russia; 
Harry B. French, president of Smith, Kline & French Company ; Dr. 
Richard V. Mattison, president of Keasbey & Mattison Company; 
Richard M. Shoemaker, head of Robert Shoemaker & Co. ; Walter 
V. Smith, president of Valentine H. Smith & Co. ; A. Robinson 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1915. J 



Obituaries. 



91 



Mcllvaine, treasurer of Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Company ; 
Edward H. Long, head of John H. Long & Co. ; Harold E. Gilling- 
ham, broker; Prof. Robert W. Blake, Thomas H. Shoemaker, and 
Harry A. Eveleth. 

J. W. England. " 

William E. Lee. 

William Estell Lee, of Philadelphia, died on July 20, 1914, at 
his home, after several months' illness, of heart trouble, at the age 
of sixty-four years. 

Mr. Lee was born in Woodbury, N. J., of the late Walter B. and 
Martha Lee. Receiving his early education in the public schools 
of that town, he then studied pharmacy with B. F. Carter, of Wood- 
bury. Later he matriculated at the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, graduating therefrom in 1872, the subject of his thesis being 
" Gnaphalium Polycephalum." 

A few years later he opened a drug store at 2337 Brown Street, 
Philadelphia, where he remained for over forty years. 

Mr. Lee showed his devotion to his Alma Mater. For many years 
he had served as a member of its Board of Trustees, and during the 
past college year ( 1913-14) he was president of the Alumni Associa- 
tion, and rendered it very valuable services, especially as chairman of 
the Committee on Membership. He was a member of the P. A. R. D. 
and the N. A. R. D. He joined the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation in 1905. 

He was an ardent Mason. For fifteen years he was treasurer of 
Olivet Lodge, No. 607, A. F. and A. M. He was a member of Har- 
mony Chapter, No. 52, Royal and Select Masters, and Corinthian 
Chasseur Commandery, No. 53, K. T. He was a member also, of 
Marathon Senate, No. 4, O of S. ; Woodbury Lodge of New Jersey, 
I. O. O. F. ; "Goodwill Council," Legion Red Cross, and Crescent 
Chapter 104, O. E. S. 

Mr. Lee was a member of the Olivet Covenant Presbyterian 
Church, and was an earnest worker in the cause of civic reform. 

Since early manhood Mr. Lee took an active part in reform 
politics and civic movements, but only last year could he be induced to 
become a candidate for any office. At the last primary election he 
was the successful nominee for the Pennsylvania Legislature on the 
Washington ticket, Tenth Legislative District. His strength as a 
reform candidate was shown at the last election, when, as a candidate 



9 2 



Obituaries. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1915. 



for Select Councilman in the Fifteenth Ward, he was defeated by 
the " organization " by a small margin only. 

Personally Mr. Lee was genial, warm-hearted, and true to the 
highest ideals. He believed that character was the most important 
thing in life, and that the dollar was only a means to an end. He did 
a man's work and exerted an influence for good that cannot be 
measured, because his deeds will long live after him. Quiet and 
modest, but positive in matters of principle, he practised in life those 
principles of religion and morality which stamped him as a man 
among men ; he brought honor to his craft, and won the respect and 
love of his fellows, hundreds testifying of his aid to them in sickness 
and in trouble. . 

His widow, Nellie Florence Lee, secretary of the Women's Branch 
of the National iVssociation of Retail Druggists and president of 
the Philadelphia Chapter of that organization, with a son, Dr. Walter 
Estell Lee, survives him. 

The funeral was held on Thursday, July 23, at 2 p.m., from his 
late residence, 823 North Fourth Street, the services being conducted 
by Rev. Matthew J. Hyndman, of the Olivet Covenant Presbyterian 
Church, and the officers of the lodge. The interment was at West 
Laurel Cemetery. The pallbearers were : Frank B. Rohrman, presi- 
dent of the Philadelphia Wholesale Drug Company ; William C. 
Neely, representing the Olivet Lodge, A. F. and A. M. ; Samuel C. 
Henry, of the Executive Committee of the National Association of 
Retail Druggists ; Professor Joseph P. Remington, Dean of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; J. W. England, of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and A. J. Kellar, president of the Phila- 
delphia Association of Retail Druggists. The honorary pallbearers 
were the following directors of the Philadelphia Wholesale Drug 
Company: Henry C. Blair, vice-president; O. W. Osterlund, H. 
C. Clapham, Howard E. Siegfried, Russell T. Blackwood, and George 
H. Fehr. In addition, David G. Potts, Frank E. Morgan, Frank 
W. Fluck, and Charles E. King represented the Philadelphia Asso- 
ciation of Retail Druggists, and J. C. Peacock, vice-president, David 
J. Reese, secretary, L. H. Davis, assistant secretary, and F. P. 
Streeper, of the Executive Committee, represented the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association. 

J. W. England. 



A Feb?uar r y P i9i5 m ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



93 



THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Minutes of the Quarterly Meeting. 

The quarterly meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
was held December 28, 1914, at 4 p.m., in the Library. 

In the absence of the President, Howard B. French, on account 
of illness, the Second Vice-president, Joseph L. Lemberger, pre- 
sided. 

Sixteen members were present. 

The minutes of the semi-annual meeting held September 28 were 
read and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for September, October, 
and November were read by the Registrar, J. S. Beetem, and ap- 
proved. 

Professor Kraemer read an abstract of several articles on 
" Courtesy," and commented at length on its value in business. 

Professor Kraemer also read in part an appeal from the pharma- 
cists of Amsterdam, Holland, for the financial aid of the pharmacists 
of the United States. (See page 78.) A discussion followed, 
being participated in by Messrs. Beringer, Wilbert, Poley, and 
Remington, when a motion prevailed to refer the subject to a 
committee of five, and to take a wider range, to include the pharma- 
cists of all the nations now at war. The Chairman appointed Dr. 
A. W. Miller, M. I. Wilbert, Joseph P. Remington, George M. 
Beringer, and Henry Kraemer as the committee. 

Mr. Beringer read a letter from Mr. William G. Greenawalt, of 
the Class of 1886, donating some very old scales, oil bottles, labels, 
and circulars used by his predecessors in his store at Frederick, Md., 
and dating back to 1827. 

The thanks of the College were voted the donor. 
Announcement was made of the death of three members of 
the College since the last meeting, viz., William H. Lacey, died 
September 30 ; Charles L. Eberle, died October 4, and Edward H. 
Hance, died December 14. 

Mr. England said that Mr. Hance was the oldest member in 
point of membership, having joined the College in 1857, and, while 
not active in the affairs of the College, his long and active life in the 
manufacture of medical and pharmaceutical products merited special 
mention, and he moved that the Secretary be requested to convey to 



qj. Minutes of Board of Trustees. / Am Jour. Pharm. 

- , ■ / j I February, 19] o. 

the family an expression of the College's appreciation of his life 
and character. So ordered. 

The Chairman appointed the Committee on Legislation, as fol- 
lows : Theodore Campbell. Warren H. Poley, Joseph P. Remington. 
William L. Clitte, Richard H. Lackey, and Samuel C. Henry. 

C. A. Wiedemann, M.D.. 

Recording Secretary. 



ABSTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF 

TRUSTEES. 

September i ; 1914. — Thirteen members present. The Treasurer 
presented his annual report, which was received and referred to the 
Committee on Accounts and Audit. Committee on Examinations 
reported that the Certificates for Proficiency in Bacteriology were 
finished, and those directed by the Board issued. Committee on An- 
nouncement and Publicity presented a report of the exhibit made 
by the College at the X. A. R. D. Convention. A number com- 
mented favorably upon the exhibit and urged the value to the College 
of making similar exhibits in the future. Committee on Commence- 
ment reported that the Academy of Music had been leased for Tune 
10. 1915. 

The committee appointed to prepare resolutions on the death of 
William E. Lee. a former member of the Board, presented the 
following : 

The Board of Trustees of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
appreciating the highly useful work of William Estell Lee in the 
elevation of his profession, his sterling qualities of manhood and 
valued and faithful services as a member of the Board of Trustees, 
desire to enter this testimonial of the love and affection in which he 
was held by his co-workers. Quiet, modest, and unassuming, positive 
in matters of principle. Mr. Lee was a living example of religion and 
morality. He possessed unusual force of character, added honor to 
his profession, and won the respect and esteem of his co-workers. 
His loss is deeply deplored, and our profound sympathies are ex- 
tended Mrs. Lee in her sorrow and bereavement." 

The resolution was unanimously passed and an engrossed copy 
ordered sent to Mrs. Lee. 

Announcement was made of the recent death of Henry C. Eddy, 



Am T,mr. Pharm.) Minutes of Board of Trustees. OK 

February, 191o. J ' * y*J 

of the Gass of 1859. and a member of the College since 1869. It 
was stated this was the fourth death since the annual meeting. 

October 6, 1914. — Seventeen members present. A communica- 
tion from the Secretary of the College was read reporting the election 
of the following to membership in the Board of Trustees for the 
ensuing three years: George M. Beringer, Joseph W. England, C. 
Mahlon Kline, and for one year ( the unexpired term of William E. 
Lee), Samuel C. Henry. Committee on Instruction read a letter from 
Professor Kraemer recommending William F. Haase. Jr., as a student 
assistant. The recommendation was approved. Committee on Publicity 
presented the resignation of Mr. E. H. Hessler as special representa- 
tive, to take effect November 1. It was accepted with regret. Mr. 
Poley reported that final payment of $168.30 of the Pennsylvania 
Scholarship Fund had been turned over to the College, making the 
total amount $2518.30. Applications for membership were received 
and referred to the Committee on Membership. A letter was read 
from Mrs. William E. Lee expressing appreciation of the resolution 
passed by the College upon the death of her husband. Announcement 
was made of the death of William H. Lacey,'a member of the College 
since 1886, and of Charles L. Eberle. a member since 1867. 

October 13, 1914. — Thirteen members present. The Chair in- 
troduced the new member of the Board. Mr. Samuel C. Henry, who 
expressed his appreciation of the honor, adding that he intended 
taking an active interest in everything for the good of the College. 
Committee on Scholarships reported the award of eleven scholar- 
ships, which was approved by the Board. In connection with this 
report Mr. French read the correspondence between the Secretary 
of the Board of Public Education and the Registrar relating to the 
award of the three scholarships to students from the public schools. 
Their awards were approved. Mr. French read the correspondence 
between the Secretary of the State Pharmaceutical Board and 
Registrar relative to a recent application for examinations, and moved 
that the Registrar write the Secretary. Mr. Walton, that it was the 
desire of the Board to work in hearty accord with the State Pharma- 
ceutical Board. Committee on Examinations reported the name of 
those entitled to receive the Certificates of Proficiency in Chemistry, 
as follows : John Brady Evans, Lloyd Philip Griesemer, Thomas Dan- 
forth Hughes, Paul S. Rogers, Joseph Stein, and moved that certifi- 
cates be granted and the names appear on the program at the next 
commencement. It was so ordered. 



g6 Minutes of Board of Trustees. { February, P i h 9i5 m ' 

November 4, 1914. — Fourteen members present. Committee on 
Library reported the completion of the accessioning of all the books, 
and the work of cataloguing will be commenced. There were a 
number of purchases and gifts during the month. One hundred and 
sixty-three persons used the Library. Committee on Accounts and 
Audit reported having examined the accounts of the Treasurer, 
Registrar, and the American Journal of Pharmacy and found 
them correct. Committee on Examinations reported the names of 
Henry Bristol Decker and John Henry Hoffman as having success- 
fully passed a special examination before the Faculty and the Com- 
mittee on Examinations, and recommended them to the Board for 
the degree of P.D. to be conferred at the next commencement, which 
recommendation was approved. A communication from the secretary 
of the College relative to the Alumni Association semi-centennial 
celebration was read. The Dean moved that the Board approve the 
proposed celebration and appoint a committee to cooperate with the 
committee representing the Alumni Association. It was so ordered. 
The Dean referred to the semi-centennial of the St. Louis College of 
Pharmacy. The Chairman read a communication from the St. Louis 
College inviting the Philadelphia College of ^Pharmacy to send a 
representative, when Mr. French moved that we accept the courteous 
invitation and that Dean Remington be selected to represent the 
College. It was so ordered. The Committee on Membership reported 
favorably on the application of S. L. Foster and John W. Hayes 
for active membership. A ballot was taken and they were unani- 
mously elected. 

November 24, 1914. — An adjourned meeting was held with 
twenty-three members in attendance, and, by invitation, Professors 
Kraemer, Lowe, and Moerk. The Chair stated the object of the 
meeting and a general discussion followed. Mr. Beringer read a 
communication from the Executive Committee of the Centennial 
Celebration suggesting a Christmas greeting be sent to each alumnus, 
accompanied by a letter from the Dean. The suggestion was 
favorably received and referred to the Dean. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARM^glfN 

MARCH, i 9 i5 l^j A v £el 

& 

THE PROPER TIME TO COLLECT S^M^I^IlM^r 

By O. A. Farwell, Department of Botany, Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit, Mich. 

In the September issue of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
for 1913 there appeared a paper by Drs. Homerberg and Beringer on 
the proper time to collect Sanguinaria. The time suggested, " About 
or immediately after flowering/' was based upon the results of assays 
of the drug " collected at various times from May — just after flower- 
ing — to August — just before the leaves began to die." 

But as the time of collection of the samples assayed did not cover 
that-period of the year specified by the U. S. P. for its collection, i.e., 
" After the death of the foliage," it was thought desirable to make 
various collections during this period in order to supplement and 
make more complete the work carried out by Drs. Homerberg and 
Beringer. Accordingly, samples of the rhizome were collected at 
various times during the ensuing year which covered both the active 
and quiescent periods of the species. The rhizomes were carefully 
cleaned, the rootlets removed, and air-dried in the shade at ordinary 
room temperature ; the last collection, however, was dried artificially. 
The rootlets were-kept separately until the close of the experiment, 
when they were mixed together and assayed. They yielded 1.77 per 
cent, sanguinarine, thus averaging about one-third the amount ob- 
tained from the rhizomes. 

The results obtained confirm in all respects those obtained by 
Drs. Homerberg and Beringer, indicating that the best time to 
collect the rhizome, which should be freed of rootlets, is at the 
flowering season. 

The commercial drug can be readily separated on gross internal 
characters into three grades, probably representing three species : 

A. This grade breaks with a short, waxy fracture, showing a 
white ground plentifully sprinkled with red resin cells. 

(97) 



9 8 



Belladonna and Hyoscyarnus. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ March, 1915. 



B. This grade breaks with a short fracture, showing a rather soft, 
more or less mealy surface of a brick-red or orange color, the resin 
cells not being perceptible to the naked eye. 

C. This grade breaks with a short, waxy fracture, and shows a 
liver-brown or reddish-brown color. 

The rhizomes collected for experimental work were of typical 
Sanguinaria canadensis Lin., and corresponded to grade A as above 
outlined; the commercial drug assayed for comparison showed a 
higher percentage of alkaloid than that specially collected. 

The assays were made by Mr. J. B. Williams, of the Scientific 
Laboratory. 

Assay of Commercial Drug, Sanguinaria. 

P j Moisture, Sanguinarine, 

r per cent. per cent. 

A 6.68 6.95 

B 6.8o 6.oi 

C 6.6 7.01 

Assay of Collected Samples of Air-dried Sanguinaria. 

Time of Moisture, Sanguinarine 

collection per cent. per cent. 

II/13/13 79.84 4.75 

1/16/14 78.71 4.7O 

3/18/14 : 84.24 4.84 

4/16/14 (Flowering season) 85.54 6-53 

5/28/14 (Fruiting season) 79-20 5.10 

6/19/14 (After fruiting season) 76.50 5.00 

7/30/14 (Just after death of foliage) 76.12 5.00 

10/29/14 Artificialh- dried 79-88 4.93 



Assay of Collected Samples of Air-dried Rootlets of Sanguinaria 

Time of collection 

per cent. per cen 

November, 1913, to July, 1 914 • 79.5 1.77 



BELLADONNA AND HYOSCYAMUS. 

By Oliver A. Farwell, Department of Botany, Parke, Davis & Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 

Much has been written of late about the cultivation of belladonna 
and hyoscyarnus for commercial purposes. It has been shown that 
belladonna is hardy as far north as Xew York. Henbane is a 
much hardier plant and is known to be well established on Mackinac 
Island, in the Straits of Mackinac, between the two peninsulas 



Am ktrdh' S** } Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. . 99 

of Michigan, and on the adjacent mainland on either side. Bella- 
donna is hardy at Detroit, where it maintained a foothold for 
many years on ballast grounds until exterminated by the processes 
of economic improvements. It has also been under cultivation 
for several years, and is still in a nourishing condition, having 
weathered the cold winters of zero temperature and below without 
any protection and seemingly without injury to the vigor of the 
plants. 

Seeds of the annual Hyoscyamus Bohemicus obtained from com- 
mercial drug, together with seeds and seedlings of Atropa Bella- 
donna and of the biennial Hyoscyamus niger procured several years 
ago from the Department of Agriculture, were sown and trans- 
planted, and these or their descendents are still producing flourish- 
ing growths. The seeds of belladonna sown in the garden did not 
germinate, but the self-sown seed from the plants germinated the 
following spring in large numbers. Individuals of the biennial 
henbane often have corollas that are veined with brownish green or 
olive instead of violet or purple, even on the same plant, and the 
contrast is rather striking. 

In view of the fact that the henbanes are subject to destructive 
attacks by the common potato bug, Doryphora decemlineata, and 
the allied, three-lined potato-bug, Lema trilineata, it would seem 
that its cultivation for commercial purposes in this country will not 
meet with any degree of success, as the cost of keeping the plants 
free from these pests would make the price of the drug prohibitive. 
Belladonna is not so liable to be attacked, last year (1914) being 
the first season since their cultivation began (1910) that these 
plants were infested by insect pests. 

In a recent paper on belladonna and hyoscyamus, published in 
this Journal by Professor Newcomb, of the Minnesota College of 
Pharmacy, Hyoscyamus albus is illustrated by two figures. From 
a taxonomic point of view, at least, these figures, as representative 
illustrations of Hyoscyamus albus Lin., are open to criticism. If 
compared with the accompanying figure, which is a reproduction of 
plate 2 of vol. 20 of Richenbaclr s / cones, showing H. niger, H. albus, 
and H. pallid us, it will at once be seen that they show no strain of 
H. albus, a species more closely related to H. aureus than to H. 
niger. H. albus differs widely in its nearby orbicular leaves, all of 
which are petioled, and in its prominently peduncled Homers and 
fruits, the calyces of which are of a different shape; none of these 



100 



Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1915. 



characters appear in the figures referred to, which, however, do 
compare very favorably with that of H. pallid us, and this, it is very 
evident, is what they represent. Undoubtedly Professor Newcomb 




Photographic reproduction of Plate 2 in vol. xx Reichenbach's Icones Floras Germanicae 
et Helveticas. I, Hyoscyamus albus L.; II, Hyoscyamus ntger L.; Ill, Hyoscyamus niger L. 
var. pallidus Koch. 1, Alabastrum, ut videas aestivationem imbricatem; 2, Flos transsectus; 
3, Fructus transsectus vides operculum pyxidis; 4, Semen; 5. 6, Semina transsectus; 7. Areae 
testae. 



has placed too much reliance upon the authenticity of the nomen- 
clature adopted by seedsmen, for his figure of H. albus shows that 
he has received seed improperly named, a state of affairs which is 
not at all uncommon in the trade. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1915. J 



Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



IOI 



Professor Newcomb's experiments developed no tendency in the 
biennial hyoscyami to become annual or vice versa, which is in accord- 
ance with my own observations covering a period of several years. 
These species might, therefore, be better understood if the annual 
and biennial forms are maintained as distinct species. Under these 
conditions, Hyoscyamus niger Lin. will be restricted to the large, 
branched, biennial plant having yellow flowers, with violet, purple, 
or brownish-green veins. The annual plant, with similarly colored 
flowers, but with a slender, generally unbranched stem, will then 
be known as H. Bohemicus F. W. Schmidt, of which the yellow- 
flowered H. pallid us Wald. and Kit. becomes a color variety. 
The proper names and leading synonyms are as follows : 
Hyoscyamus xiger Lin. Sp. PI. 179, 1753. Probably belonging 
here are : 

H. oMcinarum Crantz Inst. 2, 325, 1766. 
H. lethalis Salisb. Prod. 131, 1796. 
Hyoscyamus Bohemicus F.-W. Schmidt, Fl. Bohem. 3, 31, 1795. 
H. Verviensis Lejune, Fl. de Spa. 1, 116. 181 1. 
H. agrestis Kit. in Schult. CEster. Fl. Ed. 2, 1, 383, 1S14. 
H. pictus Roth Nov. PI. Sp. 119. 1821. 
H. niger Lin. var. annua Sims. Bot. Mag. t. 2394, 1823. 
H. niger Lin. var. agrestis Nees ab Es. Trans. Lin. Soc. 17. 
77, i837- 

Hyoscyamus Bohemicus Schmidt var: pallidus (Wald. and 
Kit.) N. Comb. 

H. pallidus Wald. and Kit. Plant. Rar. Hung, ex Willd. 

Enum. Hort. Berol. 227, 1809. 
H. niger Lin. var. pallidus Koch Syn. 509, 1837. 



ESTIMATION OF CIXEOL IN OIL OF EUCALYPTUS. 1 
By Joseph L. Turner and Ralph C. Holmes. 

The question of an accurate determination of the quantity of 
cineol in oil of euclayptus is still unsettled, notwithstanding the 
quite considerable amount of research which has been devoted to it, 
and, judging from its present status, it will not be settled for some 
time to come. This is to be regretted the more since it is now 
established beyond dispute that the value and therapeutic action of 



1 Read at the November meeting of the New York Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. 



102 



Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1915. 



eucalyptus oils depend exclusively upon their content of cineol 
(eucalyptol). Various methods proposed heretofore, without ex- 
ception, suffer from one shortcoming — gross inaccuracy ; either due 
to the wrong basis of method, or to the instability of those com- 
pounds which have been suggested as serviceable for the separation 
of cineol. 

To the class of methods based on wrong premises belong the 
" Permanganate Method '' proposed by Francis D. Dodge (Journal 
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. iv, August, 1912, p. 529) 
and the " Resorcinol Method " proposed by Schimmel & Co. (Semi- 
annual Report of Schimmel & Co., October, 1907) ; the latter 
method is now slated for inclusion in the Ninth Revision of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, and it will thus become responsible 
for the admission into the pharmaceutical practice of inferior 
eucalyptus oils, as we propose to show further below. 

The methods based on the separation of unstable addition prod- 
ucts of cineol are : the phosphoric acid method and the hydrobromic 
acid method. 

The various methods mentioned will be outlined briefly, as it is 
not our purpose here to enter into a thorough discussion of these. 
Exhaustive information, both pro and con, may be obtained from 
the literature on the subject, and especially by perusing the semi- 
annual reports of Schimmel & Co. 

1. Phosphoric Acid Method— ■" Introduce into a beaker a solu- 
tion prepared by dissolving 10 Cc. of oil of eucalyptus in 50 Cc. of 
purified petroleum benzin ; immerse the beaker in a freezing mixture 
and add phosphoric acid, drop by drop, with constant stirring, until 
the white magma of cineol phosphate formed begins to assume a 
yellowish or pinkish tint ; then transfer the magma to a force filter, 
wash it with cold, purified petroleum benzin, and then dry it by 
pressure between two porous plates. Transfer the precipitate 
(cineol phosphate) to a narrow graduated cylinder, and add warm 
water, which will cause separation of the cineol. The volume, in 
cubic centimetres, of the separated oil, multiplied by 10, represents 
the volume per cent, of cineol (eucalyptol)." 

The addition product of eucalyptol with phosphoric acid, as 
obtained by this method, is a semi-solid, sticky substance which de- 
composes very readily and renders a quantitative separation very 
difficult, if not altogether impossible. In consequence of this, the 
results obtained by this method are invariably too low. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "> 
March, 1915. / 



Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



103 



2. The Hydrobromic Acid Method is carried out as follows : " In 
a highly cooled solution (freezing mixture) of 10 Cc.-^ eucalyptus 
oil in 40 Cc. low-boiling petroleum ether (boiling-point about 40 ) 
absolutely dry gaseous hydrobromic acid is introduced until a precipi- 
tate is no longer formed. The pure white hydrobromide of cineol 
formed is rapidly collected with a suction pump and washed with 
cold petroleum ether. Into the filtered-off liquid hydrobromic acid is 
again introduced ; any precipitate formed is collected separately, and 
then added to the bulk. For the purpose of removing the petroleum 
ether, the cineol hydrobromide is left standing for a quarter of an 
hour in a vacuum; it is then rinsed with a little alcohol into a 
cassia flask and decomposed with water. The cineol separated off 
is brought into the neck of the flask by the addition of more water, 
and the quantity of the oil read oft the scale. By multiplying with 
10, the cineol content of the oil employed is obtained in per cent, 
by volume." 

This method has the same drawback as the phosphoric acid 
method, namely, rapid decomposition of the addition product. More- 
over, the procedure for obtaining the cineol hydrobromide is a very 
complicated one, and is not suitable, therefore, for ordinary practical 
purposes. 

3. The Potassium Permanganate Method is based upon the fact 
that, in the cold, cineol remains practically unattacked by potassium 
permanganate, whereas the remaining constituents of the oils in 
question (eucalyptus oil and cajuput oil) are oxidized into soluble 
compounds. The process is carried out as follows : " 10 Cc. of the 

011 under examination are placed in a narrow-necked flask, cooled 
with ice-water, and shaken with a gradually added 5 to 6 per cent, 
solution of potassium permanganate until the latter is present in 
excess. The mixture is then left standing in ice-water for from 

12 to 18 hours with occasional shaking, after which the manganese 
peroxide which has separated out is brought to solution by means 
of a careful addition of sulphurous acid (or sodium bisulphite -\- 
hydrochloric acid). The unattacked oil (eucalyptol) is brought into 
the neck of the flask, pipetted into a graduated tube, washed with a 
little alkali, and estimated volumetrically. Its specific gravity 
should be 0.929 to 0.930 (15 ) ; it should be inactive, and dissolve 
in 3.5 volumes 60 per cent, alcohol at 25 °." 

We have not investigated this method personally, but are rather 
willing to accept the criticism as published in Schimmel & Co.'s 



io4 



Cine o I in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



JAm. Jour. Pharm. 
"I March, 1915. 



Semi-annual Report, for April, 1913, p. 62, containing results of 
experiments on known mixtures of cineol with pinene, which, when 
estimated by this method, showed a cineol content of 95 per cent. ; 
a mixture of 50 per cent, cineol and 50 per cent terpineol, on the 
other hand, yielded only 30 per cent, cineol. Time does not permit 
us to enter into a more complete discussion of these results. 

4. Resorcinol Method, or, more correct, Resorcinol Methods, 
since there is an " original " method as described in Schimmel & Co.'s 
Report for October, 1907, in Gildemeister & Hoffmann's " Volatile 
Oils," 1913, p. 601, and as proposed for the inclusion in the Ninth 
Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and also a " Modified Resor- 
cinol Method " as given in Schimmel & Co.'s Report for April, 
1908. 

The " original " method is based on the fact that cineol forms 
an addition produced with resorcinol, which is soluble in an excess 
of concentrated resorcinol solution. 

The process is carried out as follows : " To 10 Cc. of oil con- 
tained in a 100 Cc. cassia flask enough 50 per cent, resorcinol solu- 
tion is added to fill the flask about four-fifths. For five minutes 
the mixture is thoroughly shaken, and the portion of the oil which 
has not gone into solution is driven into the neck with resorcinol 
solution. Any oily particles adhering to the walls of the flask are 
caused to rise to the surface by rotating the flask or gently tapping 
it. After the resorcinol solution has become perfectly clear, which 
usually requires several hours, the volume of oil remaining is read 
off, the cineol content ascertained by subtracting this amount from 
10, and the resultant multiplied with 10 in order to obtain the per- 
centage by volume. Oils very rich in cineol are advantageously 
diluted with an equal volume of turpentine oil, since the cineol- 
resorcinol occasionally crystallizes from concentrated solution^ thus 
rendering futile the entire process." 

It soon became apparent, however, that this method gave too 
high results, for the reason that constituents of eucalyptus, other 
than cineol, are also soluble in the resorcinol solution, and further 
investigation of the subject led to the " Modified Resorcinol Method," 
which consists in distilling the oil of eucalyptus at such a rate that 
only one drop distils over in one second, collecting the portion dis- 
tilling between 170 and 190 C, and subjecting this portion to the 
estimation by the above-described resorcinol method. 



Am ka?ch' i P 9i5 rm * } Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 105 

We have examined a number of oils both by the " original " and 
" modified " Resorcinol Methods, and have reserved our criticism 
of these for the latter part of our paper. 

Many a chemist's patience has been sorely tried by the phos- 
phoric acid method of separating cineol, as outlined in the U. S. P. 
VIII ; and, therefore, the resorcinol method, as proposed originally 
by Schimmel & Co. and as described in the last edition of Gilde- 
meister & Hoffmann's " Volatile Oils," seemed to afford an easy 
and accurate means of estimating cineol. However, it became evi- 
dent at the first application of this method that the new process 
was not above suspicion, especially when some eucalyptus oils, 
persistently refusing to form a semi-solid precipitate with phos- 
phoric acid, showed unusually high cineol content when assayed 
by the resorcinol method. 

The logical idea then suggested itself of trying arsenic acid 
instead of phosphoric acid, with a view of obtaining a more stable 
addition product, and the results so obtained exceeded our expecta- 
tions. Later, a search through the literature revealed the fact that 
the idea was not original with us, since cineol arsenate became the 
subject of a patent as early as June 20, 1901 (German Patent No. 
132606, U. S. Patent No. 705545), and, according to Thorns & 
Molle (Arch, der Pharmazie, 242 (1904), p. 172), they used arsenic 
acid in February, 1901, for the purification of cineol, as well as 
for its separation from various fractions of the oil of bay laurel. 
Nevertheless, we justly claim the credit for being the first to apply 
arsenic acid to the quantitative estimation of cineol. 

We found that by adding, approximately, an equal volume of an 
85 per cent, solution of arsenic acid to cineol a white, solid, crystal- 
line substance resulted, which is sufficiently stable to permit handling 
it in the air, and which is decomposed by hot water into its com- 
ponents ; that is, cineol and arsenic acid. A compound obtained by 
mixing equimolecular quantities of cineol (152.98) and arsenic acid 
(140.9) was tested for its stability when exposed to air at ordinary 
room temperature with the following result : 

5 hours in open air, temperature 25 C Loss, 2.9 per cent. 

22 hours in open air, temperature 25 C Loss, 6.0 per cent. 

29 hours in open air, temperature 25 C Loss, 7.0 per cent. 

45 hours in open air, temperature 25 C Loss, 8.4 per cent. 

69 hours in open air, temperature 25 C Loss, 9.6 per cent. 



io6 



Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 March, 1915. 



The determination of cineol in cineol-bearing oils by means of 
arsenic acid is carried out as follows : 

Deliver from a pipette 10 Cc. of the oil into a glass dish (pref- 
erably a round-bottom one) of 50 Cc. capacity, which is imbedded 
in finely cracked ice. Add 10 Cc. of concentrated arsenic acid 
(containing about 85 per cent, arsenic acid; see " : Xote " below) and 
stir until precipitation is complete. When the mixture ceases to 
congeal further, allow to stand ten minutes in the ice. At this 
point, if the mixture forms a hard mass, indicating an oil rich in 
cineol, 5 Cc. of purified petroleum ether should be added, and the 
mass mixed well ; transfer immediately to a hardened filter paper 2 
by means of a pliable horn spatula; spread evenly over the surface 
of the paper and lay a second hardened filter paper over the top. 
Outside of the hardened filters place several thicknesses of ab- 
sorbent or filter paper, and transfer the whole to an ordinary letter 
press, bringing to bear all the pressure possible for about one minute. 
Change the outside absorbent papers and press again, repeating the 
operation, if necessary, until the cineol arsenate is apparently dry 
and separates readily when touched with a spatula. The pressing is 
not complete when a hard mass remains which is broken up with 
difficulty ; the method usually requires two changes of filter paper, 
pressing each time for about two minutes; if left too long in the 
press the compound may decompose. Xow transfer completely the 
compound by means of the horn spatula to a glass funnel inserted 
into a 100-Cc. cassia flask with neck measuring 10 Cc. graduated 
in 1/10 Cc. Wash the precipitate into the flask with a stream of 
hot water from a wash bottle, assisting the disintegration with a 
glass rod. Place the flask in boiling water and rotate until the 
compound is thoroughly broken up ; add enough water to cause the 
cineol to rise into the neck of the flask, cool to room temperature, 
and read oft the volume; on multiplying the latter by 10 the per- 
centage of cineol in the oil is obtained. 

In judging whether or not petroleum ether should be added, the 
following rule should be observed : Add enough petroleum ether to 
soften the cineol arsenate so as to obtain a plastic mass ; the quantity 
necessary never exceeds 5 Cc, and decreases with oils containing less 
than 80 per cent, of cineol. The object of adding petroleum ether 

2 In our work we found most useful Schleicher & Schull's hardened niters 
No. 575> 18^2 cm. diameter. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) ClUeol Ul OH of EuCalyptllS. IOJ 

March, 191o. J ' 

is merely to soften the hard mass and to aid in the separation of 
non-cineol constituents of the oil. A large excess of petroleum 
ether will decompose the compound. 

The above method is applicable directly to all oils containing 
above 50 per cent, of cineol ; in oils containing lower proportions 
of cineol the precipitate is not solid enough to permit of convenient 
handling; and if the cineol content drops below 25 per cent., the 
separation of cineol arsenate is not quantitative. We have found 
that the addition of an equal volume of eucalyptol to such oils (i.e., 
mixing 5 Cc. of the oil with 5 Cc. of eucalyptol) successfully over- 
comes this difficulty; it then only becomes necessary to subtract 
from the volume of cineol, as observed in the neck of the flask, 
5 Cc, and to multiply the difference by 10, in order to obtain the 
percentage of cineol in the oil. 

Note. — The arsenic acid may be obtained in commerce in crys- 
talline form, and may be dissolved in water in such proportion that 
the resulting solution has the specific gravity of 2.173 at 25 (corre- 
sponding approximately to 85 per cent, arsenic acid), or it may be 
conveniently prepared in the laboratory as follows : 

Place in a porcelain evaporating dish 50 Cc. nitric acid specific 
gravity 1.142, and add 60 Gms. arsenic trioxide in small portions, 
stirring continuously ; after the reaction becomes less violent, heat 
over Bunsen burner until the oxidation is complete and the excess 
of nitric acid is evaporated ; test for freedom from both arsenic 
trioxide and nitric acid; filter and evaporate to about 100 Gms. 
The resulting solution contains about 85 per cent, of arsenic acid 
(H 3 As0 4 ). 

In order to test the reliability of the method, we have prepared, 
to begin with, various mixtures of cineol with turpentine oil, and 
ascertained their cineol content in the manner above described, with 
the following results : 

1. 50 vol. per cent, cineol -f- 50 vol. per cent, turpentine oil; found 49.5 per 
cent. ; 50 per cent, cineol. 

2. 60 vol. per cent, cineol + 40 vol. per cent, turpentine oil ; found 59 per 
cent. ; 60 per cent, cineol. 

3. 75 vol. per cent, cineol -j- 25 vol. per cent, turpentine oil ; found 74 per 
cent. ; 75 per cent, cineol. 

As stated above, we found that the application of the method 
to mixtures containing less than 50 per cent, cineol is not practicable ; 
and, since adding cineol to such mixtures would have amounted 



io8 



Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



i Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1915. 



simply to testing known mixtures containing a higher percentage of 
cineol, we have omitted this part of investigation from the line of 
our work as originally planned. 

In order to test the applicability of our method to various oils 
containing cineol, we have collected from several sources a number 
of samples of such oils and subjected them to assaying by the 
arsenic acid method, comparing our results with those obtained by 
the resorcinol method. 

The comparison was carried out both on original oils and on 
fractions distilling over between 170 and 190 C. as outlined in 
Schimmel & Co.'s Report, April, 1908 (" Modified Resorcinol 
Method "). 

For the purpose of determining the purity of cineol separated by 
the arsenic acid method, several portions of cineol, obtained in the 
course of assays of original oils, were mixed and subjected to 
physical examination with the following results : 

Specific gravity at 25°C, 0.9218; melting-point, i° C. ; optical rotation, + o° 13 - 

On the other hand, being already familiar with the fact that re- 
sults obtained by the resorcinol method on original oils are not 
reliable, we examined only that cineol which was obtained by the 
" modified resorcinol method," and which was thus subjected to 
considerable purification, at first by distilling the oil, then by dis- 
tilling with steam the resorcinol solution containing the soluble 
portion of the above distillate. Cineol collected in this manner 
from a number of resorcinol solutions possessed the following 
properties : 

Specific gravity at 25° C, 0.9242 ; melting-point, -3 C. ; optical rotation, + o° f 

The criterion of a pure cineol, according to the U. S. P., being 
specific gravity at 25 C. - 0.921 to 0.923, melting-point - 1 C, 
and optically inactive, the purity of cineol obtained by the arsenic 
acid method, as evidenced by its physical properties, shows- conclu- 
sively that none of the constituents of oil of eucalyptus other than 
cineol are precipitated by the arsenic acid, and that the precipitate 
of cineol arsenate can be freed, with comparative ease, from the 
non-cineol portion of the oil in question. 

Results of assays made by us on 18' samples of various oils are 
incorporated in the following table: 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1915. 



| Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



109 









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J Am. Jour. Pharni. 
1 March, 1915. 



Close, agreement of results obtained by the arsenic acid method 
on original oils with those obtained on the distillate, collected between 
170 and 190 C, speaks well for their correctness. An additional 
argument in favor of this contention is the fact that these results, 
from the very nature of the process, tend to be somewhat high rather 
than low ; observing, at the same time, that results yielded by the 
modified resorcinol method are invariably higher than those obtained 
by our method, we must necessarily conclude that the latter repre- 
sent more nearly the true cineol content of an oil ; remembering in 
addition the almost quantitative yield of cineol from its mixture 
with various proportions of oil of turpentine when precipitated by 
arsenic acid (see p. 107), we feel justified in stating that our method 
gives results which represent the true cineol content within the 
limit of experimental error, which in this case does not exceed 
2 per cent. 

We regard the results of our experiments in known mixtures of 
cineol with oil of turpentine as conclusive, and our method as directly 
applicable to all varieties of cineol-bearing oils, for the reason that 
in such oils cineol is the only constituent precipitated by the arsenic 
acid. 

The purity of cineol, as well as the close concordance of results 
obtained by our method before and after distillation, shows that 
oxygenated constituents other than cineol are not precipitated by 
arsenic acid, since fractions distilling above 190 C. carry most of 
such compounds, and their removal would have resulted in a per- 
centage of cineol lower than that obtained in the assay before dis- 
tillation, if the opposite were the case. 

On the contrary, the numerous experiments carried out by 
Schimmel & Co. in assaying, by the modified resorcinol method, 
mixtures composed of cineol and fractions of eucalyptus oil dis- 
tilling below 1 jo and above 190 , do not prove the reliability of 
this method, since such mixtures do not contain the non-cineol con- 
stituents distilling between 170 and 190 C, some of which un- 
questionably are soluble in a 50 per cent, resorcinol solution ; the 
latter may be seen from the fact that, in the large majority of oils 
examined by us, the resorcinol method (modified) gave higher re- 
sults than the arsenic acid method. 

An additional error in the resorcinol method is contributed by 
the solubility of oil of eucalyptus in water, which dissolves from 
4 to 5 per cent, of this oil, whereas cineol is almost insoluble ; it 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1915. J 



Cineol in Oil of Eucalyptus. 



in 



could not be argued, therefore, that lower results obtained by our 
method could be due to the solubility of cineol in water. 

We have adduced sufficient proof to show that the solubility of 
certain constituents of cineol-bearing oils must necessarily lead to 
a higher than actual cineol content when estimated even by the 
modified resorcinol method; it, therefore, becomes superfluous to 
discuss the total lack of reliability of the original resorcinol method 
in the form proposed for the inclusion into the forthcoming edition 
of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. Some oils, such as eucalyptus amygda- 
lina, may, when assayed by this method, be accepted as a U. S. P. 
oil of eucalyptus, especially if a small quantity of cineol were added 
to them. Likewise, oils rich in oxygenated constituents may be 
freed from a large proportion of their cineol content by freezing 
and then offered in commerce as a U. S. P. product. 

Schimmel & Co., in introducing the modified resorcinol method, 
assume that the fraction of oil of eucalyptus distilling between 170 
and 190 carries all of the cineol contained in the oil. We admit 
that such an assumption may be correct in the majority of oils ; we 
have encountered, however, some oils in which the presence of 
cineol was proven in portions distilling either below 170 or above 
190 C. (see table, oils No. 5, No. 17, No. 18) ; in such oils, there- 
fore, a certain portion of cineol would not be included into the 
estimation. Thus, while the modified method is, in a way, an im- 
provement on the original method, yet, at the same time, it intro- 
duces a new source of error. 

Among eighteen samples of cineol-bearing oils we found only 
one in which concordant results were obtained by the resorcinol 
and arsenic acid methods (see table, oil No. 18). We regard this 
single exception as a final and conclusive proof of the unreliableness 
of the resorcinol method in general, and of the superiority of the 
arsenic acid method. 

Summary. 

1. Arsenic acid forms with cineol an addition compound which is 
sufficiently stable for all practical purposes. 

2. While the arsenic acid method cannot be included among those 
scientifically exact methods which give results varying only slightly 
even in the hands of a novice, nevertheless, we are convinced that 
this method is superior to any method yet proposed for the deter- 
mination of cineol, being directly applicable to all cineol-bearing oils, 



ii2 , Ash Determinations on Digitalis. { Al \f ^h,' S™* 

giving results which are concordant within 2 per cent., and repre- 
senting, for all practical purposes, the true cineol content of an oil. 

3. The resorcinol method, as slated for the U. S. P. IX, should 
not be adopted by the Revision Committee, for it will unquestionably 
lead to the introduction into commerce of low-grade eucalyptus 
oils; it would be far better to retain the present unsatisfactory 
phosphoric acid method, which undoubtedly is responsible for the 
fact that the majority of eucalyptus oils at present on the market 
possess a high cineol content, as seen from the analysis of samples 
obtained by us. We may suggest, however, that the Sub-committee 
on Volatile Oils investigate the reliability of the arsenic acid method 
with the view of including it in the forthcoming edition of the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

Research Laboratory, Bristol-Myers Company, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



SOME ASH DETERMINATIONS ON DIGITALIS. 1 
By Edwin L. Newcomb and Manley H. Haynes. 

In view of the proposed ten per cent, ash standard for digitalis 
for the ninth revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, the re- 
sults of some ash determinations upon this drug are hereby offered 
for consideration. The results in part represent some of the work 
done in connection with the production of digitalis at the College of 
Pharmacy, University of Minnesota. 

The fully-matured green leaves of the first year's growth of 
several varieties of Digitalis purpurea were collected and carefully 
cleaned, including brushing to remove any adhering sand, and then 
immediately dried at a temperature of 8o° to ioo° C. The samples 
were then reduced to a No. 60 powder and dried at low temperature 
to practically constant weight, after which they were incinerated in 
the usual manner. 

The details concerning the culture of the plants and the collec- 
tion and drying of the drug have been earlier reported by one of us 
(see Newcomb, Amer. Journ. of Pharm., vol. 84, pp. 201-214), 
and the results of physiologic tests with these samples have been 



1 Read at Thirty-first Annual Convention of Minnesota State Pharma- 
ceutical Association, St. Paul, February 10, 1915. 



Am M^ch fM*™'} Ash Content of Some Unofficial Drugs. 113 

reported (see 19x4 Proceed. Minn. State Pharm. Assoc., pp. 148-158, 
and Northwestern Druggist, vol. 15, No. J, 1914). 

Source of sample 





Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


191 1 and 1912 crop : 


of ash 


of ash 


of ash 




7-i 


7.2 






679 


6.6l 








I3-I 




Digitalis purpurea monstrosa 


9-i 


9-5 






114 


1 1.6 






..... 10.5 


10.8 






10.5 


10.3 


10.8 


Digitalis purpurea, collected in the State of Wash- 






ington from wild growing plants 


144 


1439 


14.27 


1913 crop University of Minnesota : 








Digitalis purpurea, mixed varieties 


10.00 


10.42 




1914 crop University of Minnesota : 










8.57 


8.46 




Commercial samples : 










12.5 


12.8 




B. Clean commercial sample from cultivated 








9-7 


10.5 




C. Average quality commercial sample . . . 


7-5 


74 




D. Average quality commercial sample . . . 


9.19 


9.27 




The commercial samples examined 


represented fairly £ 


r ood dig- 



italis, no adulterants being found upon microscopic examination. 

From these results it would appear that a pharmacopceial stan- 
dard for digitalis reading " Ash not exceeding 10 per cent." would 
exclude some samples which without doubt are authentic and of 
good quality. 

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, 
University of Minnesota. 



ASH CONTENT OF SOME UNOFFICIAL DRUGS. 1 



By Edwin L. Newcomb. 
Aralia racemosa : Ash, per cent. 

Commercial sample of average cleanliness 7.88 7.60 

Asarum : 

Clean commercial sample 9.23 9.22 

Baptisia : 

Commercial sample of average cleanliness (ash pinkish 

white in color) 2.293 2.288 



1 Presented at the Thirty-first Annual Convention of Minnesota State 
Pharmaceutical Association, St. Paul, February 10, 191 5. 



ii4 Ash Content of ' Some Unofficial Drugs. j Am j ra J r ° c u h r - 1$*™' 

Bryonia : Ash, per cent. 

A. Clean commercial sample 6.49 6.17 

B. Commercial sample powdered Bryonia 12.51 12.63 

(This sample, upon microscopic examination, showed 

numerous stone cells and other tissue not found in 
true Bryonia.) 
Castanea : 

Clean commercial sample 3.927 3-958 

Coptis : ( , 

X< ■ 1 1 f 5-07 5.o6 

Clean commercial sample . , ■{ 

\ 4-28 4-91 

Convallaria flowers : 

Clean commercial sample, with few flower stalks.... 9.68 9.39 

(Ash of a bluish-green color.) 
Damiana : 

Clean commercial sample 7.40 7.21 

Dioscorea : 

Clean commercial sample 3.00 3.078 

Iris versicolor : 

A. Commercial sample powdered in our laboratory.... 3.03 3.4 

B. Sample consisting of the roots alone, from plants 

grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden 6.00 5.80 

C. Sample consisting of the rhizomes alone from plants 

grown in Medicinal Plant Garden 4.77 4.28 

Juglans : 

Clean commercial sample of root bark 7.702 7.396 

Menyanthes : 

Commercial sample 9.56 9.46 

Myrica : 

Clean commercial sample 3.04 2.86 

Euphorbia : 

Select commercial sample . . . ." 5.76 5.73 

Turkey Corn Root : 

Commercial sample of average cleanliness 4.37 4.528 

Chionanthus : 

Select commercial sample J ^-57 

{ 3-8o 3.50 

Fraxinus, White Ash Bark: 

Select commercial sample 3.82 . 3.59 

Centaury Herb, European : 

Clean commercial sample 4.42 4.51 

Cocillana : 

Commercial sample of the powder 7.46 7.32 

, Para Coto : 

Select sample from Bolivia 1.121 1.106 

Pulsatilla: 

Clean commercial sample 5.99 5.59 



Am March" wi* 1 ™"} flavorings for Cod-liver Oil Emulsion. 115 

Quebracho : Ash, per cent. 

Genuine bark from Aspidosperma Quebracho-bianco 

Schlechtendal 5-90 2 6.77 

Rumex : 

A. Commercial sample powdered Rumex 22.19 22.15 

(Ash, very sandy, microscope showed much sand in 

the powdered drug.) 

B. Commercial sample whole Rumex, select, very clean ; 

powdered in this laboratory 4.73 4.4 

C. Commercial sample whole Rumex, ordinary quality ; 

powdered in this laboratory 7.7 7.9 

D. Sample prepared from a plant of Rumex crispus 
grown, 1914, in the Medicinal Plant Garden, College 
of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota; powdered 

in this laboratory 3.03 2.89 

E. Sample prepared from a plant of Rumex obtusifolius, 
grown, 1914, in Medicinal Plant Garden, College of 
Pharmacy, University of Minnesota ; powdered in 

this laboratory 3.33 3.003 

All of the above samples reported upon were purchased as the 
whole drug, unless otherwise stated. The authenticity of each was 
determined by pharmacognostical methods, and then a representative 
portion was powdered and incinerated in the usual way. 

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, 
University of Minnesota. 



A COMPARISON OF THE VALUE OF VARIOUS FLAVOR- 
INGS FOR EMULSION OF COD-LIVER OIL. 1 

By George M. Beringer, Jr. 

For some time the writer has surmised that a systematic study of 
this subject would yield many surprises. The results seem to justify 
that surmise. 

A quantity of plain emulsion of cod-liver oil, U. S. P., without 
flavoring, was prepared. To separate portions of this were added all 
the commonly known volatile oils and aromatics of a pleasant flavor. 
These were used in the proportions of 4 c.c. per litre, except in the 
few cases otherwise noted. The samples thus prepared were arranged 
in the order of the value of the various flavors in disguising odor and 



1 Proc. N. J. Pharm. Assoc., 1914, p. 81. 



1x6 Flavorings for Cod-liver Oil Emulsion. { Am ^ r ™ h r - ^iJ""' 

taste. Of course, the placing of any individual sample in such a series 
would vary somewhat according to. the personal taste of the observer. 
It is not thought, however, that the average observer would make a 
change in the position of any given sample of more than one or two 
numbers, so that such an arrangement would give a fair idea of the 
relative values of the flavors employed. The series thus arranged 
seemed naturally to divide itself into several fairly distinct groups. 

In the first group came oils of coriander and geranium, which 
completely covered, i.e., blended with or drowned, the fishy flavor of 
the cod-liver oil, so that it was not apparent to taste or smell. Oils 
of anise and cardamom (the latter in the proportion of 2 c.c. per 
litre), also in the same class, are almost equally valuable. 

The second group consisted of oils of bitter almond, cloves, and 
pimenta, and, also, vanillin (1 Gm. per litre). These only partly 
covered the taste and odor of the cod-liver oil, but were very per- 
sistent and might prove of value blended with some of the flavors in 
the first group. 

The third group contains oils of peppermint, spearmint, lemon, 
orange, and Ceylon cinnamon. These flavors stand out very strongly 
and almost completely mask the odor, but not the fishy taste of the 
cod-liver oil. In the latter respect they are distinctly inferior to 
those of the second group. 

In the fourth group stand oils of caraway, cassia, sassafras, 
wintergreen, betula, and nutmeg. These flavorings seem actually to 
accentuate the fishy taste of the cod-liver oil ! This is particularly 
noticeable in the cases of wintergreen and nutmeg. Wintergreen 
flavor comes out strongly both in taste and odor, but has no effect 
whatever in drowning the fishy taste. 

Coumarin was tried in the proportion of 1 Gm. per litre, as it was 
thought it might have value as a blend, but the indications were very 
unfavorable. 

A cacao emulsion of cod-liver oil has been recommended by a 
large manufacturer, with the statement that it is " entirely free from 
fishy taste and odor." This does not seem to be quite true, and it 
seems to the writer that what little disguise the preparation gives 
is due mostly to aromatics and substances other than cacao which 
it contains. A comparison of the samples with others of the series 
will show, it is believed, many better and simpler flavorings. 



Xm k^ci' i9if m '}^^ ariuac ^ st Making Own Preparations. 117 



SOME REASONS WHY A PHARMACIST SHOULD MAKE 
HIS OWN PREPARATIONS. 1 
By John F. McAnulty, Jr. 

The question as to whether a pharmacist should make his own 
preparations or buy them already made, will probably always remain 
an open one. 

■ There are many good arguments that can be advanced by either 
side, but. after all is said, the matter rests with the individual case. 
Beyond doubt, a pharmacist can make most of his own preparations 
more scientifically, and cheaper, than the big manufacturer. He 
does not, it is true, have the same facility to get up as artistic a 
package, but he has the advantage of being able to say he made it 
himself. 

There is a good bit in the knowledge of even' step, and ingredient 
used, in the manufacture of a preparation bearing your name. In 
fact, it clinches your selling arguments, for a customer instinctively 
knows when you are telling the truth about a preparation. 

You may assert all you please about having the goods made for 
you under your own formula, but when your customer buys the same 
package with another man's name inserted at the bottom of the label, 
down the street, your talk is worse than useless. The confidence of 
the customer in you is killed forever. 

The question of saving money also counts, as money saved is 
surely money earned. 

Take a cough syrup like the White Pine Cough Syrup of the X. F. 
for instance. Most every pharmacist in this State uses a syrup of 
white pine during the winter months. Many buy their preparation 
already made under the transparent argument of being able to do it 
cheaper, without the trouble and bother to manufacture and bottle 
one of their own. 

Do you know that you can make a syrup according to the X. F. 
formula for Syrupus Pini Strobi Compositus, bottle it in 3^2-ounce 
bottles, label and put in a carton for five cents ? Can a manufacturer 
guarantee you an X. F. syrup for any price near that? 

This price will hold good for a small as well as large quantity of 
the syrup, and you have the assurance of selling a preparation that 



1 Proc. N. J. Pharm. Assoc., 1914, p. 52. 



1 1 8' Pharmacist Making Own Preparations. {^^^ 



Jour. Pharm. 
1915. 



is standard, good, and therapeutically efficient. By adding a half 
ounce of syrup of tar to each bottle, you have a white pine and tar 
cough syrup that is sure to please. 

Then there are corn remedies. The general demand seems to be 
for the green liquid preparations, and the Collodium Salicylatum Com- 
positum N. F. fills this demand nicely. This can be dispensed in two- 
drachm vials having a brush or glass rod attached to the cork or 
stopper, at four or five cents a bottle. How does that compare with 
75 cents per dozen in six-dozen quantities? This is the price you 
pay for an article that is not even N. F. This article sells generally 
for 15 cents, and thus yields a nice profit. 

Cold cream is another preparation that can be made cheaper and 
better at your own store. For prescription use none but the U. S. P 
article should be dispensed. This keeps well if the ingredients, used 
in making it, are of good quality. 

There is a demand for a cheaper cold cream, and one that will 
keep practically forever, under most any condition. The popular 
taste runs to the petroleum oil cold creams. A very good formula 
for such a cold cream is that of the U. S. P., Unguentum Aqua Rosae, 
substituting white mineral oil for the sweet almond oil, and using the 
same method of manipulation. 

Such a cold cream can be made for 17 or 20 cents per pound, 
as against a prominent manufacturer's price of 40 cents in five- 
pound quantities. You can- make a single pound for 20 cents. 

A nice jar can be bought, having a design and the words " Cold 
Cream " stamped on the lid, for about 3 cents for half-ounces, 5 cents 
for one-ounces, and 7 cents for two-ounces. 

Therefore, an ounce package of cold cream made in this way costs 
about 6 cents and retails for 15 cents. You cannot buy as good a cold 
cream for less than 75 cents per dozen, and then the packages are 
short measure. 

From the foregoing it is not hard to see where many dollars can 
be saved in the course of a year by the pharmacist making his own 
preparations. 

There is always the additional satisfaction of being able to stand 
back of a preparation and say, " I made it and know it is good." 
The personal element counts for much in the drug business these 
days, and it is only by develooine;- a o-ood personalitv with vour 
customers that the influence of the chain stores', machine-working 
clerks can be successfully combated. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1915. J 



The Pineal Gland. 



119 



THE PINEAL GLAND IN RELATION TO SOMATIC, 
SEXUAL AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT. 1 
By Carey Pratt McCord, M.D., Detroit. 

From tumors involving the pineal gland, two distinct systems 
of symptoms and signs ensue, the neurologic and the metabolic. The 
neurologic manifestations arise from the encroachment of the neo- 
plasm on the intracranial contents and are indications of changes in 
pressure, in placement and of destruction of tissue. Such changes 
are the consequence of pineal tumors at any age of the patient; but 
in pineal tumors appearing in prepuberal life a second group of 
changes arises, the metabolic. These metabolic alterations are ref- 
erable to disturbance in the gland's secretory function. Apparently 
only in young males is this syndrome complete. 2 It consists of (i) 
early sexual development evidenced in the enlarged sex organs, 
pubic hair, general body hair, early changes in voice; (2) preco- 
cious mental development evidenced in the maturity of thought and 
speech, and (3) general body overgrowth to the extent that a child 
of 5 or 6 years may have the appearance of a child of 11 or 12. 

A case reported by Machell 3 presents these changes in a striking 
manner. The patient was a boy less than six years old at the time 
of the publication. At the age of five months there was pubic hair, 
erections at seventeen months, 'emissions at thirty months. The pa- 
tient's weight was y T / 2 pounds above normal at four months of age, 
12 pounds in excess at 8 months, 20 pounds in excess at three years. 
When the patient was forty-four months old, his height was 8^4 
inches above normal for a child of that age. At forty-eight months 
the circumference of the head was over two inches in excess of 
normal. The voice was a deep bass. Mental precocity was very 
marked and the general bearing and language was that of a much 
older person. 

1 Read before the Section on Pathology and Physiology at the Sixty- 
Fifth Annual Session of the American Medical Association, Atlantic City, 
N. J., June, 1914. Reprinted from the Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., July 18, 
1914, p. 232. 

2 For review of clinical cases see Bailey, Pearce, and Smith Ely Jelliffe : 
"Tumors of the Pineal Body," Arch. Int. Med., December, 1911, p. 851. 
For Physiology and Anatomy, see Vincent Swale: "Internal Secretion and 
Ductless Glands," 1912. 

3 Abstract taken from Medical Chronicle, 1912, lvii, 154. 



120 



The Pineal Gland. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1915. 



On account of the difficulties attending experimentation on this 
vestigial organ, the clinical findings with subsequent necropsy records 
have been the prime factor in the formulation of the prevailing ideas 
as to this gland's functions. The conception of this gland's function, 
however, has in part been developed from laboratory studies, notably 
from the results concomitant to the extirpation of the organ. This 
has been attempted frequently, but the situation of the gland is such 
that in the greater number of instances death followed the operative 
procedure, from hemorrhage or injury to the vermis or the occipital 
lobes. By operating on a large number of animals some workers 
have had a few animals survive. No changes attended the removal 
of the gland by Biedl, 4 Dandy, 5 and Exner and Boese, 6 but Foa, 7 
ablating the gland in chicks, and Sarteschi 8 in young rabbits and 
puppies, report the production of the precocious macrogenitosomatic 
syndrome. 

The publications growing out of these several clinical and labora- 
tory studies have given rise to conceptions of this organ and its func- 
tions that may be thus epitomized : 

The pineal body (epiphysis cerebri), probably the remains of a 
parietal eye, is situated just beneath the splenium of the corpus 
callosum, resting on the anterior quadrigeminate bodies, and is 
attached by its base to the habenular commissure. The gland varies 
in size, shape, and pigmentation, and does not stand in any propor- 
tional relation to the size of the brain or size of the body. The 
pineal body contains glandular elements, but these are few and not 
well defined. The greatest postnatal development is in the first years 
of life, and, ; so far as is known, the gland is only functionally active 
in the prepuberal life. On the assumption that tumors destroy the 
gland and deprive the body of the substances generated by it, the 
function of the gland is generally described as retarding and holding 
in abeyance too rapid development in childhood, of the body, mind, 
and sexual characteristics. When precocity in development appears 
in conjunction with pineal tumors, it is attributed to lack of glandular 
secretion. 

4 Biedl : " Innere Sekretion," 1910. 

5 Dandy, cited by dishing : " Pituitary Gland and Its Disorders," p. 283. 

6 Exner and Boese : Deutsch. Ztschr. f. Chir., 1910, cvii, 182. 

7 Foa: Arch. Ital. de Biol, 1912, lvii, 233- 

8 Sarteschi : " Pathologia," 1913, p. 707. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1915. J 



The Pineal Gland. 



121 



Below are recorded some findings from experimental work that 
are entirely in accord with the results obtained by Dana and Berkeley. 
Contrary to the view that precocious development is due to pineal 
deficiency (hypopinealism) , the same precocity in development has 
been brought about by the oral administration of pineal gland tissue. 

Experimental Data. 
The general plan of work entailed in this study has been to feed to 
very young animals minute quantities of pineal tissue and to record 
the weight changes/ sexual differences, and, in the case of dogs, 
increased mentality, over control animals maintained under other- 
wise identical conditions. One hundred and ten guinea-pigs, eighteen 
puppies, fourteen adult dogs, and sixteen chicks have been under 
observation. 

Fresh pineal glands from cattle have been employed. These were 
in part from veal, in part from young adults approximating three 
years, and in part from the general run of cattle from the abattoirs. 
The glands averaged in weight (on weighing sixty glands) 2.14 
grains. There were in the many thousand glands making up the 
several pounds that have been used marked variations in size, shape, 
and melanopigment. This pigment, which was present in a high 
percentage of glands, involves chiefly the encapsulating tissue. 

For feeding experiments the glands were prepared for permanent 
use in the following manner : The fresh glands were rinsed free of 
blood and stripped of adherent tissue. They were ground to a fine 
paste in the Latapie grinder, and, without drying, the paste was 
admixed with milk-sugar in such quantity that y 2 -grain milk-sugar 
represented 10 mg. pineal tissue. The mass was made into y 2 -grain 
tablets and quickly dried at room temperature. 

Early in the work it was apparent that the more striking results 
were being obtained from the animals fed with pineal substance from 
cattle not having reached adult life. ErTorts*were then made to estab- 
lish quantitatively the activity and the identity of the various ex- 
perimental lots of pineal preparations by employing the methods 
commonly used in testing the activity of endocrinous derivatives. 
Although certain cardiovascular changes regularly follow the intra- 
venous administration of pineal extracts to dogs, the extent of these 
changes is not a measure of the activity of the gland as a stimulator 
of growth. 

9 Dana and Berkeley : Med. Rec, New York, 1913, lxxxiii, 835. 



122 



The Pineal Gland. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1915. 



On the hypothesis that precocious development is due to hypo- 
pinealism, the first work was done in anticipation that feeding would 
retard development and prolong the presexual life. This was begun 
on two chicks incubated in the laboratory. Beginning at the age of 




Fig. i. — Position, relations and relative size of the pineal gland. Taken from beef 3 years of age. 

two days, one was fed 10 mg. veal pineal tissue, three times weekly, 
the other (and in all cases of controls) was fed a blank tablet of milk- 
sugar. The difference in growth should be noted (Table I). 



Table I. 

Results of Feeding Pineal Gland to Chicks. 





Third week, 
grammes 


Sixth week, 
grammes 


Ninth week, 
grammes 


Twelfth week, 
grammes 


Pineal 


219.5 


557-7 


895 


925 


Control 


92.5 


286.5 


550 


700 




I27.O 


271.2 


345 


225 



Am. Jour. Pharui. ) 
March, 1915. J 



The Pineal Gland. 



123 



The striking disproportion in size and the marked skeletal over- 
growth, making the large chick very awkward in his movements, soon 
made these chicks a laboratory curiosity, but the small number and 
the different sex did not justify any inference as to the influence of 
the pineal feeding. The results, however, were so striking that at 
once work was instituted in a more extensive way. 

A lot of fifty guinea-pigs in the second week of life was selected 
and divided into test and control groups. The test pigs were fed 
daily 10 mg. veal pineal tissue. The controls were fed a ^2 -grain 
milk-sugar tablet. Other conditions for the two lots were identical. 
The results obtained are given in Table II. 

Table II. 

Results of Feeding Pineal Gland to Young Guinea-Pigs. 



Control, 25 pigs 
Average initial weight , 201.2 grammes 
Age, 2 weeks 



Pineal, 25 pigs 
Average initial weight, 204.3 grammes 
Age, 2 weeks 



Weeks 


Average 
weight, 
grammes 


Gain, 
grammes 


Weeks 


Average 
weight, 
grammes 


Gain, 
grammes 


I 


I98.7 


—2-5 


I 


213.2 


8-9 


2 


220 


21.3 


2 


236.8 


23.6 


3 


226.8 


6.8 


3 


247.6 


10.8 


4 


251 


24.2 


4 


273.2 


25.6 


5 


265.3 


14-3 


5 


299.9 


26.7 


6 


265.7 


0.4 


6 


311. 1 


1 1.2 


7 


292.2 


26.5 


7 


338 


26.9 


8 


306 


13-8 


8 


361.4 


23-4 


9 


316.3 


10.8 


9 


365-5 


4.1 


10 


356.5 


40.3 


10 


4IO.8 


45-3 



Grammes 

Average weight at end of tenth 

week 356.6 

Average initial weight 201. 2 



Grammes 

'Average weight at end of tenth 

week .410.8 

Average initial weight 204.3 



Average gain J 55-4 Average gain 206.5 

Gain, per cent * 77.0 Gain, per cent 100.0 

Excess gain of pineals over controls, 23 per cent. 

This excess in weight of pineal-fed guinea-pigs over their controls 
is a symmetrical overgrowth. There is some increased adipose tissue, 
but this is generally distributed and not localized in any one region of 
the body. At no time has it been possible to continue this excessive 
growth above the normal adult size. As the animals approach adult 
size the pineal feeding is less effective and after full maturity is at- 
tained is without effect. There has been no tendency to gigantism. 



124 



The Pineal Gland. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( March, 1915. 



As a step toward determining the metabolic differences, quan- 
titative urinalyses were made on twenty-four-hour composite samples 
of urine from the two groups. 10 With proper regard for the 
numerous other factors that might vitiate the results obtained from 
urinalyses, there is a suggestive difference in the two urines as may 
be seen in the summary given in Table III. 



Table III. 

Summary of Analysis of Urines. 





Pineal 


Control 


Total volume collected (24 hours) 


187 C,C. 


160 c.c. 


Specific gravity (15.5 C.) 


I. Ol6 


1. 019 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Total solids 


2.51 


3.O2 


Water 


.9749 > 


96.98 


Total mineral matter 


1.21 


1-37 


Total nitrogen 


0.628 


O.872 




0.018 


0.025 


Phosphoric acid (as P2O5) 


0.065 


O.O43 




0.016 


O.OI8 




0.020 


O.OI8 


Alkalinity (as Na 2 C0 3 ) 


0.053 


O.O37 



Chicks. — A lot of fourteen chicks was secured at the age of one 
week. At so early an age sex could not be determined, and the lot 
was divided into test and control groups without knowledge as to 
grouping by sex. The test chicks were placed on veal pineal tissue 
for one week, with a resultant greater growth than controls. For 
the next four weeks they were fed pineal tissue from old cattle, 
without gaining. On being placed on the original veal preparation 
the test chicks again grew in excess over controls. 

Dogs. — The eighteen dogs employed represent four litters. In- 
fection of these puppies with distemper interfered seriously with the 
weight charts of these animals. So long as infections could be kept 
out of the animal quarters, the test animal outgrew the controls, but 
the wasting from infections interfered seriously with average results 
over prolonged periods. It was in connection with puppies that some 
differences in intelligence were observed. No great import is at- 
tached to these observations, but it was noted that the pineal-fed 
dogs were about one month ahead of the others in their habits. They 
were the first to learn to lap milk, the first to respond to a call, the 
first to be able to find their way back to the kennel. When work on 



I am under obligations to Mr. Lewis Davis for these analyses. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
March, 1915. J 



The Pineal Gland. 125 



these animals was discontinued, only the pineal-fed animals were m 
demand as pets, and those choosing them did so without any knowl- 
edge as to the differences in feeding. Of much more importance as 
regards increased intelligence are the favorable results reported by 
Berkeley, 11 who administered pineal tissue to mentally defective 
children and performed Binet tests as a criterion of mental advance- 
ment. \ 

Precocious Sexual Development. — A group of forty-eight guinea- 
pigs was divided into test and control lots. There was an equal 
number of males and females in each lot, but the males and females 
were separated. The test pigs were fed veal pineal tissue in 10-mg. 




Fig. 2. — Effect on growth of feeding pineal-gland tissue to chicks. The larger chick was fed 
10 mg. pineal tissue three times weekly. 

amounts daily. Feeding was begun when the animals were two 
weeks old and continued for nine weeks. The males and females of 
each group were then placed together in breeding-pens. As a measure 
of any difference, in sexual development it was thought desirable to 
note the date of birth of young in the two lots. As the end of the ap- 
proximate gestation period approached, these animals were observed 
as to the date of giving birth to young. All except two of the 
pineal-fed pigs gave birth to young before the first of the controls. 12 

11 Berkeley: Med. Rec, New York, 1914, lxxxv, 85, 513. 

12 In a second series of fifty guinea-pigs observed as to sexual differences, 
the males and females have been kept together from birth. Some of the 
females to whom pineal gland tissue has been fed have already given birth 
to young and many others are within the last ten days of gestation. With 
the exception of one pig, the control animals evince no signs of pregnancy. 



126 



The Pineal Gland. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1915. 



Fourteen days elapsed between the birth of young of the first pineal- 
fed pig and the first control pig. In all cases the young were normal 
and in no wise different from any other young pigs. 

Comment and Summary. 

In the foregoing records of experiments it may be observed that 
some of the changes generally attributed to deficiency of pineal 
secretion may be produced by supplying an added amount of pineal 
substance. In an effort to reduce to rationality these identical find- 
ings derived from two opposing sources, the so-called destructive 
neoplasms of the pineal gland on the one hand, and the feeding of the 
gland on the other, there arise two possibilities : First, this syndrome 
may appear from disrupting the general endocrinous balance from 
either increasing or decreasing the amount of pineal secretion avail - 




Fig. 3. — Effect on growth of guinea-pigs produced by feeding pineal-gland tissue. Control pigs 

to left, test pigs to right. 

able for the body's use. These secondary changes in the other en- 
docrinous glands are now in the course of investigation. Second, the 
cells of the neoplasms involving the pineal gland may retain some' of 
the metabolic and other functional characteristics of the normal pineal 
cell from which they were derived, and the peculiar body, sexual and 
mental changes in patients with such tumors are all manifestations 
of increased rather than decreased pineal activity. One of the most 
frequently occurring lesions of the pineal is the adenoma, and there 
is abundant evidence that at times cells of adenoma functionate 
after the manner of the cells from which they arise. In adenoma of 
the liver in cases reported by Weber, 13 Rolleston, 14 Wheeler, 15 and 
Ribbert, 16 distinct bile secretion by tumor-cells has been pointed out. 

13 Weber: Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. (Path. Sec.), 1910, in, 147. 
"Rolleston: "Diseases of the Liver," 1905. 

15 Wheeler: Guy's Hosp. Rep., 1909, lxiii, 225. 

16 Ribbert : Deutsch med. Wchnschr., 1909, xxxv, 1607. 



Am iifrc U h' i?!*™'] Bacterial versus Vegetable Toxins. . 127 

Ribbert established that the bile present in such tumors was not the 
bile of icterus from necrotic liver-tissue by demonstrating that the 
scirrhous encapsulating tissue was free from bile-stain and that the 
bile was confined to the liver-like cells of the active tumor. In at 
least one case, a metastasis in the lung from the liver secreted bile. 
In this connection it is significant that the functionating glandular 
cells of typical thyroid structure have been found in thyroid metas- 
tases in bone-tissue. Furthermore, in myeloma of the bone-marrow 
the cytoplasm 17 of the tumor-cells contains the granules that charac- 
terize normal myelocytes ; that is, the tumor to a certain extent 
assumes the function of the bone-marrow. All considered, it is 
perceived that functional activity of tumor-cells is not infrequent. 
Germane to the present contention is the statement by Hinds Howell 18 
in describing the characteristics of the cells of the pineal tumors of 
his three cases. He says : 

" A noteworthy feature is the similarity of these tumor-cells in 
many instances to those of the normal pineal gland." 

The results of this work lead me to the conclusion that the 
administration of minute quantities of pineal tisue from young 
animals to young animals stimulates rapid growth of the body, but 
not beyond normal size ; also, there are less well-established indica- 
tions of precocity of mental and sexual development. 



BACTERIAL VERSUS VEGETABLE TOXINS.* 
By J. Stanley White, Ph.C. 

In these days, when the values of such products as antidiphtheria 
serum and antitetanus serum are recognized on all sides as being 
unique in their respective spheres, it is interesting to recall that it was 
as the result of the study of a product obtained from a purely vege- 
table source that these biological products assumed a practical form. 
The substance referred to is ricin, the toxalbuminoid principle found 
in castor-oil seeds, and a comparison of this and allied substances, 

17 Weber and Ledingham :. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. (Path. Sec), 1909, 
ii, 206. 

18 Howell, Hinds: Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. (Neurolog. Sec.), 1910, iii, 65. 
* Reprinted from the Pharmaceutical Journal and Pharmacist, Feb. 6, 
1915, p. 156. 



128 



Bacterial versus Vegetable Toxins. { ^fX" m™' 



both of vegetable and animal origin, with similar products elaborated 
by bacteria may not be without interest. 

It is only comparatively recently that the existence of poisonous 
proteids or toxalbumins has been recognized. The idea that a proteid 
can produce dangerous or even fatal symptoms or act in any way 
except as a food dates only from 1884, but, according to Cushny, most 
of the animal poisons are now believed to be of proteid nature, and 
the toxins formed by microorganisms of disease are almost certainly 
of the same class. 

The most important toxins or toxalbumins of the vegetable king- 
dom are ricin, ahrin, and crotin. The two latter are obtained respec- 
tively from the seeds of Abrus precatorius (jequirity) and C rot on 
Tiglium, but they closely resemble ricin, and it will only be necessary 
here to refer at any length to this last-named substance. 

Ricin is an intensely poisonous phytoalbuminose, which may be 
obtained from castor-oil seeds after the removal of the oil. It occurs 
only in the endosperm and embryo, where it is present to the .extent 
of 2.8 to 3 per cent., and may be obtained from fresh decorticated and 
strongly expressed seed by percolation with a 10 per cent, saline 
solution in which it is soluble. The percolate is filtered and saturated 
at 20 to 22 C. with magnesium sulphate, and the resulting white 
precipitate separated from the crystallized salts by dialysis. This 
preparation is not pure ricin, and probably contains a large proportion 
of albumins. As thus obtained, ricin is a white, odorless, strongly 
toxic, ash-yielding powder, insoluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. 

The chemical nature of ricin appears to be analogous to that 
usually ascribed at the present time to the bacterial toxins and fer- 
ments and the name toxalbumin, originally suggested by KobeTt and 
Stillmark, who first investigated the substance, is abandoned. Ricin 
differs in a marked manner from the bacterial toxins and snake 
venoms by its relative stability towards the natural fluids and fer- 
ments of the alimentary tract. For this reason it appears to be 
absorbed by the intact alimentary tract, and thus may act as a poison 
when administered by the mouth. The action of ricin is, however, 
much less powerful in the stomach than when injected hypodermi- 
cally. The toxicity of the substance is enormous, and it may certainly 
be regarded as among the most powerful vegetable poisons when 
injected directly into the blood. 

According to Ehrlich, 1 -2000th grain per 2 pounds body weight is 
fatal; 1 Gm. (1543 grains) subcutaneously is sufficient to kill one 



Am iEarch* mr™' } Bacterial versus Vegetable Toxins. 129 

and a half million guinea-pigs, while the lethal dose for man is sup- 
posed to be 0.30 Gm. by the mouth or 0.003 Gm. subcutaneously. 
It should, of course, be remembered that these figures do not refer to 
pure ricin, but to ricin contaminated with more or less albumin. 
Smaller doses, injected hypodermically, soon produce immunity, 
antiricin being formed. 

As previously stated, the observation of Ehrlich of this protective 
reaction laid the foundation of serum therapeutics. Before discussing 
the production of antiricin it may be as well to briefly consider the 
toxins elaborated by bacteria. When pathogenic bacteria grow and 
multiply in the body, symptoms of poisoning (toxaemia) are mani- 
fested ; consequently it was inferred that bacteria either produced 
poisons during their growth or contained poisons. Subsequent ex- 
periments proved that the poisonous effects of a few bacteria which 
passed out into the surrounding media, and the poisonous effects 
of the other class, seemed to be due to the actual constituents of the 
bacterial cells. The former are termed exotoxins or extracellular 
toxins, and the latter endotoxins or intracellular toxins. Some bac- 
teria, on the other hand, notably the tubercle bacillus, elaborate both 
exotoxins and endotoxins. These toxins are substances of a very 
complex composition, probably allied to the proteins. In some in- 
stances they appear to be of the nature of enzymes or ferments, and 
they are direct products of the bacterial cells. 

Among the few bacteria producing extracellular toxins or exo- 
toxins the bacillus of diphtheria and the bacillus of tetanus are the 
most important. They are extremely poisonous ; in fact, it has been 
computed that the toxin elaborated by a virulent culture of the 
bacillus tetanus is the most potent poison known to science to-day. 
These exotoxins being excreted by the bacteria, are found in solution 
in the liquid culture media containing the growing microorganisms. 
Serum from an animal immunized by injecting into its body small 
and increasing doses of these soluble toxins, administered at regular 
intervals and given over a long period of time, is rich in antitoxin. 
This antitoxin, when properly prepared and standardized, constitutes 
the antitoxin of commerce. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxins are 
prepared in this manner. 

In the case of the bacteria which do not secrete a soluble toxin, 
the killed bacteria themselves are used for immunization. They 
constitute what are known as the antimicrobial serums, a familiar 
example of which is antistreptococcus serum, and should be distin- 



130 Bacterial versus Vegetable Toxins. { Am MardT Sis""" 

guished from antidiphtheria and antitetanus serums, which are 
strictly antitoxic in nature. 

Antiricin may be produced in exactly the same way as an anti- 
toxin ; in fact, antiricin might be described as a vegetable antitoxin. 
Rabbits have been immunized by gradually increasing doses of ricin 
until they have obtained an immunity of 5000, or, in other words, 
, have developed so much antiricin in their blood-serum that they are 
not affected by 5000 times as much ricin as would have killed them 
had no preliminary treatment been instituted. 

The immunity acquired for both ricin and bacterial toxins is 
entirely different from the tolerance acquired for morphine and 
other drugs. According to Cushny, the latter is due to the cells of 
the body becoming accustomed to being constantly bathed in a fluid 
containing the alkaloid. The same tolerance is acquired by various 
marine animals, which would be killed if suddenly changed to fresh 
water, but which are gradually acclimatized if the change is made 
more gradually by adding increasing proportions of fresh water to 
the sea water of the aquarium. In the case of ricin and bacterial 
toxins the immunity is due to formation in the body of a substance 
which antagonizes the original poison and constitutes what is known 
as an antitoxin. This antagonistic substance circulates in the blood, 
and can be withdrawn from the immune animal and injected into a 
second, which then acquires a certain degree of immunity, although 
less than that of the first. Just as diphtheria antitoxin and tetanus 
antitoxin are antagonistic only to their respective toxins, so also 
antiricin is antagonistic only to ricin and does not protect an animal 
from any other form of toxin. 

Various animal poisons, such as snake venom, spider toxin, and 
eel serum, have been found to act in a similar manner, although, 
apart from bacterial toxins, snake venom is the only one used for 
therapeutic purposes. By means of thi$ an antitoxin has been pro- 
duced which has marked prophylactic properties against snake bites, 
and is used extensively in countries where poisonous snakes abound. 
In addition to the vegetable toxins — ricin, abrin, and crotin — toxins 
have also been obtained from poisonous mushrooms. 

While antiricin has no practical therapeutic value, yet it was 
as the result of the study of this remarkably interesting substance 
that Ehrlich arrived at a practical method of standardizing the bac- 
terial antitoxins, thus establishing a definite antitoxin unit value for 
these products. 



Am klvch ms™' } A Synopsis of H. R. No. 6282. 131 

It is not within the province of this article to discuss the physio- 
logical methods employed in standardization or the ingenious side- 
chain theory which Ehrlich evolved to explain the probable action 
of the antitoxins in producing immunity. Suffice to say that the dis- 
covery of ricin paved the way for some of the most wonderful prod- 
ucts used in medicine to-day. It is only necessary to consider the tre- 
mendous number of lives which have been saved by the timely use of 
antidiphtheria serum, and particularly antitetanus serum in the 
present campaign, to fully appreciate its importance. 



A SYNOPSIS OF H. R. NO. 6282. 1 

An act to provide for the registration of, with collectors of 
internal revenue, and to impose a special tax upon all persons who 
produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal in, dispense, sell, dis- 
tribute, or give away opium or coca leaves, their salts, derivatives, or 
preparations, and for other purposes. 

Commonly known as The Harrison Bill. 

And Internal-Revenue Regulations No. 35 for its enforcement. 
In effect March 1, 19 15. 

An act of especial interest to physicians, pharmacists, veterina- 
rians, dentists, and all who have occasion to possess, sell, dispense, or 
to prescribe such medicines. 

Historical. 

The United States, through its delegates appointed by the Depart- 
ment of State, has taken an active interest in the several International 
Conferences that have been held at Shanghai, China, and at The 
Hague for the purpose of suppressing improper traffic in habit- 
forming drugs. These delegates committed the American nation to 
the adoption of legislation that would eradicate this evil in the United 
States and demonstrate the earnestness and sincerity of the American 
people in this international movement. 

In a special message to Congress in 1910, President Taft advo- 
cated a national law directed against this evil and based on the power 
granted by the Constitution to Congress to control interstate com- 
merce. . Dr. Hamilton Wright, who had been a delegate from the 
United States to these conferences, was likewise very zealous and 
energetic in his demands for a stringent federal anti-narcotic law. 



1 Prepared by George M. Beringer, A.M., Ph.M., Camden, N. J. 



132 A Synopsis of H. R. No. 6282. { Am id™h in™' 

In 19 1 2, Francis Burton Harrison, Representative from New 
York, introduced in the Sixty-second Congress the first draft of his 
anti-narcotic bill and, since that time, his name has been associated 
with the proposed legislation. The measure has since been largely re- 
written and remodelled mainly through the efforts of the National 
Drug Trade Conference. It was reintroduced in the Sixty-third 
Congress, and the agitation for a National Anti-Narcotic law cul- 
minated in the final passage of the act by Congress on December 10 
and the approval by President Wilson on December 17. The act 
as .passed is based upon the constitutional right of Congress to 
impose taxes. 

Section i. — Requires that on and after March 1, 19 15, every 
person, 2 who produces, imports, manufactures, compounds, deals in, 
dispenses, sells, distributes or gives away opium or coca leaves or any 
compound, manufacture, salt, derivative or preparation thereof, must 
register 3 with the collector of internal revenue and pay a special 
tax of $1 per annum. 

Exemptions — 

(a) Employees of persons registered under the act, when acting 
within the scope of such employment. 

(b) Officers of U. S. Government service in purchasing said 
drugs for the government service. 

(c) Officers of the State, county, or municipality making purchases 
of said drugs for State, county, or municipal hospitals or prisons. 4 

Sec. 2. — Makes it unlawful to sell, barter, exchange, or give away 
any of the said drugs, except on the written order of a person regis- 
tered under the act and on an official order form. 5 The person filling 
such an order must file it according to its registry number and district 

2 " Person " means a partnership, association, company, or corporation as 
well as an individual. 

3 Registration must be made on the official form supplied by the collector. 
If the " applicant " is engaged in more than one profession or business where 
any of said drugs are made, stored, or dispensed, a separate registry must be 
made, and a special tax paid for each such profession or business. 

4 Sanitariums, hospitals, dispensaries, etc., that are not owned by the 
U. S. Government, or by State, county, or municipality, must register and pay 
the special tax or they cannot legally have in possession, purchase, or dispense 
said drugs. 

5 Requisition must be made to the Internal Revenue Collector for these 
forms, which are issued only to persons registered, in books of 10; 10 cents 
is the charge for each book. 



A Synopsis of H. R. No. 6282. 133 

and preserve it for two years, subject to the inspection of authorized 
officers of the Government of the United States, the State, county, 
or municipality. The person issuing 6 such an order must preserve 
a duplicate on the official order form stub for two years and subject 
to the same inspection. 
Exemptions — 

(a) Dispensing by a physician, dentist, or veterinary surgeon 
registered 7 under the act, in the course of his professional practice 
only. A record must be made and kept, subject to inspection, for two 
years, of the drugs, amount, date, name, and address of the patient ; 
exception is made as to the record of such drugs as he may dispense 
to a patient he shall personally visit. 

(b) Dispensing by a dealer upon the written prescription of a 
physician, dentist, or veterinary surgeon registered under the act. 
The prescription must be signed and dated by the prescriber, and 
must have thereon his registry number, the location of his office, 
the name and address of the patient. 8 All such prescriptions must be 
filed, so as to be readily accessible for inspection, and preserved for 
two years. 9 

Refilling of prescriptions containing the said drugs in larger 
amount than 

2 grains of opium, 
y grain of morphine, 
Y% grain of heroin, 
1 grain of codeine, 
or any salt or derivative of any of them in one fluidounce, or, if a 
solid or semi-solid preparation, in one avoirdupois ounce, is pro- 
hibited. 10 

6 These order forms can be used only by the person whose registry num- 
ber -and name is stamped thereon by the revenue office. 

7 Physicians, dentists, and veterinary surgeons are not exempted from 
registration. Unless registered they cannot have possession of, purchase ; 
prescribe, dispense, or give away any of the said drugs. 

8 The regulations provide that druggists must refuse to fill any such 
prescription unless signed as required, nor must a prescription for said drugs 
be filled by a druggist if he has reason to suspect that it is fraudulently issued 
or obtained. 

9 A separate file should be kept for such prescriptions, otherwise a record 
must be kept showing the file number, the name of the prescriber and the 
person for whom the prescription is filled. 

10 Prescriptions containing coca leaves, cocaine, eucaine, or any of the de- 
rivatives or synthetic substitutes for these cannot be refilled. 



134 A Synopsis of H. R. No. 6282. 

(c) Drugs shipped to a foreign country in accordance with regu- 
lations prescribed by that country. 

(d) Sales to the officers exempted in Section 1. 

Sec. 3. — Authorizes the collector of the district to call upon any 
person registered under the act for a report, verified by oath, setting 
forth the quantity of the said drugs received by him during a period 
immediately preceding the demand, not exceeding three months. 
The report must state in detail the dates and from whom received, 
drugs and quantity. 11 

Every person dispensing directly 12 to the consumer any of said 
drugs must on the first day of March, 191 5, prepare and keep on file 
an inventory of all such drugs, preparations or remedies so held 
and such inventory must be verified by oath not later than the fifth 
day of March, 191 5. 

Preparations exempted under Section 6 from the provisions of 
this act need not be included in such inventory. 

Sec. 4. — Makes it unlawful for any person not registered under 
the act to send, ship, carry, or deliver any of the said drugs in inter- 
state commerce. Common carriers and employees of registered per- 
sons acting within the scope of such employment, messengers deliver- 
ing prescriptions, and the officers exempted under Section 1 are 
exempted from provisions of this section. 

Sec. 5. — Determines the right of inspection 13 of records and 
reports made in accordance with the provisions of this act, by officers 
of the Treasury Department, and officials of the State, county, or 
municipality who are charged with the enforcement of laws regulating 
the traffic in said drugs. 

Sec. 6. — Exempts from the provision of the act preparations 
and remedies which do not contain more than 
2 grains of opium, 
Yx grain of morphine, 
% grain of heroin, 
t grain of codeine, 

11 Official forms for such requests and reports are provided by the de- 
partment. 

12 Dispensing druggists, physicians, dentists, veterinary surgeons, and 
dispensaries are such direct dispensers. 

13 Under authority of Section 10, inspectors will be appointed to visit at 
irreguar intervals and make inspection of records, orders, prescriptions, re- 
ports, etc. Investigations are to be conducted so as not to unnecessarily annoy 
or interfere with business. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
March, 1915. / 



A Synopsis of H. R. No. 6282. 



135 



or any salt or derivative of any of them in one fluidounce, or, if a 
solid or semi-solid preparation, in one avoirdupois ounce; or to lini- 
ments, ointments, or other preparations which are prepared for 
external use only, except lmiments, ointments, and other preparations 
which contain cocaine or any of its salts or alpha or beta-eucaine or 
any of their salts or any synthetic substitute for them ; provided, 
that such remedies and preparations are sold, distributed, given away, 
dispensed, or possessed as medicines and not for the purpose of evad- 
ing the intentions and provisions of this act. 14 

Decocainized coca leaves and preparations made therefrom are 
likewise exempted. 

Sec. 7. — Extends the statutes relating to internal revenue taxes 
so as to be applicable to this act. 

Sec. 8. — Makes it unlawful for any person not registered under 
this act to have possession or control of any of the said drugs unless 
same has been prescribed in good faith by a physician, dentist, or 
veterinary surgeon registered under the act. 

Further exemption is provided for an employee of a registered 
person who has possession by virtue of his employment and not on 
his own account, officers exempted under Section 1, warehouseman 
holding possession for a person registered, common carrier engaged 
in transporting such drugs. 

A nurse is permitted to have any of said drugs when under the 
supervision of a physician, dentist or veterinary surgeon registered 
under the act, and having possession by virtue of such employment 
and not on his or her own account. 

Sec. 9. — Fixes as penalties for violation or failure to comply 
with the requirements of the act a fine of not more than $2000 or 
imprisonment of not more than five years, or both, in the discretion 
of the court. 

Sec. 10. — Authorizes the appointment of Revenue Department 
employees to enforce the. provisions of J:he act. 

Sec* 11. — Appropriates $150,000 for the purpose of carrying 
into effect the provisions of the act. 

Sec. 12. — Provides that this act is not to invalidate the Federal 
Food and Drugs Act or the act to prohibit the importation of and 
use of opium for other than medicinal purposes. 

"Compliance with the provisions of the Harrison Bill does not relieve 
any person from strict observance of the State laws or municipal ordinances 
regulating the sale of narcotics. 



136 



Drug Intoxication. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1915. 



DRUG INTOXICATION. 1 

An Economic Waste and a Menace to Public Health. 

By M. I. Wilbert, Technical Assistant, Division of Pharmacology, Hygienic 
Laboratory, United States Public Health Service. 

It has been estimated that more than 200,000 persons die an- 
nually in the United States from so-called degenerative diseases, 
and the mortality statistics compiled by the Census Bureau show 
that in the registration area there has been an increase of more than 
100 per cent, in the deaths from diseases of the kidneys, heart, and 
blood-vessels during the past thirty years. 

While it is to be expected that the gradual decrease in the general 
mortality rate, particularly the decrease in deaths from readily 
preventable diseases like typhoid fever and smallpox, would tend 
to lengthen the average human life, and thus add to the number of 
deaths from these so-called degenerative diseases in advanced years, 
mortality statistics show that the greater proportion of the increase 
in the death-rate from diseases of the kidneys, heart, and blood- 
vessels has been among persons who should be and are generally 
considered to be in the prime of life. This great increase in the 
mortality of persons between forty and sixty years of age, from 
diseases characteristic of senility, constitutes a deplorable and un- 
necessary economic loss that is well deserving of careful and com- 
prehensive study. 

For many years it has been accepted as fact that changes in the 
natural resistance of the human body may be and are brought about 
by intoxications such as are produced by alcohol, tobacco, narcotic 
drugs, and the various occupational poisonings that are attracting 
such widespread attention at the present time. These several sources 
of intoxication have, however, long been recognized and considerable 
attention, time, and thought have been devoted to the study of their 
possible untoward effects. Their harmfulness was generally well 
known and some effort made to combat their influence even before 
the end of the eighth decade of the previous century, from which 
period the steady and somewhat rapid rise in mortality from de- 
generative diseases appears to date. 

An important source of intoxication to which altogether too, little 
attention has as yet been given is suggested by a comparative study 



Reprint from the Public Health Reports, vol. 29, No. 42. Oct. 16, 1914. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1915. J 



Drug Intoxication. 



137 



of the statistics published in the Thirteenth Census of the United 
States, in connection with the remarkable increase in the manufacture 
and inferentially, therefore, in the consumption of materials used as 
medicines. The paragraph relating to patent medicines and com- 
pounds and druggists' preparations shows that during the sixty years 
for which figures are obtainable the values of products of this type 
at the manufacturing establishment increased from $3,863,815 in 
1849 to $141,941,602 in 1909. An even more impressive suggestion 
is presented by the appended table showing the increase in the num- 
ber of establishments engaged in the manufacture of commodities of 
this type, the cost of the materials used, and the value of the products 
at the manufacturing establishment, compared with the increase in 
population of the United States during practically the same period 
of time. 

Number of Establishments Engaged in the Manufacture of Patent Medicines and 
Druggists' Preparations, the Cosi of Materials Used and the Value of the Product 
as Manufactured Compared with the Population of the United States, Exclusive 
of Outlying Possessions, during the Corresponding Period* 



Year 


Number 
of estab- 
lishments 


Cost of 
material 


Value of 
product 


Population of 
United States 


Year of 
census 


1909 


••• 3.642 


$50,375,665 


$141,941,602 


91,972,266 


I9IO 


1899 


••• 2,154 


31,949,890 


88,790,774 


75,994-575 


1900 


1889 


... 3.08Q 


15,571.187 


43,940,120 


62,947,714 | 


1890 


1879... 


620 


7,906,138 


16,885,498 


50,155,783 ! 


1880 



* Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, v. 8, pp. 451-452, and v. 1, p. 126. 



Thus it appears that while the increase in population of the United 
States from 1880 to 1910 was approximately 83.3 per cent., the in- 
crease in the value of patent medicines and related products was 
740.5 per cent. In other words, while the population of the United 
States was less than doubled, the value of the^medicines manufactured 
and consumed was increased ninefold. The cost of the material to 
the manufacturer was seven times greater in 1909 than in 1879, and 
the value added by manufacture was eleven times greater in 1909 than 
it was in 1879. These figures, given above, high as they are, represent 
but a minor portion of the expenditures by American people for 
medicines of various kinds. Many, if not all, of the chemicals used 
as medicines are made in manufacturing establishments other than 
those included in the above enumeration, and other materials, particu- 
larly crude drugs and the finer grades of chemicals, are imported from 



138 



Drug Intoxication. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1915. 



foreign countries. The table of imports for consumption in the 
United States for 19 13 includes drugs, chemicals, and other products 
used as medicine to the value of more than $100,000,000. It has 
been conservatively estimated that the people of the United States 
expend annually upward of $500,000,000 for medicine, and that by 
far the greater bulk of the medicine purchased is consumed hap- 
hazardly and not under the direct supervision of experts whose 
knowledge would tend to prevent harmful intoxication and untoward 
results from the ingestion of potent and in many instances danger- 
ously harmful preparations. 

The relative quantities of some of the products imported are 
shown in the appended tables, compiled from the list of imported 
merchandise entered for consumption in the United States, issued 
by the Department of Commerce. The first of these tables shows 
the number of pounds of some of the more widely used botanical 
drugs imported into the United States during the years 1909 to 1913, 
inclusive, and the second table reflects the quantities of some of the 
more widely used medicinal chemicals entered for consumption 
during the same period. 

When one considers the potential possibilities for harm inherent 
in practically all drugs and preparations it is astonishing that atten- 
tion has not earlier been directed to the need for careful, systematic 
study of the possible untoward influences of the several drugs used. 

The frequent, excessive or long-continued use of any one of a 
number of inorganic compounds, particularly the soluble salts of 
mercury, lead, uranium and related metals, has been shown to be 
irritating to the kidneys and capable of producing chronic lesions. 
The constant ingestion of many of the otherwise innocuous inorganic 
salts when contaminated by traces of arsenic or lead may, and 
undoubtedly will, produce toxic manifestations. 

Many organic compounds have also been found to produce marked 
changes or secondary manifestations. The changes produced by 
alcohol and the narcotic drugs have been fairly well recognized and 
considerable data are also available regarding the harmful effects of 
the coal-tar analgesics, the several hypnotics, and a number of alde- 
hydes and related products. 

All of the important or active medicaments must of necessity have 
harmful influences when taken indiscriminately or for a continued 
length of time. It has been very properly asserted that the activity 
of drugs may vary to an infinite number of degrees. It may be 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1915. J 



Drug Intoxication. 



139 



accepted as fact that whenever the activity is sufficient to produce a 
decided therapeutic effect in disease it is also sufficient to produce 
a deleterious effect when improperly used, either as to time or quan- 
tity. In other words, useful drugs are of necessity poisonous sub- 
stances which tend to derange normal processes of the human 
organism and many of them must of necessity be extremely injurious 
to the various organs of the body if used at all liberally for any 
appreciable length of time. 



Quantities of Some of the More Widely Used Botanical Drugs Imported into the 
United States during the Years iqoq to iqij, Inclusive. 





1909 


1910 


1911 . 


1912 


1913 




Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Aloes 


67L257 


944,007 


980,205 


666,229 


909,279 


Asafcetida 


42,335 


95,536 


114,686 


138,066 


134,579 


Balsam of Peru. . . . 


25,843 


50,363 


37,910 


* 47,862 


48,996 


Benzoin 


69,146 


55-634 


98,366 


94-733 


105,967 


Buchu 




130,644 


106,345 


181,121 


105-310 






Cinchona 


3002,385 


3.305-894 


4,136,354 


2.935,350 


3,329,973 


Copaiba 


234,257 


208,566 


191,154 


159-172 


206,447 


Cubebs : . . 


87,050 


104,713 


129,014 


in,357 


166,307 


Gentian 


1,485,389 


1,177,433 


1,537,919 


1,585,612 


1,796,928 


Ipecac 


35,i66 


36,261 


27-654 


41.627 


54,648 


Jalap 


66,096 


199,905 


230,679 


119. 211 


277,275 


Nux vomica 


1,666,957 


2,738,662 


4.330,402 


2,427,187 


2,306,735 


Sarsaparilla 


570.124 


560,858 


379,091 


452,917 


301,308 


Senna 


2,159,553 


2,564-452 


3,063,275 


3,164,003 


2,634,117 



Quantities of Some of the More Widely Used Medicinal Chemicals Entered for Con- 
sumption in the United States during the Years iqoq to IQ13, Inclusive. 



1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 



Acid: Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds 

Benzoic 491,739 364,650 502,878 470,004 863,015 

Boracic 230,968 416,842 343,094 276,496 362.400 

Carbolic 4,729,552 4,507,693 4,371,014 5,686,704 8,345,631 

Citric 243,010 142,001 97,847 67,332 8,677 

Salicylic 1,988 64.531 32,876 28,769 31,844 

. Tartaric 124,774 I IQ4457 331,538 j 105,311 78,942 

Aniline oil 1,950,620 1,946,805 1,917,202 1,843,443 2,015,318 

Aniline salts 6,130,517 5,870,905 5-133-723 4-831,075 4-976, 108 

Caffeine 149,599 i 60,463 57,025 43,859 59,773 

Camphor 2,421,023 3,519,233 4,218,430 2,404,140 3,941,170 

Cinchona bark alka- 
loids *2, 330,304 *3, 012, 196 *3, 102, 194 *3, 044,238 *3>237>994 

Iodine 12,961 771,090 210,467 497,823 351,296 

Lime, citrate of ... . 3,917,274 4,114,256 5,219,544 5,903,501 5,526,954 
Tartar and cream of 

tartar 32,121,394 128,415,045 29,312,257 23,746,330 29,548,388 



* Ounces. 



140 



Drug Intoxication. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1915. 



Quinine, for instance, the alkaloid of cinchona bark, is still used 
in rather large quantities and as such or in the form of bark was 
imported into the United States, in 1913, to the total of 2,065,000,000 
average doses; enough to give every man, woman, and child from 
twenty-five to thirty doses each year. This drug has long been known 
to produce a characteristic form of intoxication accompanied by 
roaring in the ears, impairment of hearing, dizziness, headache and 
nausea. Gastro-intestinal disturbances are also observed at times 
and the ingestion of even small doses for a considerable period may 
be followed by gastric catarrh, and its sequelae. The administration 
of larger doses has been followed by marked and at times persistent 
deafness and even blindness. 

The habitual ingestion of coal-tar analgesics, which form para- 
aminophenol, is followed by a train of symptoms including destruc- 
tive changes in the blood, the production of methgemoglobin, a de- 
generation of the heart muscle, cardiac failure, cyanosis, abnormally 
low temperature, and collapse. 

The salicylates have many of the properties of coal-tar analgesics 
and are used quite extensively as sedatives for the relief of headache 
and neuralgic pains. They are known to have a deleterious influence 
on the digestive function and in larger doses or when long continued 
are frequently accompanied by symptoms of cinchonism similar to 
those produced by quinine. The salicylates may also have a depress- 
ing influence on the central nervous system accompanied by convul- 
sions, slowing of respiration, and collapse from circulatory depression. 

Pontius (/. Am. M. Assoc., vol. 62, p. 797) reports seeing a ner- 
vous woman, age forty-five, who on the advice of a friend had for 
the past year taken five-grain tablets (one per dose) from three to 
ten times daily for neuralgic pains. Her mental condition when seen 
by the physician was similar to that of one addicted to the morphine 
habit. 

The coal-tar hypnotics like sulphonal and trional may cause acute 
symptoms of poisoning accompanied by ataxia, nausea, gastric pain, 
irritation of the kidneys, albuminuria, and nephritis. 

The mental state induced by the long-continued use of sulphonal 
and its congeners in full doses is said to be a badly disturbed one 
with derangement and even dementia. 

The occurrence of acute intoxication in patients from the ingestion 
of various drugs is frequently ascribed to idiosyncrasy. As yet com- 
paratively little is known regarding the principles underlying this 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 

March, 1915. / 



Current Literature. 



141 



occasional manifestation of undue activity, but it is probable that 
idiosyncrasy, so called, is in reality due to the synergistic action of 
several compounds taken at the same time or to the combined action 
of products formed in the human body with a compound taken as 
medicine. 

In connection with some drugs, the use of which is long continued, 
the body may develop a tolerance or diminished sensitiveness to their 
action. This appears to be particularly true of narcotics and of 
many of the cathartic drugs. These lead to the habitual consumption 
of drugs, and their use once commenced is fraught with many 
difficulties. That the use of the so-called laxative drugs is not an 
entirely negligible factor is well shown by the table presented above, 
which enumerates the quantities of a few of the drugs of this type 
that are consumed annually in this country. 

The amount of money expended annually for drugs and medicines 
in this country is out of all proportion to the real need or requirements 
of the people, and to this extent at least the unnecessary use of 
medicines may be considered an economic waste. 

Enough has been said to demonstrate that medicines if at all 
deserving of the name must of necessity be harmful when misapplied 
or when used for any considerable length of time without a due 
appreciation of their possible secondary influences and the chronic 
derangements that may follow in their wake. 

The rapid increase in mortality from degenerative diseases and the 
fact that this increase is greatest in persons who should be in the 
prime of life would warrant making a careful study of the problems 
involved with the view of directing attention to the causative factors 
of the degenerative processes. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 
The Druggist as Seen by the Governor of Minnesota. 

In the address of Governor W. S. Hammond, of Minnesota, 
before the Thirty-first Annual Convention of the Minnesota State 
Pharmaceutical Association, February 9, in St. Paul, he said : 

" The pharmacist is a great deal more than the apothecary of old 
or the druggist o*f even more recent days. There was a time when 
the apothecary shop, the drug store — either — was a sort of gather- 
as-you-please to gossip over the events of the day and incidentally 
and between times compound various medicinal preparations. The 
work of the apothecary was a particular and technical kind of work, 



142 



Current Literature. 



1 Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t March, 1915. 



and there was so little of it that the compensation necessarily 
was quite large. But there has come a great change in more recent 
years. The pharmacist is the scientific man that the apothecary was 
of old. He is the technical compounder, the registered druggist, 
but he is more of a business man than his predecessors were, and 
because of that fact the people, those who trade with the pharmacist, 
have been the gainers. The whole calling itself seems to have taken 
on another form. I imagine there is not so much compounding to- 
day as there was a few years ago. Great establishments like Wyeth's 
and Parke, Davis & Co. do a great deal of the work that the old- 
time apothecary did. Now, under these changing conditions, it is 
very, very advisable, it seems to me, that there should be frequent 
meetings for communication of ideas and thoughts relating to the 
business among the pharmacists of the State. The pharmacist has 
become a business man ; he has always been a business man, but I 
am inclined to think that to-day he is more of a business than 
prof essional man, while some time ago it seems to me he was more 
of the professional man than the business man. Now, is there any 
danger growing out of this? Is there anything that you ought to 
think about in connection with this change, if I am correctly advised 
and my conclusions are warranted by the facts? It would be un- 
fortunate if this old-time honorable profession should become merely 
business. So much of the sentiment, so much of the romance would 
be taken away that we might feel somewhat sad at the change, 
but more than mere sentiment, more than mere romance, it would uc 
another development of the dollar idea. I admire the successful 
business man. We cannot but be astonished at the great efforts 
of the captains of industry. We like the strong, pushing, virile 
business men who start with little or nothing, and build up gigantic 
enterprises, but they are business men. We would not want our 
lawyers, our doctors, out apothecaries, our clergymen to be dis 
tinguished principally as mere business men. We like to have them 
remain in the realm of professionalism, and be as great and as useful 
in professional work as others are in the business field. Now, I trust 
that with these great houses compounding so many of the things 
that the apothecaries themselves compounded not many years ago 
we will not have a change in this line of work, and that the apothecary 
may remain the professional instead of the business man, realizing, 
of course, the necessity of good judgment and of business skill in 
the conduct of any business enterprise, and yet there are very im- 
portant matters connected with pharmacy that are wholly unrelated 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
March, 1915. J 



Current Literature. 



143 



to the mere question of bookkeeping and income and outgo. We 
are all interested, and you are particularly interested, in legislation 
tending to restrict the use of noxious drugs. Here is a line of en- 
deavor that, of course, -should be absolutely divorced from the 
business end of the work. Here is a question that appeals to you 
as professional men and as men who desire to adapt your profession 
to the best interest of your brothers and your sisters, and any attempt, 
I fear, to connect this kind of legislation with the business end of the 
pharmacist's occupation and profession would tend to detract from 
the high professional standard that the apothecary has always had, 
and that the modern pharmacist should endeai-or to maintain. I am 
not a pharmacist, but a mere observer. I have spoken simply as a 
layman in a general way. My purpose in coming here was not to 
deliver a lecture. I could not hope to impart advice to men and 
women like yourselves avIio have studied the subject for years, but I 
may in a way represent the layman who looks upon the pharmacist 
as the majority of laymen do — who wishes him Avell and desires to see 
the time-honored and highly-respected profession maintain all that 
is good in it, and push on to higher and better results. I welcome this 
body here this morning. I repeat my greetings; I trust that you 
will accomplish much for yourselves and much for the benefit of 
your profession throughout the State and country." 

New Beta-xaphthol Reactiox. 
It has been observed that a fairly well-diluted solution of beta- 
naphthol in the presence of a relatively small quantity of nitrite 
gives a beautiful red-violet or red color. The reaction, which is 
stated to be useful for the detection of beta-naphthol in foodstuffs^ 
is carried out as follows : A few drops of concentrated sulphuric 
acid are added to i c.c. of diluted beta-naphthol solution, and to 
this is added 0.05 c.c. of a 0.01 per cent, solution of sodium nitrite, 
when the above coloration is obtained. The reaction is sensitive in 
a solution containing 0.0002 per cent, of beta-naphthol. The colora- 
tion is supposedly due to a quinonoid derivative of beta-naphthol 
— The Chemist and Druggist, Dec. 19 14, p. 45. 

Digestive Enzymes. 
The Journal of the A. M. A. comments on a recent bulletin of 
the Bureau of Chemistry which speaks of the importance of deter- 
mining exactly the activity af digestive enzymes and ferments. The 



144 



Phar mac eutical Meeting . 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1915. 



difficulty with such preparations is that they are most unstable ; while 
active at first, they soon lose their digestive power. An examina- 
tion of certain pharmaceutical preparations supposed to contain defi- 
nite ferments showed that they contained little or none of these bodies. 
Where manufacturers had used proper amounts of the various en- 
zymes, such as pepsin, pancreatin, diastase, and similar ferments, no 
attempt had been made to determine their activity. Manufacturers 
are warned by the Department of Agriculture, through the Bureau 
of Chemistry, that combinations claiming to contain digestive en- 
zymes must be active when sold. Such preparations should be 
dated, and not sold after they become inactive. " The Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry nearly seven years ago called attention to 
the various digestive impossibilities on the market. Practically all 
of these are still sold. To sell a sick patient a mass of inert material 
which he believes to be active is not only perpetration of a fraud on 
the patient, but does gross injury to the physician who prescribes for 
him and endangers still further the patient's health. It is to be hoped 
that the government will adopt measures that will prevent the sale 
of such useless and scientifically absurd combinations." — Jour. A. 
M. A., Dec, 19, 1914. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

At the Pharmaceutical Meeting held at the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy on Friday, January 15th, at 3 p.m., in the Chemical 
Lecture Room, Mr. Warren H. Poley presided and introduced Prof. 
Charles H. La Wall, who gave a talk upon the subject of Bermuda, 
which was occasioned by a recent visit to the island. 

The talk was illustrated with lantern reproductions of nearly 100 
photographs, which had been arranged in chronological order and 
which showed the principal features of interest, geographical, topo- 
graphical, architectural, aesthetic, and scientific. 

Views were shown of the growing plants which are of interest 
during the winter season, and specimens of some of the native fruits, 
including the pawpaw, were given especial attention. The lecture 
was remarkable in that no mention whatever was made of the three 
products for which Bermuda is particularly noted, viz., arrowroot, 
onions, and lilies. This omission was occasioned by the fact that 
arrowroot is no longer grown for the market, and the onion and lily 
crops are just being planted at this time of the year. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHJlMAC 

APRIL, igiji 




THE QUALITATIVE SEPARATION^l^p^^pfTlFICA- 
TION OF SOME OXYMETHYLANTHfe^QUlNONES. 

By E. Monroe Bailey. 

The color principles in medicinal plants are not, as a rule at 
least, their so-called " active principles," — that is, the constituents 
upon which the therapeutic value of the plants depends, — but they 
are so intimately associated with these constituents that a knowledge 
of their behavior is of service both in the assay of crude drugs and 
in the examination of medicinal preparations. 

The common cathartic drugs, senna, rhubarb, aloes, and the 
various species of buckthorn, are characterized by a group of color 
principles known as oxymethylanthraquinones. These compounds 
are derivatives of the fundamental substance anthracene, C 14 H 10 , or, 
more directly, of its diketone, anthraquinone, C 14 H s 2 . From these 
two substances a large group of vegetable colors is derived. 1 Al- 
though the oxymethylanthraquinones are not confined to the cathartic 
drugs, their presence will usually indicate a more or less restricted 
group of plants of medicinal value. Xone of the above-named drugs 
is characterized by a single anthraquinone derivative, but. rather, 
each contains a mixture of several of them, so that the identification 
of any particular oxymethylanthraquinone fails of the diagnostic 
value it would otherwise have. Mossier, 2 however, has differen- 
tiated between senna, rhubarb, and cascara on the basis of the 
oxymethylanthraquinone crystals obtained by recry'stallization from 
hot acetic acid. 

The Borntrager reaction 3 is given by all the natural oxymethyl- 



1 Czapek, " Biochemie der Pflanzen II/' p. 528. 
2 Through Analyst 38, 321 (1913). 
3 Zeit, anal. Chem. (1880), p. 165. 

(145) 



146 Separation of Oxymethylanthraquinones. { Am " A p?SS r ' 1 ^5 

anthraquinones. 4 This test depends upon the production of a red 
color in the aqueous liquid when an ethereal solution of oxymethyl- 
anthraquinones is washed with dilute alkali. This cannot be re- 
garded as a specific test, since other colors, both natural and synthetic, 
behave similarly. The writer's experience with such conditions led 
to the outline of a procedure 5 to distinguish chrysophanic acid 
(dioxymethylanthraquinone) in the presence of phenolphthalein, 
naematoxylin, and curcumin. 6 After hematoxylin and curcumin 
have been eliminated, chrysophanic acid is distinguished from phenol- 
phthalein by reducing both substances with zinc dust and dilute 
sodium hydroxide, whereupon chrysophanic acid is reduced to its 
anthranol, which is readily reoxidized by exposure to air, dilution 
with water, or, best, by the addition of a few drops of hydrogen 
peroxide, a pink-red color resulting. Phthalin is not sensitive to 
this method of oxidization, and remains colorless. This procedure 
constitutes a much more specific test for oxymethylanthraquinones 
than the Borntrager reaction. Warren 7 has applied it to mixtures 
of phenolphthalein with senna, cascara, and aloes, and obtained satis- 
factory results. In case of aloes he found that upon reoxidization 
the red color was slow to appear, and was somewhat masked by 
yellow coloring matter. This point will be referred to later. Warren 
has also perfected a method to effect the separation of phenol- 
phthalein in presence of oxymethylanthraquinones which depends 
upon the removal of phenolphthalein as its tetraiodo compound, 
leaving the anthraquinone derivatives to be tested for in the usual 
way. 

It was originally our hope to find some color reaction which 
would serve to differentiate between the cathartic drugs already 
mentioned. While experiments have thus far fallen short of success 
in this respect, they have, nevertheless, led to some interesting differ- 
ences among the oxymethylanthraquinones themselves, more espe- 
cially between the dioxymethyl and trioxymethyl derivatives, chryso- 
phanic acid and emodin respectively. 

4 Tschirch und Pederson, Arch. Pharm., 236, p. 205 (1898). 

5 Bailey, /. Ind. Eng. Chem., 6, 4, 320. 

6 Of the two last-named, substances, hematoxylin belongs to a group of 
colors distinct from the anthracene derivatives, viz., the flavon group, while 
the constitution of curcumin shows it to be closely allied to the flavon deriva- 
tives. Czapek, " Biochemie der Pflanzen II," pp. 523 and 527. 

7 Am. Jour. Pharm., 86, 10, 444-49 (1914). 



Am \prnN9?5 arm ' } Separation of xy methyl anthraquinones* 147 

To obtain the mixed color principles, hot extraction with benzol 
was employed, as recommended by De la Rue and Muller 8 in their 
work on rhubarb. Twenty-five Cc. of fluidextract of the various 
drugs examined were evaporated to remove alcohol, diluted with 
25 Cc. of water, treated with an excess of normal lead acetate, and 
filtered through paper pulp on a Buchner funnel by the aid of 
suction. The lead precipitate, together with the paper pulp, was 
transferred to a beaker and digested for one hour with 10 per cent, 
sulphuric acid in a boiling water bath. The solution was filtered 
and the filtrate extracted, while still hot, with hot benzol. In the 
case of powdered drugs, three grammes of material were boiled with 
alcoholic potassium hydroxide under a reflux condenser for one 
hour. The solution was then evaporated to remove alcohol, diluted 
with 50 Cc. of water, acidified with dilute sulphuric acid, and 
extracted directly with hot benzol. 

By washing the benzol solution first with 5 per cent, sodium 
carbonate solution and then with 5 per cent, sodium hydroxide, 
emodin and chrysophanic acid can be separated. The separation can 
be made quite sharp if one bears in mind that emodin is very readily 
soluble in sodium carbonate, and that chrysophanic acid is slightly 
soluble also. Two or three washings of the benzol solution with 
sodium carbonate are usually sufficient to remove emodin, and the 
aqueous solution is of deep red color. As the benzol is further 
washed with this reagent, the washings become pink-colored, due to 
the slight solubility of chrysophanic acid. Treatment with sodium 
carbonate, then, should be discontinued when the washings become 
pink. The chrysophanic acid can be readily removed by one or two 
washings with sodium hydroxide. 

In a few preliminary experiments it was found that an initial 
treatment of the benzol solution with 5 per cent, ammonium car- 
bonate removed a considerable amount of coloring matter which did 
not subsequently behave like either emodin or chrysophanic acid, but 
did, in most cases, give the test for oxymethylanthraquinones. On 
account of this fact, and since chrysophanic acid is practically in- 
soluble in dilute ammonium carbonate, and emodin but slightly 
soluble, the addition of ammonium carbonate to the series of reagents 
for the fractional washing of the benzol extract suggested itself. 

The procedure adopted, then, was to wash the benzol solution 



8 Jour. Chem. Soc. 10, 298. 



148 Separation of Oxymethylanthraquinones. { Am ApS r 'i9i5 arm ' 

in a separatory funnel, first with 25 Cc. portions of 5 per cent, 
ammonium carbonate until the washings were colorless or but faintly 
colored ; then with similar portions of 5 per cent, sodium carbonate 
until the washings became pink colored ; and, finally, with 5 per cent, 
sodium hydroxide, thus removing unidentified anthraquinone deriva- 
tives, emodin, and chrysophanic acid in the order named. The three 
aqueous solutions were then separately acidified and shaken out 
with ether, and the ether residues examined directly or after re- 
crystallization from alcohol. 

The differentiation of the several residues was made chiefly on 
the basis of their melting-points and color reactions. After testing 
the residues with various reagents for distinctive color reactions, it 
was found that the most striking differentiation was obtained by 
treating with concentrated sulphuric acid, concentrated nitric acid, 
and water successively in the following manner : 

To the residue in a white porcelain capsule were added 4 to 5 
drops of concentrated sulphuric acid, then 1 to 2 drops of concen- 
trated nitric acid, and, finally, about 1 Cc. of water. 9 The initial 
color with sulphuric acid and the behavior on dilution with water 
constitute the characteristics of the test. The residue from a few 
drops of an ethereal solution of the color in question is sufficient for 
the test. 

Chrysarobin. 

The procedure just described was first applied to commercial 
" chrysophanic acid." Since this substance is largely chrysarobin, 
about 3 grammes of the powder were dissolved in 100 Cc. of dilute 
(10 per cent.) sodium hydroxide and oxidized by passing air through 
the solution for one hour. The solution was then filtered, the filtrate 
acidified with dilute sulphuric acid, and a hot extraction made with 
benzol. 

Ammonium and Sodium Carbonate Fractions. — A little color was 
removed by each of these reagents, but the fractions were not further 
examined. 

Sodium Hydroxide Fraction. — The remaining color was removed 
completely from the benzol in one washing. The color was passed 
into ether and the ether evaporated at a gentle heat. The residue 
was amorphous ; golden yellow in color ; soluble in hot, but difficultly 



9 These reagents are the same as used by Cripps and Dymond in their 
test for aloes. — Ber. Chem. Ges., 18, 200 (1885). 



^Aprii, r 'i9i5 arm "} Separation of Oxymethylanthraquinones. 149 

soluble in cold, absolute alcohol ; soluble in concentrated sulphuric 
acid with an orange- red color. The melting-point (r. h.) was not 
sharp, gradual liquefaction taking place between 160 and 165 °. 
The" behavior of the residue by the color test already described may 
be represented as follows : 

Residue -f- H 2 S0 4 = orange red; + HNO s = yellow; + H 2 = 
yellow solution and flocculent precipitate. 

The flocculent precipitate is chrysophanic acid unchanged. 10 Too 
much nitric acid prevents its formation. 

Buckthorn (Rhamxus Fraxgula). 
As a source of emodin fluidextract of buckthorn was used. About 
25 Cc. of this material were extracted with benzol as already 
described. 

Ammonium Carbonate Fraction. — A little color was removed by 
this reagent. It was not further examined. 

Sodium Carbonate Fraction. — Practically all the color was re- 
moved from the benzol at this point in two or three washings. The 
color was passed into ether and the ethereal solution evaporated. 
The residue was orange red in color ; soluble in cold absolute alcohol ; 
soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid with a decided pink color. 
The melting-point (r. ti) was not sharp; liquefaction extended over 
a range of about 5 and was complete at 240 . 

The behavior of emodin by the color test as applied to chryso- 
phanic acid is shown thus : 

Residue + H 2 S0 4 = intense pink; + HN0 3 = yellow; + H 2 = 

pink solution. 

Sodium Hydroxide Fraction. — The slight amount of color left in 
the benzol extract was removed at once by this reagent. The fraction 
was not further examined. 

Rhubarb. 

The experimental material used was a fluidextract. 

Ammonium Carbonate Fraction, — The first two or three wash- 
ings of the benzol extract were orange-colored, after which prac- 
tically no more color was removed. The color was passed into ether, 
but the residue was small, and only the general test for oxymethyl- 



Czapek, " Biochemie der Pflanzen II," p. 529. 



150 Separation of Oxyniethylanthraqiiinones. { Am \l™ T \li* rm ' 

anthraquinones was applied, which was positive. Whether this sub- 
stance is rhein, tetroxymethylanthraquinone, 11 we are not prepared 
to say. 

Sodium Carbonate Fraction. — Five or six washings with sodium 
carbonate were made. The alkaline solution was deep red. Afte*r 
this the washings became pink-colored, and the treatment was dis- 
continued. The color was passed into ether and the ether evaporated. 
The residue was orange red and showed a tendency to form needle- 
like crystals. The melting-point was not sharp, but the substance 
was distinctly liquid at 249 . By the color test the reactions were 
like those found for emodin as derived from buckthorn. 

Sodium Hydroxide Fraction. — Two washings completely re- 
moved the remaining color of the benzol extract. The ether residue 
obtained from this fraction was golden yellow in color and melted 
quite sharply at 189 to 190 . By the color test the reactions were 
like those observed for chrysophanic acid as derived from 
chrysa robin. 

Senna. 

In the work with senna fluidextracts were used. 

Ammonium Carbonate Fraction. — This reagent removed a large 
amount of color from the benzol in the first four washings, which 
were deep orange in color. Subsequent washings were faint pink, 
a slight amount of color being removed indefinitely. The color in 
the first four washings was passed into ether and the ether evapo- 
rated. The residue was evidently not a homogeneous substance. A 
portion of it went into solution readily in cold absolute alcohol, but 
the remainder dissolved only by the aid of heat. A difference in 
solubility was shown also with ether, and a separation was made into 
(a) ether-soluble and (b) ether-insoluble portions. 

The ether-soluble portion (a) gave the general test for oxy- 
methylanthraquinones. By the color test reactions not hitherto 
observed were obtained. 

Residue + H 2 S0 4 = purple or violet ; + HNO s = yellow ; + H.O 

= yellow solution. 

No melting-point was obtained. 

The ether-insoluble portion (b), on applying the general test 
for oxymethylanthraquinones, gave a purple-red solution on addition 



O. Hesse, Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. (1896), p. 549. 



A ^S r "i9i5 rin "} Separation of Oxymethylanthraquinones: 151 

of soda, and the color was not discharged by boiling with zinc dust, 
but rather intensified. The hot solution was filtered, and the filtrate 
was of a brilliant deep red color. This color faded slowly, and the 
process was hastened by the addition of H 2 2 . After some minutes 
the solution became water-white, and a light-colored or white pre- 
cipitate separated. At somewhat above 200 ~ the material sublimed. 
Xo liquefaction had taken place at 290°, but a copious yellow sub- 
limate had collected in the upper part of the capillary tube. This 
behavior is strikingly like that of anthraquinone itself. 12 

Sodium Carbonate Fraction. — A considerable amount of color 
was removed from the benzol by this reagent. When passed into 
ether and evaporated, the residue was orange red in color, but not 
crystalline. The melting-point was not sharp, but liquefaction was 
distinct at about 230 2 . The color test gave the reactions observed 
for emodin as derived from buckthorn and rhubarb. 

Sodium Hydroxide Fraction. — The ether residue from this 
fraction was golden yellow in color. It fused at 185° to 190°, and 
was distinctly liquid at about 200°. By the color test reactions were 
obtained corresponding to those of chrysophanic acid as derived 
from chrysarobin and rhubarb. 

Aloes. 

The experimental material consisted of Socotrine and Barbadoes 
varieties in powder form and a commercial fluidextract. 

Ammonium Carbonate Fraction. — A considerable amount of 
color was removed from benzol, the washings being orange-colored. 
The ether residue was white or pale yellow, and not crystalline. 
The general test for oxymethylanthraquinones was positive, but 
faint and unsatisfactory, some foreign coloring matter evidently in- 
terfering. It is to this fraction that the difficulty noted by Warren. 13 
on applying the test to aloes, is due. By the color test the following 
reactions were obtained : 

Residue + H 2 S0 4 = purple ; + HXO s = yellow ; + H 2 = yellow 

solution. 

This behavior corresponds to that obtained for the unidentified 
oxymethylanthraquinone derived in the corresponding fraction from 
senna. 

12 Mulliken. vol. 1, p. 211 ; also p. 216. test 1011. 

13 Am. Jour. Pharm., 86, 10, 444 (1914). 



152 Separation of Oxymethylanthraquinones. { Am *Ap?S 1 



Jour. Pharm. 
1915. 



Sodium Carbonate Fraction.-— The amount of color removed at 
this point was small. The general test for oxymethylanthraquinones 
was positive and characteristic. The color test gave reactions as 
follows : 

Residue + H 2 S0 4 = red, brownish ; + HNO s = yellow ; + H 2 = 

yellow solution. 

The intense pink color with sulphuric acid characteristic of this 
fraction in the cases of buckthorn, rhubarb, and senna was lacking. 
This peculiarity was encountered with both varieties of aloes and 
also with the fluidextract. 

Sodium Hydroxide Fraction. — The greater part of the color in 
the benzol was removed at this point, and a copious ether residue 
was obtained. It was of the characteristic golden-yellow color ; 
gave the general test for oxymethylanthraquinones, and by the color 
test, the characteristic behavior observed for chrysophanic acid as 
obtained from other sources in previous experiments. In case of 
Socotrine aloes the residue fused at 185 and liquefied at 189 to 
192 . With Barbadoes aloes fusion took place at above 180 , with 
liquefaction at about 198 . 

Discussion. 

The melting-points of chrysophanic acid as obtained from differ- 
ent drugs shows considerable variation. It is obviously not a pure 
product, the nature of the impurity depending upon the source from 
which it is derived. The melting-points for this substance recorded 
in the literature show also wide variations, figures from 162 to 
191 being given. 14 

The melting-points obtained for emodin are in closer agreement 
among themselves, and in reasonable accord with those given in the 
literature, about 250 . Tschirch and Oesterle 15 find for alo-emodin 
a melting-point of 216 . 

For the purposes of this investigation, however, melting-points 
have been regarded rather as broadly differentiating between the 
substances separated than as precise observations intending to in- 
dicate states of purity. 

The procedure followed in the experiments described furnishes 

11 See Allen, " Commer. Organ. Anal.," 4th ed., vol. 5, p. 227. Beilstein, 
" Handb. d. Organ. Chem.," vol. 3, p. 452. Mulliken, " The Identification of 
Pure Organic Compounds," vol. 1, p. 208. 

35 Ber. d. Pharm. Ges., 8, 174. 



Am \p?iT*i9i5 arm " } Separation of Oxymethylant hraquinones. 153 

a satisfactory qualitative separation of the chief color principles in 
the drugs examined, and it is also believed that the separation can, 
within reasonable limits, be made quantitative. 

The reaction utilized to identify chrysophanic acid in the presence 
of phenolphthalein 16 serves also as a test for oxymethylanthra- 
quinones generally, and is much more specific for this group than 
the Borntrager reaction. 

By the color test described emodin and chrysophanic acid give 
characteristic reactions. The distinguishing features are that emodin 
gives an intense pink color immediately on addition of concentrated 
sulphuric acid, and a pink solution, or one with a decided pink tinge, 
on final dilution with water; chrysophanic acid gives an orange-red 
color with sulphuric acid, and, on final dilution, gives a yellow 
solution and a yellow precipitate. The sodium carbonate soluble 
color fraction derived from aloes is an exception to the behavior of 
emodin as derived from buckthorn, rhubarb, and senna. The un- 
identified oxymethylanthraquinone, or mixture, obtained in the am- 
monium carbonate fraction is characterized by an intense purple or 
violet color with concentrated sulphuric acid. These reactions may 
be summarized as follows : 

Emodin, as derived from buckthorn, rhubarb, and senna : 

With cone. H 2 S0 4 — pink; + HNQ 3 = yellow; + H 2 = pink 

solution. 

As derived from aloes (sodium carbonate soluble) : 
With cone. H 2 S0 4 = red, brownish ; + HNO s = yellow ; + H 2 = 

yellow solution. 

Chrysophanic acid, as derived from all sources : 
With cone. H 2 S0 4 == orange red ; + HN0 3 = yellow ; + H 2 = 
yellow solution and precipitate. 

Unidentified oxymethylanthraquinones (ammonium carbonate 
soluble) : 

With cone. H 2 S0 4 = purple or violet ; + HNO s = yellow ; + H 2 
== yellow solution. 

A relatively large amount of chrysophanic acid was present in 
the aloes examined. The color removed by sodium hydroxide was 
greatly in excess of that removed by sodium carbonate. 



/. Ind. Eng. Chem., 6, 4, 320. 



154 Standardisation of Sodium Thio sulphate. { Am \J°n r m h 5 arm ' 

The nature of the sodium carbonate fraction in the case of aloes, 
and that of the ammonium carbonate fraction in all cases are among 
the interesting points suggested by the experience herein described, 
to which we hope to give further attention. 

Analytical Laboratory, 
Connecticut Agriculture Experiment Station, 
New Haven, Conn. 



STANDARDIZATION OF SODIUM THIOSULPHATE 
VOLUMETRIC SOLUTION. 1 

By Joseph L. Mayer. 

A reference to page 563 of the U. S. P. will show that the official 
method of standardizing sodium thiosulphate V. S. is to employ a 
decinormal solution of potassium dichromate, proceeding as follows: 

"To a solution of about 1 Gm. of potassium iodide (Potassii 
Iodidum, U. S. P.) in 10 Cc. of diluted sulphuric acid contained in a 
flask of about 500 Cc. capacity, add slowly, from a burette, 20 Cc. 
of tenth-normal potassium dichromate V. S., shaking after each 
addition. Place a watch-glass on the mouth of the flask and allow it 
to stand for five minutes, then dilute the solution with about 250 Cc. 
of distilled water, add some starch T. S., and then, from a burette, 
the trial solution of sodium thiosulphate, in small portions at a time, 
shaking after each addition, and, toward the end of the operation, 
reducing the flow to drops, until the blue color of the mixture changes 
to a light green ; note the number of cubic centimetres of the trial 
sodium thiosulphate solution consumed. Then dilute the sodium 
thiosulphate solution so that equal volumes of it and the tenth- 
normal potassium dichromate V. S. will exactly correspond to each 
other under the above conditions at 25 C. (77 F.)." 

On page 549 of the U. S. P. volumetric iodine solution is directed 
to be made by the following : 

" Tenth-normal iodine V. S. may be prepared according to eithei 
of the following methods : 

" 1. Dissolve 12.59 Gm. of pure iodine (see below) in a solution 
of 18 Gm. of potassium iodide in 300 Cc. of water. Then add 
sufficient water to make the solution measure, at 25 C. (77 F.), 



1 Read before the Kings County Pharmaceutical Society, March 9, 1915. 



Am Ap?ii r " i9i5 arm ' } Standardisation of Sodium Thiosulphate. 



155 



exactly 1000 Cc. Unless freshly prepared, its strength should always 
be determined anew at the time it is used. Transfer the solution to 
glass-stoppered vials. 

"Preparation of Pure Iodine. — Heat powdered iodine (Iodum, 
U. S. P.) in a porcelain dish placed over a bath of boiling water for 
twenty minutes, and stir it constantly with a glass rod, so that adher- 
ing moisture, cyanogen iodide, and most of the iodine bromide and 
iodine chloride, if present, may be vaporized. Then transfer the 
iodine to a porcelain or other non-metallic mortar, and triturate it 
with about 5 per cent, of its weight of dry potassium iodide, so as to 
decompose any remaining iodine bromide and iodine chloride. Then 
return the mass to the dish, cover it with a glass funnel, and heat the 
dish carefully on a sand-bath. Detach the sublimed, pure iodine, 
and, after pulverizing and drying for twenty-four hours over calcium 
chloride, keep it in well-stoppered bottles, in a cool place." 

Since N/10 iodine is the exact equivalent of N/10 Na 2 S 2 3 , the 
U. S. P., on page 550, gives as an alternative method of preparing 
the N/10 iodine the following: 

" Dissolve about 14 Gin. of iodine (Iodum, U.S. P.) in a solution 
of 18 Gm. of potassium iodide (Potassii Iodidum, U. S. P.) in about 
300 Cc. of water, diluting finally to 1000 Cc. Of this solution (which 
is too concentrated), carefully measure from a burette 10 Cc. into a 
flask, then add gradually and cautiously, from a burette, tenth- 
normal sodium thiosulphate V. S. (shaking constantly) until the 
color of the solution is discharged. Note the number of cubic 
centimetres of the sodium thiosulphate V. S. consumed, and then 
dilute the iodine solution so that any known volume of the latter will 
require for decolorization exactly the same volume of the tenth- 
normal sodium thiosulphate V. S." 

This indicated to me that the factor for Na,S 2 3 V. S., stand- 
ardized by either potassium dichromate or resublimed iodine, would 
be the same, and to determine whether such was actually the case the 
following work was undertaken. A N/10 K 2 Cr 2 7 V. S. was made 
up by the following method on page 551 of the U. S. P., employing 
Kahlbaum's salt : 

" Dissolve 4.8713 Gm. of pure potassium dichromate, which has 
been pulverized and dried at 120 C. (248 F.) (see Reagent No. 85), 
in sufficient water to measure, at 25 C. (77 F.), exactly 1000 Cc." 

The Na 2 S 3 3 V. S. standardized against this had the factor 
recorded in tabulation below. 



156 Standardization of Sodium TJiiosuIphate. ^ Am -J^{- ^ Tm - 

Another lot of N/10 K 2 Cr 2 7 made up by the same method, 
using Baker's salt, the same Na 2 S 2 3 A'. S.. had the factor noted 
below. 

Small amounts of iodine prepared as directed under A'. S. iodine 
were weighed off and after solution in water with the aid of KI 
employed to standardize the Na 2 S 2 O a solution : the factor is recorded 
below. 

Iodine prepared as directed by the U. S. P. under Y. S. Iodine 
was mixed with KI placed in a small porcelain crucible, heated on a 
sand-bath until copious evolution of iodine fumes, when one of a set 
of watch-glasses with ground edges, which were tared with a clip, 
was slipped over the top of the crucible until a sufficient amount of 
iodine had sublimed, when, after cooling, the watch-glasses, clip, and 
iodine were weighed again, the increase being iodine. The watch- 
glasses and iodine without clip were then put into a .few cubic 
centimetres KI solution, and when the iodine was dissolved the 
Na 2 S 2 O a V. S. was run in until the reaction was complete. The 
factor for the Na 2 S 2 O s solution is noted below. 

Factor employing Kahlbaum's chemical — 1 Cc. = 0.011342 
gramme iodine; 1 Cc. = 0.9009 Cc. X 10 Na 2 S 2 3 A'. S. 

Baker's chemical — 1 Cc. = 0.011362 gramme iodine; 1 Cc. = 

9025 Cc. X 10 XaoS 2 :3 A'. S. 

Iodine resublimed on funnel — 1 Cc. =0.011539 gramme iodine: 

1 Cc. = 0.91652 Cc. Xyio Na 2 S 2 3 V. S. 

Iodine resublimed on watch-glass — 1 Cc. = 0.011533 gramme 
iodine; 1 Cc. = 0.91604 Cc. X/10 X'a 2 S 2 Oo A'. S. 

These results indicate that the use of resublimed iodine gives 
higher and probably more accurate results than the potassium 
dichromate method. 

I am fully aware of the fact that the potassium dichromate used 
for standardization is usually directed to be checked against pure 
iron, as is evidenced by the following citation from page 136, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Division of Chemistry. Bulletin 107, 
revised, under the determination of the iodine number of fats 
and oils : 

" Decinormal Potassium Bichromate. — Dissolve 4.9083 
grammes of chemically pure potassium bichromate in dis- 
tilled water and make the volume up to 1 litre at the tem- 
perature at which the titrations are to be made. The 
bichromate solution should be checked against pure iron " : 



Am A P rii r 'i9f5 arm "} W ue Hydrocarbon in Essential Oils. 157 

but, of course, this requires another determination and further 
complicates the standardization of the Na 2 S 2 3 V. S. 

In view of the close duplicates obtained by the use of resublimed 
iodine and simplicity of employing the watch-glasses and clip method, 
I would suggest this as the most satisfactory means of accurately 
standardizing Na 2 S 2 3 V. S. 

The sodium thiosulphate solution was made by taking 4 litres 
of distilled water, boiling until all air and C0 2 were expelled, placing 
in a large amber-colored bottle and, when cool, dissolving about 
100 grammes of C. P. sodium thiosulphate in the liquid. 

The bottle was set away in a dark place until ready for use (in 
about six weeks) . When a syphon tube with pinch cock was inserted 
and a layer of neutral liquid petrolatum placed on top of the liquid, 
by blowing into a hollow glass tube in the other hole of the rubber 
stopper the syphon was started. 

Making up the solution by using distilled water from which the 
air and C0 2 are expelled, allowing to stand until decomposition and 
precipitation have taken place, covering with a layer of liquid 
petrolatum and syphoning off the quantities of solution required, 
make an ideal method of handling not only this volumetric solution 
but very many others, it being our practice to follow this method 
whenever possible. 

Research and Analytical. Department, 
Riker Laboratories. 



ON THE BLUE HYDROCARBON OCCURRING IN SOME 
ESSENTIAL OILS. 1 

[Preliminary Note.] 

By Alfred E. Sherndal. 

Scattered through the literature of the essential oils are frequent 
descriptions of blue fractions obtained in the distillation of various 
oils, the most intensely colored sections distilling between the tem- 
peratures, 275 and 300 , or higher. A few oils, such as those of 
chamomile, worm-wood, and cubebs, are notable for their blue or 
green color before fractionation. 

1 Reprinted from Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1915, p. 167. 



158 Blue Hydrocarbon in Essential Oils. { AT °i^ 



Jour. Pharm. 

1915. 



In a few instances where intensely colored fractions have been 
obtained, the investigators have thought themselves in the possession 
of a pure substance. 2 In most cases, however, they have recognized 
that the color is due to the presence of some colored substance other 
than the bodies making up the bulk of the oil, and the usually accepted 
view has been, that this is an oxygenated substance related to the 
sesquiterpene alcohols. 3 

Semmler 4 has summarized the literature covering these oils, and 
remarks that there are two views possible in regard to the blue 
fractions : either the greater part is colorless, and appears colored 
owing to the presence of a small amount of ah intensely blue sub- 
stance, or the sections boiling between 275° and 300 are actually 
composed principally of a blue compound. That the latter is not the 
case, however, is evident from a survey of the literature, since the only 
purification method resorted to is a fractionation out of oils which 
contain large amounts of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols, 
with boiling-points also ranging from 250 to 300 . For the same 
reason no importance can be assigned to the various analyses of the 
blue fractions. 

Blue products have also been obtained in the laboratory by various 
reactions, usually from oils composed principally of sesquiterpenes 
and sesquiterpene alcohols. In such cases, there seems always to 
have taken place a dehydration and subsequent oxidation of a sesqui- 
terpene alcohol, or a direct oxidation of a sesquiterpene. For ex- 
ample, Wallach and Tuttle, 5 by the action of phosphoric anhydride, 
or zinc chloride on guaiol, the alcohol of guaiac-wood oil, obtained a 
blue sesquiterpene. They considered the color to be due to the 
presence of a small amount of an oxidation product. On the other 
hand, Gadamer and Amenomija 6 obtained a guaiene without blue 
color, by dehydrating guaiol with potassium acid sulfate. 

An interesting observation was made by Hentschel and Wis- 
licenus, 7 who found, on rectifying the products of the dry distillation 
of calcium adipate, that the fraction boiling between 135 and 145 
at 30 mm. had a blue color resembling that of Roman chamomile. 

2 Piesse, " Art of Perfumery," 1879, p. 57. 

3 Bartelt, " Die Terpene und Campherarten," 1908, p. 4. 
4 Die Aetherischen Ole, 3, p. 260. 

5 Ann., 279, 379 (1894). 

6 Archiv. der pharm., 241, 33 (1903). 
"Ann., 275, 312 (1893). 



Am ApiT'i£5 arm '} Blue Hydrocarbon in Essential Oils. 159 

Semmler and Jakubowicz 8 obtained blue oils by heating the gur- 
junene sesquiterpenes in autoclaves filled with air or oxygen. 

So far as the writer knows, no connection has as yet been assumed 
between the blue oils, and the striking color reactions which have 
frequently been observed when oils consisting largely of sesqui- 
terpenes or sesquiterpene alcohols are treated in dilute solutions with 
mineral acids. An experiment seems, however, to indicate that such 
connection may exist. If oil of gurjun balsam be dissolved in acetic 
anhydride, and a small amount of sulfuric acid added, the mixture 
becomes intensely blue, and on diluting with water and distilling the 
oil in a current of steam, a deep blue distillate is obtained. 

Very many oils containing sesquiterpenes and related compounds 
give strong color reactions when dissolved in acetic anhydride con- 
taining a trace of sulfuric acid. Of the oils examined in this labor- 
atory, those of gurjun, amyris, and guaiac-wood give strong blue or 
violet colors under these conditions ; santal and cedar-wood, none. 
This test may be used to advantage to detect adulterants in some oils, 
such as santal. 

As to the nature of this blue constituent, nothing whatever has 
so far been definitely ascertained, for the reason that, as already 
indicated, it has not been isolated in a state of even approximate 
purity. A remarkable fact is that a substance with such intense color 
should possess a comparatively low boiling-point, indicating a simple 
molecule. Semmler 9 suggests the possibility of a bimolecular 
structure, closely related to the sesquiterpenes, which on distillation 
dissociates, and on condensing, again forms a bimolecular compound, 
with a group similar to that in indigo: >C : C<. As a rule, how- 
ever, the assumption has been made that the blue substance is an 
oxygenated compound of alcoholic nature. 

The following work describes the isolation of this body in a state 
of purity, as shown by the analysis and reactions. As a pure sub- 
stance, its remarkable properties become even more striking than 
before. The analysis shows it to be a highly unsaturated hydro- 
carbon, but the peculiar grouping of atoms to which it owes its 
unique properties is more difficult to speculate upon than ever. 

The property which was utilized to isolate the substance, and 
which has heretofore not been noted, is its solubility in mineral acids 
of certain strengths. The method of preparation was as follows : 



* Ber. 47, 2252-9 (1914). 

9 Aetherischen Ole, 3, p. 266. 



160 Blue Hydrocarbon in Essential Oils. { Am -^;^J m - 

Fifty grams of a very blue fraction, freshly steam distilled, were 
shaken with 10 g. of 63 per cent, sulfuric acid, and the mixture 
allowed to settle over night. The acid layer was then drawn off, 
diluted with water, and extracted with petroleum benzine until no 
more blue color was taken up. The benzine solution, dark blue in 
color, was then shaken out with 85 per cent, phosphoric acid until no 
longer blue, the dark red acid solution drawn off, diluted with water, 
and extracted with ether. The residue from the evaporation of the 
ether amounted to 0.141 g., or 0.28 per cent. This, redissolved in 
50 g. of a pale yellow oil, gave a mixture with about the same tint as 
the original, showing that there was no appreciable loss in the 
preparation. 

Larger quantities, isolated in this way, were further purified by 
distillation with steam, and finally in vacuo. The substance thus 
obtained was a slightly viscid liquid, intensely blue in thin layers, 
black in quantity, with a weak phenolic odor, suggesting thymol, 
especially when warm. 

Subst., 0.21 18 and 0.2294 g. gave CO2 0.7054 and 0.7587 g. ; H 2 0, 0.1478 and 
0.1903 g. ; calc. for GsHis : = 90.84; H=:9.i5; found: = 90.83 and 90.20; 
H = 9.23 and 9.28. 

The molecular weight determination was made by Dr. Earl F. Farnau of 
New University, by the cryoscopic method, using benzene as solvent. Found : 
187.2 and 193.4 (av., 190.3) ; calc. for G5H12: 1.98. 

The compound is, then, a hydrocarbon, having most probably the 
formula C 15 H 18 , and for it the writer would preserve the name 
" azulene," proposed in 1863 by Piesse, 10 one of the earliest investi- 
gators, for the blue fraction which he obtained from oil of worm- 
wood. 

The specific gravity at 25 is 0.9738, when freshly steam-distilled. 
Exposed to light and air, it is gradually converted into a brown resin. 
Distilled at atmospheric pressure, the boiling-point rises from 295 
to 300 °, leaving a tarry residue, soluble in ether with a brown color. 
At about 25 mm. azulene distils from 185 to 195 , leaving a brown 
residue of about 5 per cent. Since the product had been previously 
distilled with steam, this shows that it cannot be distilled without 
change under these conditions. When evaporated on the water-bath 
in an open dish, a brown resin, amounting to 10 per cent, or more, 
remains. 



Compt. rend. 57, 1016 (1864). 



Am Api?r'f9 h i5 rm ' } Bl ue Hydrocarbon in Essential Oils. 161 

-Azulene is readily soluble in most organic solvents. In 95 per 
cent, alcohol it is miscible in all proportions ; in more dilute alcohol 
the solubility is much less, but even 50 per cent, alcohol takes up 
enough to be tinted, a decided blue. 

Its solubility in strong inorganic acids, which makes its isolation 
possible, is especially remarkable. In 60 to 65 per cent, sulfuric acid, 
azulene dissolves to a clear yellow, strongly fluorescent solution ; on 
dilution with water, it is thrown out again as a blue oil, apparently 
unchanged. It also dissolves in 50 per cent, sulfuric acid, but less 
readily. The solution in phosphoric acid is remarkable for its fluor- 
escence : reddish yellow by transmitted light, intense apple green by 
reflected light. These acid solutions can be extracted with benzine 
without removing any azulene, and by repeating several times, a 
product can be obtained, free from sesquiterpenes or alcohols. 

Azulene is strongly resistant to the action of even strong sulfuric 
acid. When heated with two parts of 94 per cent, acid for fifteen 
hours on the water-bath, a dark brown solution results, which, on 
diluting with water, again yields the blue oil. Strong formic acid 
dissolves it with a green color, but in acetic acid the color remains 
unchanged, as in the neutral solvents. On mixing dry ether solutions 
of azulene and hydrochloric acid, no change in color was observed. 

Nitric acid in acetic acid solution produces yellow amorphous 
substances, not further examined. 

The oxidation of azulene with permanganate has so far yielded 
only lower fatty acids. 

It is not attacked by sodium in hot alcohol, nor does heating with 
strong alkali affect the color. 

By the action of acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid, a substance 
was obtained,' evidently a sulfonic derivative, which was soluble in 
water. On adding sodium carbonate in excess a sodium salt 
separated out, which was recrystallized from hot water. The water 
solution of the salt is colored violet, and changes to a light green on 
acidifying. If then shaken with ether, the latter becomes violet, 
and this color is again taken out by shaking with alkali. 

The sodium salt, on heating, gives off blue fumes which con- 
dense to a blue oil ; at the same time sulfur dioxide is liberated. 

On standing three months in a corked bottle, a preparation of 
the sodium salt had decomposed into a mixture of oil and resin. 

The water solution gives blue precipitates with barium and cal- 
cium solutions, and is decolorized by bromine water. 



1 62 Dextrinized Malt in Infant-feeding. { Am A p^ 1 ^ nn - 

It appears established that azulene is closely related to the sesqui- 
terpenes. From no other class of compounds have hydrocarbons 
been obtained which show such intense color. Colored hydrocarbons 
which have so far been prepared are characterized by complex 
structure or a dense arrangement of the atoms, the intensity of the 
color increasing with the size of the molecule; for example: 

• CeH4\ /C6H4 11 

I >C:C< 
C 6 H/ X C 6 H 4 

CH=CH X .CH = CH X /CH 3 CH = CH X /C 6 H 5 ]2 

I >C:CH 2 ; | >C< ; | >C< 

CH-CH/ CR = CW X C 6 H 5 CH-CH/ X C 6 H 5 

1. Yellow. 2. Red liquid. 3. Deep red solid. 

Rubicen, a red hydrocarbon, C 26 H 14 , m. p. 306 . 13 
It is obvious that in azulene we have an entirely different and 
unique chemical compound. We hope, in a subsequent communica- 
tion, to collect further data on this interesting substance. 

The writer wishes here to acknowledge his indebtedness to Dr. 
Francis D. Dodge for helpful suggestions as well as for aid in 
obtaining material used in connection with the above work. 

Laboratory of the Dodge and Olcott Company, Bayonne, N. J. 



DEXTRINIZED MALT IX IXFANT-FEEDIXG. 1 

By Theodore Le Boutillier, M.D. 

During the last two years a study has been made in the service of 
Dr. Howard Childs Carpenter in the Children's Department of the 
Philadelphia General Hospital of the result of adding dextrinized 
malt to milk-mixtures in infant-feeding, replacing the lactose form- 
erly used. While the cases studied have been too few in number 
and cover too short a period of time to justify any absolute state- 
ments, the general conclusions reached may be found helpful. 

In the cases of malnutrition in which a rational milk-mixture has 
been employed, but the weight has remained practically stationary, 
we have found in most instances that the substitution of dextri- 

u Graebe, Ber., 26, 2334 (1892) ; 25, 3146 (1891). 

^Thiele, Ber., 33, 668, 851, 3395 (1900) ; Ibid., 36, 842 (1903) ; Ann., 319, 
226 (1901). 

13 Plummerer, Ber., 45, 294 (1912). 

1 Reprinted from Philadelphia General Hospital Reports, vol. ix, p. 157. 



Am \l^ii'wi5 Tm '}^ ew Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 163 

maltose for lactose has been of much benefit in assisting assimilation 
of the carbohydrate, and in increasing the weight of the baby, the 
carbohydrate percentage varying between five and seven in these 
cases. 

In another series in which a normal carbohydrate percentage (6) 
has resulted in sugar-indigestion, with fermentation and diarrhoea, 
we have found that with the same percentage of dextri-maltose, the 
majority of the cases clear up rapidly, even those in which the lactose 
had been first reduced to three or four per cent, and gradually in- 
creased, but with the symptoms of indigestion persisting. In cases 
of simple diarrhoea in infancy the malt-sugar has a much more 
beneficial effect than milk-sugar, and it can certainly be borne in 
higher percentages. In the majority of cases malt-sugar appears to 
be slightly constipating: but it is of interest to note that in a few 
cases of malnutrition, in which the bowels have been constipated and 
movements have been secured only by the employment of enemata 
or by mechanical means, after a few days of the use of dextri- 
maltose in the feeding, the proportion of fat and proteid remaining 
the same, but the sugar being increased to six or seven per cent., the 
stools become less hard and of a better consistency. This is true, 
however, only of certain cases, for in that of other infants with 
constipation the stools have become slightly more constipated. 

It would seem, therefore, that malt-sugar has marked advantage 
over either milk-sugar or cane-sugar in the feeding of infants unable 
to assimilate or thoroughly digest the milk-sugar or cane-sugar, and 
in the feeding of infants suffering from diarrhoea. 



AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A NEW REMEDIAL 
AGE XT AXD OF ITS EFFECTS IX PULMONARY 
. TUBERCULOSIS. 1 

By Bertram H. Waters, M.A., M.D. ,*New York. 

The employment of inhalations, in the treatment of pathological 
conditions of the respirator}- tract, has appealed to many as a 
rational therapeutic procedure, and medical literature is replete with 
descriptions of generators, vaporizers, and pneumatic cabinets, to- 
gether with the various substances thought to possess remedial 
properties, which have been employed. A review of this literature 



1 Reprinted from Medical Record, February 13, 1915. 



164 New Agent in Pulmonary Ttiberculosis.^^\^ v °^-^ Tm - 

is interesting, showing that from the earliest times the subject of 
inhalation has held an important place. As early as 1664 this method 
was applied by Bennett in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. 
Laennec in 1810 employed it with considerable success ; Schneider 
and Valz constructed the first nebulizer in 1829, and Auphan applied 
pulverization and nebulization in the treatment of chronic diseases 
of the respiratory tract in 1847. About the same year Salles-Girons 
established an inhalatorium at Pierrefonds, and for the first time the 
question was raised of the possibility of reaching the lungs by these 
methods. A lively discussion followed, and repeated experiments by 
such investigators as Dumarquay, Fournie, Bourouilloux, Gratiolet 
and Travenier, Poggiale, Gerhardt, Waldenburg, and Solis-Cohen 
have finally demonstrated that by pulverization and nebulization 
remedies may be efficiently administered, the latter observer even 
going so far as to state that a physician had not done his full duty, 
in- some cases, unless he resorted to such methods. Many other 
studies of this subject have been made, among the more recent being 
those of Heryng (1902), Freund (1907), Foxwell (1907), Cointet 
(1909), and Bulling (1909), the general result of which has been 
one of approval. Though the therapeutic and even the germicidal 
action of inhaled sprays, especially, has been confirmed, such action 
seems to be limited to the surface of the respiratory mucous mem- 
brane, and the influence upon pathogenic conditions, such as tubercle, 
in the lung tissue, is very problematic. 

The ethereal oils and the balsams have been found to be the most 
useful substances for inhalation, oil of turpentine, oil of eucalyptus, 
oil of cade, the balsams of Peru and Tolu, and creosote having been 
employed with more or less success, either in vapor form or nebulized 
by means of atomizers and nebulizers. 

Oil of turpentine and some of the other volatile oils owe their 
therapeutic value to terpenes. The terpenes are hydrocarbons having 
the composition represented by C 10 H 16 , or some multiple of that 
formula. The principle common to all terpenes is pinene. It is a 
constituent of the volatile oils of the pine family and of several other 
families of plants. This study deals not with turpentine, the complex 
oleoresin of the pine tree, but with its chief constituent, pinene. To 
it are attributed the physiologic and therapeutic actions of oil of 
turpentine. 

Locally, pinene is a powerful stimulant to the skin and mucous 
membranes. It is also antiseptic and bactericidal, and appears to be 



Am '\prii r " 1915 rm ' } New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 165 

especially antagonistic to the typhoid bacillus. When taken by a 
healthy person, in moderate doses, it produces a sense of warmth 
in the stomach, soon followed by exhilaration, and, if the amount be 
sufficient, giddiness and even a species of intoxication. The pulse is 
increased in force and frequency. Pinene is excreted through the 
lungs and kidneys, and its irritant action upon the latter and upon 
the genito-urinary tract is very decided. 

Oil of turpentine, on account of the pinene it contains, has 
acquired a reputation as a haemostatic in passive hemorrhage from 
the stomach, intestine, lung, and uterus. It is often very efficient in 
ulceration of the bowels when taken by the stomach, probably acting 
locally in the intestine, and in old gastric ulcers good results are 
sometimes derived from its use. It is given internally as a diffusible 
stimulant of especial value in exhausting fevers. It has long enjoyed 
high repute as a remedy for the treatment of typhoid fever, especially 
if diarrhoea persists and relapses occur, indicating unhealed ulcera- 
tion of Peyer's patches. Locally it is very useful as a counterirritant 
in pleurisy and bronchitis, applied in the form of turpentine stupes. 
Probably some of the benefits derived from turpentine stupes in 
pneumonia are due to inhalation of its vapor. 

Standing in the way of a more general use of oil of turpentine 
as a remedial agent is its irritant action upon the kidneys and urinary 
tract. When its vapor is inhaled it is readily absorbed, and instances 
are recorded in which persons engaged in the turpentine industries 
have experienced renal inflammation. 

When the vapor of pinene is exposed to a current of ozonized 
air, prepared by the action upon dry air of a high-tension electrical 
discharge, an addition occurs between the pinene and oxygen, result- 
ing in the production of a dense white vapor. To this substance I 
have given the name oxypinene, a convenient general term, descrip- 
tive of all combinations of pinene with oxygen, either as 2 or O a . 
It is, however, chemically a pinene monozonide, occurs also as a 
diozonide and other multiples of the oxygen atom, and readily disso- 
ciates into its active principles, peroxide of hydrogen, pinene 
aldehyde and ketone and pinonic acid. 

It possesses the valuable therapeutic properties of pinene without 
its irritating effects upon the kidneys and urinary tract. Applied to 
the skin and mucous membranes it acts as a mild stimulant, markedly 
differing in this respect from the powerfully irritating oil of tur- 
pentine. The vapor is respirable for hours at a time, and its use 



166 New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. { Am -/^-^ Tm ' 

may be continued indefinitely day after day without producing 
symptoms of renal irritation. It is antiseptic and bactericidal when 
applied to cutaneous and mucous surfaces. 

Antiseptic and Germicidal Properties of Oxypinene. — From pure 
broth cultures of typhoid, diphtheria, and colon bacilli, and staphy- 
lococcus, smears were made on cover-slips. These were thoroughly 
dried in the incubator, and placed under a bell-jar, into which 
oxypinene was allowed to enter through an opening near its base, 
and escape through an opening at the top which was lightly plugged 
with cotton. At intervals of forty minutes, one hour, one and a 
half hours, and two hours, a smear of each culture was removed and 
dropped into broth tubes. After incubation all the controls except 
that of diphtheria showed growth. All exposed smears produced 
growth except those of diphtheria. 

The same organisms were used, but instead of incubator-dried 
smears, large drops of broth cultures of each on cover-slips were 
exposed, in the same manner as previously, for fifty minutes, seventy 
minutes, and one hour and fifty minutes. After incubation, all 
controls showed marked growth. All exposed drops failed to produce 
growth, except that of staphylococcus, growth of which was markedly 
retarded and very slight. As all the exposed drops became dry before 
the expiration of forty minutes, and as in the previous experiment 
none of the incubator-dried smears were killed, it was concluded 
either that the organisms in all exposed drops were killed under 
forty minutes, or that at least some moisture is necessary to obtain a 
germicidal effect. As on theoretical grounds the latter supposition 
seemed probable, the use of incubator-dried preparations was 
abandoned. 

Agar-agar, in Petri plates, was substituted for cover-slips, and 
upon the surfaces of these, broth cultures of the organisms already 
used were planted in streaks. These plates were then exposed in the 
manner already described for one and one-half hours. All controls 
showed marked growth after twenty-four hours' incubation. All 
exposed plates produced no growth after five days' incubation. 

Large drops of broth culture of the typhoid bacillus, after ex- 
posure on cover-slips in the manner described, for twenty-five and 
forty minutes, were smeared upon agar-agar slant tubes. The con- 
trols showed marked growth after eighteen hours' incubation. The 
tubes inoculated with culture which had been exposed for twenty- 
five minutes showed marked growth after twenty-four hours' incuba- 



Am Aprii r 'i9i5 rm '}^^ w -4g en t in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 167 

tion. The tubes inoculated with culture which had been exposed 
for forty minutes showed no growth after ninety-six hours' 
incubation. 

Large drops of broth culture of each of the organisms previously 
used were exposed in the same manner and for the same periods as 
in the preceding experiment, and planted on agar-agar slant tubes. 
The controls showed marked growth after eighteen hours' incubation. 
The tubes inoculated with culture which had been exposed for 
twenty-five minutes showed growth after twenty-four hours' incuba- 
tion. The tubes inoculated with culture which had been exposed 
for forty minutes showed no growth after ninety-six hours' 
incubation. 

The conclusion seemed to be justified that for typhoid, diphtheria, 
and colon bacilli, and the staphylococcus, in pure broth culture, when 
even the slightest moisture is present, oxypinene is germicidal in 
from twenty-five to forty minutes. 

Upon the surface of agar-agar, in Petri plates, broth cultures of 
subtilis, anthrax, and pneumococcus were planted in streaks. These 
plates were exposed in the manner already described for one and 
one-half hours. The controls showed marked growth after eighteen 
hours' incubation. The exposed plates showed no growth after forty- 
eight hours' incubation. At the end of five days no growth had 
appeared. 

Upon the surface of agar-agar, in Petri plates, broth cultures of 
typhoid, diphtheria, and anthrax bacilli, and staphylococcus were 
planted in streaks. These plates were exposed for two and one-half 
hours, not under the bell- jar, but in a room having a cubic capacity 
of about 2500 feet. The room was fairly well filled with oxypinene. 
The controls showed marked growth after eighteen hours' incuba- 
tion. The exposed plates, after twenty-four hours' incubation, 
showed no growth, except that of staphylococcus, on which a very 
slight growth appeared. After forty-eight hours' incubation, anthrax 
seemed to show slight growth, but at the end of seventy-two hours 
it had not spread, and a smear of it planted on an agar slant tube 
failed to produce growth. A single agar Petri plate, on the sur- 
face of which the same organisms, in broth culture, had been 
streaked, was exposed under the bell-jar for two hours, and failed to 
show growth of any organism, after seventy-two hours' incubation, 
while anthrax overgrew all other growths, on the control plate, after 
twenty-eight hours' incubation. 



Am Ap?ii r " i9?5 rm ' } Ag^t in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 169 

These experiments have been repeated many times, in the same 
manner, with uniform results, and from them it seems conclusive 
that oxypinene is a germicidal gas, of high efficiency, which is at 
once respirable and easily produced, continuously, in large quantities. 

Figs. 1 and 2 are photographs from agar-agar Petri plates upon 
which were planted pure cultures of M. pyogenes aureus and B. an- 
thracis. Similar experiments with similar results were made with 
cultures of B. typhosus, B. coli communis, and B. subtilis, but lack of 
space has necessitated our omission of illustrations of the same. 
These plates were exposed to the action of oxypinene for two and 
one-half hours, in a room of about 2500 cubic feet capacity, in 
which the generator was constantly operating and keeping it fairly 
well filled. Control plates were made of each organism, and both 
exposed and control plates were incubated for seventy-two hours. 

Clinical. — Observations were made of twenty-one patients. As 
with two exceptions they were of the dispensary class, they were 
difficult to control for so long a period as could be desired, some 
insisting upon their discharge with the alleviation or disappearance 
of their active symptoms. With the exception of Case V, a very 
early tuberculous infection, and Case XXI, a child ill with pertussis, 
following an unresolved bronchopneumonia, all were in the second 
or third stage of pulmonary tuberculosis (Classification of the 
National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis), 
and tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the sputum. It seemed 
desirable to select lesions of such severity, but equally so that they 
should offer some hope of improvement, in order that, so far as 
possible, the amelioration of symptoms which so often follow any 
change in environment and dietetic regime might be discounted. How- 
ever, to study fully the effects of oxypinene upon special symptomatic 
features or types of disease, such as active hemorrhage, marked 
pyrexia, constant dyspnoea, tuberculous laryngitis, acute phthisis, 
chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, and the toxaemia of extensive cavita- 
tion with secondary infection, certain patients were admitted to treat- 
ment whose prognosis seemed hopeless, and who, though showing 
for a time the beneficial effects so generally observed in the others, 
finally died. With the exception of Cases XX and XXI, who were 
treated in their own homes, the entire group was observed in a 
private hospital in the city for three months, and thereafter for five 
and one-half months in a private sanatorium in the country. The 
periods of observation varied from nine days to nine months. With 



170 New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. ^ Am -/ p °^-^ rm - 

a few exceptions all were studied according to the following routine : 
Each was observed in bed, for forty-eight hours before beginning 
treatment, during which time two hourly records of temperature 
(rectal), pulse, and respiration were made, twenty-four total amounts 
of urine and sputum examined, and a haemoglobin estimation and 
differential blood count made, in addition to a complete physical 
examination. Thereafter temperature (rectal), pulse, and respira- 
tion were recorded every twenty-four hours or twice daily, weights 
were taken, twenty-four-hour total amounts of urine and sputum 
examined, and a haemoglobin estimation and differential blood count 
made weekly. Twenty-four-hour total records were also kept of 
urine and sputum daily. Physical examinations were made at fre- 
quent intervals, and at least once a month. The patients were in 
bed or up and about, as their temperatures or general condition re- 
quired, and no other treatment was given, except cathartics, and 
heroin or codeine occasionally. In some instances an iron prepara- 
tion was used to study the behavior. of the haemoglobin. The diet 
consisted of three wholesome meals daily, and one raw egg in one 
glass of milk twice daily. Partly through circumstance, partly with 
the design of checking up and controlling results, the period of 
observation was divided into three epochs : the first, for three 
months, in the city ; 'the second, for two and one-half months, in a 
sanatorium in New York, at an elevation of 1500 feet ; and the third, 
for three months, in a sanatorium in New Jersey, at slight (500 feet) 
elevation. During these epochs an opportunity was afforded " of 
observing and contrasting the effects of ideal sanatorium regime 
without, and also with, oxypinene treatment. In no other respects 
were the routine and conditions of observation varied. During the 
first epoch treatment was given continuously, with only sufficient 
open air for proper ventilation, and several of the patients had no 
direct sunlight, their windows opening on a court. During the second 
and third epochs treatment, when given at all, was continuous during 
the night, and for periods of from one to two hours twice during the 
day, the remainder of the time being spent in the open air. The 
blood, sputum, and urine examinations were made by the Lederle 
Laboratories, the Higgins Laboratories, and by my assistant and 
resident, Dr. W. A. Glanville. While there is probably some varia- 
tion of results because of differing personal equation, they have been 
so checked up as to make this negligible, and in Cases XX and XXI 
all these examinations have been made by the same examiner. 




l -jNew Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 



171 



The following indicates the types of cases studied : 



Stage I. 



Stage II. 



Stage III. 



Number of cases. ..1 (CaseV) 4 (Cases XIII, XIV, 15 (all other cases) 



The other case, XXI, was the child referred to with pertussis, 
following an unresolved, possibly tuberculous, bronchopneumonia. 

As space is lacking for a detailed description of each of these, a 
brief synopsis of several, together with the blood findings, and the 
temperature curves of two, are given. These are average cases, and 
illustrate the points noted. 

Case I. — Woman, 34 years, Stage III, improved. General con- 
dition poor. Extensive infiltration, both upper lobes with softening, 
especially on left side, where there is well marked cavitation. Com- 
plicating nephritis. Moderately toxic. Sputum positive. 

Red cells. Hb. White cells. Weight. 

3,750,000 75 8,200 96 Before treatment. 

4,960.000 81 13,600 101^ After one month's treatment. 

Constant racking cough, with thick, tenacious sputum. Sputum 
increased from 15 Cc. to about 150 Cc. daily with relief of cough. 
Discontinued treatment against advice, because of being needed at 
home, and, her condition becoming again progressive, she died eight 
months later. 

Case VI.— Woman, 24 years, Stage III, arrested. General con- 
dition poor. Fairly diffuse infiltration, right lung with softening in 
upper lobe anteriorly. Thickened pleura with adhesions, lower 
portion. Infiltration left apex. Little toxaemia. Sputum positive. 

Red cells. Hb. White cells. Weight. 

4,100,000 75 10,000 84 Before treatment. 

5,100,000 92 13.300 99 After six weeks' treatment. 

5,552,000 78 15,060 103^ After y l / 2 months' treatment. 

These cases illustrate the effect upon the sputum with relief of 
cough, the changes in the blood picture, and, what is usually observed 
and is an indication of such result, a white cell count, which remains 
high in favorable and arrested cases. In several instances, though 
not uniformly, the haemoglobin percentage has fallen after ceasing 
treatment. 

Case VII. — Woman, 24 years, Stage III, improved. General con- 
dition fair. Infiltration right upper lobe without softening. Diffuse 



XVI, XVII) 



Am AprS r 'i9i5 arm '}^^ w Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 173 

infiltration left upper lobe with cavitation. Complicating emphysema 
and general bronchitis. Little toxaemia. Sputum positive. 

Red cells. Hb. White cells. Weight. 

4,400,000 86 7,200 137^ Before treatment. 

5,170,000 92 12,100 153^2 After 2^2 months' treatment. 

4,860,000 82 12,800 149/4 After s J A months' treatment. 

During the last three months treatment, which had been con- 
tinuous, was interrupted, but patient was under sanatorium regime in 
the country. She was then admitted to a sanatorium where previ- 
ously she had been refused admission on account of the extent of 
her lesion. 

Case XII. — Man, 41 years, Stage III, improved, approaching 
arrest. General condition fair. Infiltration both upper lobes, with 
areas of softening and fibrosis ; small cavity in right upper; left lung 
adherent at base ; left chest much contracted. Complicating chronic 
bronchitis of years' duration. Little toxaemia. Sputum positive. 

Red cells. Hb. White cells. Weight. 

4,790,000 81 11,600 1 15/4 Before treatment. 

5,942,000 91 10,420 116V2 After 5 months' treatment. 

Tubercle bacilli disappeared from the slight morning sputum, 
and he returned to employment. 

Case XIII. — Man, 28 years, Stage II, arrested. General con- 
dition fair. Extensive infiltration right upper and middle lobes, with 
softening in the upper. Infiltration left apex. Moderate toxaemia. 
Sputum positive. 

Red cells. Hb. White cells. Weight. 

4,780,000 81 9,200 119^4 Before treatment. 

6,588,000 85 13,200 122 After 6 months' treatment. 

Returned to employment. 

Case XV. — Man, 21 years, Stage III, improved, approaching 
arrest. General condition poor. Infiltration right upper lobe, and 
scattered areas throughout left lung, with softening in upper lobe. 
Considerable toxaemia. Sputum positive. 

Red cells. Hb. White cells. Weight. 

3,480,000 66 22,400 116 Before treatment. 

5,736,000 73 12,400 118^ After zVa months' treatment. 

As he felt well he refused longer to continue treatment and 
returned home. Lesion still active. Tubercle bacilli were reduced 
in number and all secondary organisms had disappeared. 



174 New Agent in Pulmonary Ttiberculosis. \ Am - A ^-^ rm - 

Case XVI. — Man, 28 years, Stage II, arrested. General con- 
dition poor. Diffuse infiltration right upper lobe, with softening. 
Scattered infiltration throughout rest of lung. Infiltration left apex. 
Considerable toxaemia. Sputum positive. 



Red cells. 


Hb. 


White cells. 


Weight. 






3,410,000 


66 


/.GOO 


109 


Before treatment. 




5,530,000 


96 


12,220 


110 


After 2*/ 2 months' 


treatment. 


6,422,000 


104 


14,210 


II5M 


After 2>Va months' 


treatment. 



Interesting in that for two and one-half months he received no 
inhalations, but was under sanatorium regime in the country. In- 
halations were begun there, and after two months he returned to 
employment. Slight morning cough persisted with about 5 Cc. of 
sputum daily, from which tubercle bacilli and all secondary organisms 
had disappeared. 

Case XXL — Child, 2]/ 2 years. Pneumonia two months previ- 
ously, coughing continuing with failing health. Apparently had per- 
tussis. General condition extremely poor; pale, languid, and 
apathetic. Respiration 60, pulse uncountable, a feeble cough with 
each expiration. Both lungs full of moist rales. Over right lower 
lobe voice intensified and respiration bronchovesicular. 



Red cells. 


Hb. 


White cells. 


Polys. 


Lymphs. 




5,536,000 


62 


84,000 


62.8 


34-6 


Before treatment. 


5,460,000 


70 


27,0OO 


34-0 


53-6 


After 9 days' treatment. 


5,480,000 


79 


39,0OO 


41.0 


544 


After 16 days' treatment. 



Apparently made perfect recovery. Reported well since. 

Case XX. — Man, 41 years, Stage III, improved. General con- 
dition fair for duration of disease (eight years). Nutrition had been 
well maintained. Infiltration right upper lobe. Extensive diffuse in- 
filtration entire left lung, with large cavities in both lobes. 









Average 


Per cent. 


Weekly 


Hours' 


Red cells 


Hb. 


White cells 


daily urine, 


urea, 


sputum, 


treatment 








Cc. 


gm. 


oz. 


monthly 


4,368,000 


74 


24,100 


350 


IO.5 


90 


Before 


4,480,000 


80 


30,500 


425 


32.4 


142 


174 


4,960,000 


86 


14,400 


980 


I9.4 


92^ 


I52X 


5,984,000 


84 


19,200 


1,023 


14.2 


85 


I44X 


4,86o,000 


78 


2 2,000 


773 


17.6 


87 


121 


5,920,000 


76 


16,400 


807 


29.2 


90 


88# 


5,620,000 


73 


17,400 


883 


25-4 


87 


67^ 


6,208,000 


72 


23,200 




18.2 


87 




5,800,000 


75 


20,000 




17-4 







Am Apr5 r 'i9£f™'}^ w Agent, in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 175 

After completing a second sanatorium course returned home and 
for fourteen months previous to treatment had been confined to bed. 
During treatment toxaemia was reduced, there were no hyperidroses, 
and, after the fourth month, no rigors. He was able to be dressed 
and about his rooms, and to do something for himself.. The enormous 
cavities continued large daily secretions and were a constant source 
of exhaustion. A permanently favorable result could scarcely be 
expected. Tubercle bacilli greatly diminished in number, and all 
secondary forms disappeared. Improvement continued and he was 
able to return to business for part of the day. 

The results of treatment may be indicated as follows : 

Stage I. Stage II. Stage III. 

Unimproved 1 

(Case III) 

Improved 1 2 9 

(Case V) (Cases XVI, XVII) (Cases I, VII, VIII, IX, XII, 

XV, XVIII, XIX, XX) 

Arrested .. . ;\v. ......... . 2 1 

(Cases XIII, XVI) (Case VI) 

Died , 4 

(Cases II, IV, X, XI) 

Case XXI was markedly improved. 

This classification is conservative, as, of the Stage II cases, one 
(Case XVII) reported as improved was in a condition approaching 
arrest, but would not remain kmger under observation, and of the 
Stage III cases, three (Cases XII, XV, and XIX) reported as 
improved were also in a ; condition approaching arrest, and two of 
them have returned to employment. 

Accurate studies of the blood of tuberculous patients are of 
comparatively recent date. While many observations are recorded 
in the literature, they are confused by a lack of agreement among 
the reporters, either in their -technic or in their identification and 
classification of the several cellular. constituents of the blood, or in 
their interpretation of the frequent and Often rapid variations noted 
in their numbers and forms. Even to-day, with our fuller knowl- 
edge of hematology, the personal equation of the examiner influences 
considerably a differential count, and there is more or less difference 
of opinion among hsematologists as to the meaning of certain findings. 
What are probably the first entirely reliable studies were made by 
Ullom and Craig. From observation of thirty-nine patients reported 
in 1906, they conclude : 



176 New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. { Am - A ^*-^ rm - 

1. In pulmonary tuberculosis, without cavity formation, a mild 
anaemia, with a decrease in erythrocytes and a relatively greater 
decrease in haemoglobin, is constant. 

2. From the standpoint of prognosis, an increase of the erythro- 
cytes, in cases without cavity formation, is of favorable significance. 

3. In advanced cases a decrease of the leucocytes is of unfavorable 
import. # 

4. In our investigations we have received the impression that 
the actual increase of lymphocytes seems to correspond to the in- 
crease of resistance on the part of the organism to the tuberculous 
infection, but further study is required to confirm this deduction. 

5. The transitionals seem to follow the same rule as the lympho- 
cytes in this regard. 

6. At the beginning of the investigation the eosinophils seemed 
to increase with the patient's improvement, but further study did not 
support this view. 

Curry, in studying the effect of altitude upon the blood, found in 
normal and tuberculous individuals an increase in red and white 
corpuscles, but notes little variation in the different kinds of leuco- 
cytes, while Webb and Williams have shown an increase in the 
proportion of the mononuclear cells in normal persons, and in cured, 
stationary, and improving tuberculosis. That under various forms 
of treatment the blood findings correspond closely with those of 
Ullom and Craig has been shown by Solis-Cohen and Strickler, who 
from 182 blood counts of fifty tuberculous patients treated with 
Bier's hyperaemia, blisters, iodoform, creosote carbonate, and nuclein 
observe that there is an increase in the proportion of lymphocytes 
and of polynuclear cells with one or two nuclei. These investigators 
have previously reported that the percentage of lymphocytes was 
increased in incipient, moderately advanced, and improving cases, 
and that the percentage of large mononuclears and transitional cells, 
while within normal limits, was greatest in incipient and improving 
cases. 

The findings of my own series of cases of twenty-one patients 
are largely in accord with these observations and seem to indicate 
that : 

1. The percentage of haemoglobin (Tallquist scale, controlled by 
von Fleishl or Dare haemoglobinometer) was reduced. It was in- 
creased under treatment. This increase did not seem to depend 
upon the administration of iron. 



Am \prii r 'i9i5 arm '}^^ w Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 17 J 

2. The erythrocytes were reduced in number. They increased 
under treatment, at least temporarily, irrespective of the lesion. 

3. When marked leucocytosis existed, due to toxaemia, it was 
reduced. When the number of leucocytes was below normal, it was 
increased by treatment. 

4. The lymphocytes were usually reduced, and were increased 
and remained so in those patients who improved. It seems probable 
that this increase may be considered as a reliable indication from a 
prognostic standpoint. 

5. The large mononuclears seem to follow the curve of the 
lymphocytes. It seems probable that they may be included with them, 
and that their increase or decrease may have a like significance. 

6. No conclusion could be drawn from the behavior of the 
transitionals, eosinophils, or basophiles. 

7. The classification and grouping of the polynuclear neutro- 
philes according to von Arneth's method seems to have some 
prognostic value. 

To summarize, there seems to be, under this method of treatment 
of pulmonary tuberculosis, and temporarily at least, even in the 
progressive and fatal types of the disease, a distinct and constant 
tendency of the cellular elements of the blood and the haemoglobin to 
approach their normal ratios, and especially for the number of 
erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and large mononuclears to be augmented, 
and for the haemoglobin percentage to be increased. 

The most immediate and noticeable effect of treatment was relief 
of dry, ineffectual cough. In all cases it was relieved, and in many 
patients it was limited to a necessary pulmonary toilet or disappeared 
entirely. This seemed to be due to the effect upon the sputum, which 
was increased in amount and rendered more liquid, so that it was 
raised with much less difficulty. This effect seemed to be attributable 
to the action of the pinene on the bronchial mucous membrane. In 
all cases the complicating bronchitis was diminished or disappeared 
entirely. While it is recognized that it is not always a trustworthy 
or permanent indication of improvement, there was noted a marked 
diminution of tubercle bacilli and the secondary organisms in the 
sputum, and in some instances they were absent in several successive 
examinations, when treatment had been of any duration or continuity. 

The temperature, pulse, and respiration of* those patients who 
presented any hope of improvement were reduced and steadied, the 
curves showing decidedly less variation. In no instance was an ac- 



180 New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. { Am Ap ™ r \<^ arm - 

celeration of respiration observed which might in itself account for 
improvement through better aeration of the lungs (Chart 2). 

In those patients who improved there was a noticeable diminution 
of toxaemia, indicated by the less frequent occurrence or disappear- 
ance of rigors and hyperidrosis. 

The amount of urine and the excretion of urea were increased. 

The appetite was in no instance impaired, but rather seemed to be 
improved. 

Partly perhaps from a psychological effect, but certainly also 
because of the relief of cough, sleep was more continuous, more 
sound, and more refreshing. 

At no time, except when an inferior quality of turpentine was 
used, were there any evidences of irritation of either the heart, 
lungs, or kidneys. 

The weight increased and the improvement, both of the general 
condition and of the pulmonary lesion, seemed to be as rapid and 
satisfactory as under any other form of treatment, and to compare 
favorably with that obtained under sanatorium care. Indeed, it is 
noticeable and interesting that all of the patients who were treated 
in the city made quite as rapid progress here as afterward in the 
country, and their improvement here was quite as marked as that of 
those who began their treatment in the country, or who were under 
sanatorium care there without treatment. This is true also of those 
patients who throughout their treatment have remained in the city. 
Interruption of the treatment was followed by a diminution of the 
erythrocytes (Chart 1). 

Conclusions. — The researches and their results above reported, 
while preliminary and incomplete, seem to justify the following 
conclusions : 

1. Oxypinene, prepared by the interaction of pinene vapor and 
dry ozonized air, possesses the valuable properties of refined and 
purified oil of turpentine (pinene) minus its undesirable irritating 
properties. In other words, pinene is modified by oxidation so that 
it is no longer as penetrating as pinene, nor as quickly absorbed, yet 
it is capable of producing the same beneficial therapeutic effects. 

2. It has marked germicidal effect, in vitro, upon M. pyogenes 
aureus, B. anthracis, B. typhosus, B. coli communis, and B. subtilis. 
It also appears to be germicidal to the tubercle bacillus in sputum. 

No experimental work has been done with tubercle in situ. 

3. When inhaled it does not produce irritation of the respiratory 



Am '\p°rn r ' 1915 rm ' } New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. 181 

tract, neither does it produce frontal headache or renal irritation, 
thus decidedly differing from oil of turpentine or pinene. 

4. It is a valuable expectorant. It acts as a mildly stimulating 
diuretic without renal irritation. It seems to stimulate the appetite 
and digestion and thus to improve nutrition. 

5. Its use in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis has been 
beneficial, not so much from its limited bactericidal action upon 
tubercle bacilli as by its effect upon the associated organisms and its 
hsematinic power. 

6. In subacute and chronic affections of the respiratory system 
it is indicated as a mild stimulant to the mucous membranes and 
other tissues. 

7. When brought in contact with infected surfaces it inhibits 
the growth of certain pathogenic micro-organisms, and, by its 
hypersemic property, increases the circulation in the infected area, 
thus promoting the destruction of such organisms by phagocytosis. 

A brief preliminary report upon this subject was made at a stated 
meeting of the Xew York County Medical Society on May 27, 191 2. 
Since then the clinical observations noted have been confirmed by 
several colleagues and in my own hospital service. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Bennett : Tabidorum theatrum, sive phtisios atrophiae et hecticae xenodochium, 

Frankfort, 1665. 
Laennec : Quoted by Cointet. 
Schneider and Valz : Ibid. 

Auphan : Traitement hydro-minerale de la chlorose et des ses complications, 
Paris, 1868. 

Salles-Girons : Sur la respiration des eaux minerales pulverises, Gaz. heb. de 
Med. s Paris, 1861. 

Dumarquay : De la penetration des corps pulverulents volatile et solides dans 
les voies respiratoires, au point de vue therapeutique. Bui. Acad, de Med., 
Paris, 1861. 

Fournie : Sur la non-penetration des liquides pulverulentes dans les bronches 

et les cellules pulmonaires, Bui. Acad, de Med., Paris, 1861-1862. 
Bourouilloux : Quoted by Cointet. 
Gratiolet et Travenier : Quoted by Cointet. 

Poggiale : Rapport sur les pulverisations, Bui. Acad, de Med., Paris, 1862. 
Gerhardt : Quoted by Teissier. 

Waldenburg: Die locale Behandlung der Krankheiten der Athmensorganen, 
Berlin, 1872. 

J. Solis-Cohen : Inhalation : Its Therapeutics and Practice, Philadelphia, 1876. 
Heryng: Nouvelles methodes d'inhalations, Warsaw, 1904. 



1 82 New Agent in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. { Am A ^\^ Tm - 

Freund : Experimentelle Untersuchungen mit Inhalationen, Thieranz Wochen- 

sch., Berlin, 1907. 
Foxwell: An Address on Inhalation, Lancet, 1907. 
Lepel-Cointet : Thesis, Faculte de Medecine, Paris, 1909. 
Bulling : Inhalation therapy, Klin, therap. Woch., Wien, 1909. 
Regnault and Reiset : Recherches chimiques sur la respiration des animaux 

des diverses classes, Am. de Chim. et Phys., Paris, 1849. 
Bert: La pression barometrique ; recherches de physiologie experimentale, 

Paris, 1878. 

Quinquard : fitudes de therapeutique experimentale et clinique, Soc. d'Ed. 

Scientifiques, Paris, 1892. 
Smith, J. H. : Inhalation of Oxygen, Trans. Am. Climat. Assoc., Philadelphia, 

1898. 

Hayem : Legons sur les modifications du sang sous Finfluence des agents 

medicamenteux et des pratiques therapeutique, Paris, 1882. 
Robin : Quoted by Teissier. 

Senator : Valeur des inhalations d'oxygene, La Medecine Modernc, vol. xiii, 

1902. 
Michaelis : Ibid. 

Bureau. Des inhalations d'oxygene, Gaz. Med. de Nantes, 1908. 

Teissier : Pneumotherapy and Inhalation Methods : A System of Physiologic 
Therapeutics, Cohen, 1903. 

Aune : Effects physiologiques des inhalations d'oxygene d'apres des experi- 
ences executees sur lui-meme par l'auteur, Paris, 1880. 

Carizalis : Thesis, Faculte de Medecine, Paris, 1900-1901. 

Labbe : Action therapeutique et physiologique de l'ozone, Communication au 
Congres International de Medecine, Paris, 1900. 

Butte et Peyron : Action de l'ozone sur la nutrition, Ann. de la Policlin., Paris, 
1897. 

Collart : Traitement de la tuberculose pulmonaire par les inhalations de l'ozone, 

Ann. de la Soc. med. chi. de Liege, 1891. 
Coustan : De la valeur therapeutique de l'ozone, Gaz. hebd. de Med., Bordeaux, 

1893. 

De la Caux : L'ozone, Paris, 1904. 

Sletoff : Traitement de la tuberculose par l'ozone, Moscow, 1895. 

Morton : Ozone and Its Uses in Medicine, New York Medical Journal, 

June 23-30, 1894. 
Stokes : Quoted by Teissier. 

Graves: Ibid., Journal of the American Medical Association, Editorial, vol. 
lvii, No. 17, Oct. 21, 191 1. 

Ullom and Craig : Examination of the Blood in Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 
American Jour. Med. Sci., Sept., 1905. Examination of the Blood in 
Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Special Reference to Prognosis. Annual 
Report, National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis, 1905. 

Webb and Williams : Some Hematological Studies, in Tuberculosis, Ibid., 
1909. 



Am \p°rn r "mr m '} Views on Constitution of the Atom. 183 

M. Solis-Cohen and Strickler : A Study of Leucocytes in Pulmonary Tuber- 
culosis, Ibid., 1910; The Effect Produced by Some Therapeutic Measures 
on the Different Forms of Leucocytes in Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Boston 
Med. and Surg. Jour., vol. clxv, No. 15, Oct. 12, 191 1. 

Curry: On the Nature of the Blood Changes Due to Altitude, Am. Med., 
1902.. iv, 367. 

Pottenger : A Study of Fever in Tuberculosis with Reference to its Causation 
and Treatment, Jour. Am. Med. Assoc., vol. lvii, No. 13, 1911. 

40 East Forty-first Street. 



MODERN VIEWS OX THE CONSTITUTION OF THE 

ATOM. 1 

By A. S. Eve, D.Sc, Macdonald Professor of Physics, McGill University, 

Montreal. 2 

Introduction. 

The view that matter is composed of discrete entities, called 
atoms, which are indivisible, is one of great antiquity. It was, 
however, merely a speculative opinion, not based on experimental 
evidence. 

At the present day we can affirm that atoms have a real existence, 
using the word " real " in the ordinary sense ; for instance, as a 
bullet or stone may be considered real. Moreover, it is possible to 
perform a number of experiments which indicate clearly that atoms 
are themselves composed of smaller entities, termed electrons, and it is 
not difficult to obtain some conception of the number and distribution 
and motion of these electrons within the atom. Furthermore, radio- 
active elements, such as radium or thorium, consist of atoms in a 
state of disintegration or devolution, and it has been possible to 
detect single electrons projected' from radio-active matter, and also 
to ascertain that a radium atom may eject the large nucleus of the 
smaller helium atom. These remarkable expulsions from the inner 
citadels of certain atoms take place independently of their physical 
surroundings, such as extremes of pressure and temperature. It is 
noteworthy, however, that the manner in which these heavy atoms 
such as uranium and radium are built up from their smaller con- 
stituents, remains a profound mystery. 

1 Based on a lecture delivered at the meeting of the Section of Physics 
and Chemistry of The Franklin Institute held Thursday, December 3, 1914. 

2 Reprinted from Jour. Franklin Institute, 1915, p. 269. 



1 84 Views on Constitution of the Atom. { Am -^i,' m5 Tm ' 

When the seventh Duke of Devonshire presented the Cavendish 
Laboratory to the University of Cambridge, the first Professor of 
Experimental Physics appointed was Clerk Maxwell, the Newton of 
electricity. 3 In his great treatise on " Electricity and Magnetism " 
he made a notable prophecy ; namely, that the discharge of electricity 
through a rarefied gas is a phenomenon of great interest and im- 
portance, and, when better understood, " will probably throw great 
light on the nature of electricity as well as on the nature of gases and 
of the medium pervading space." 

When Maxwell died he was succeeded by Lord Rayleigh, who 
found the units of electricity uncertain to some five per cent. This 
matter needed prompt attention, for electrical supply was then be- 
coming a commercial undertaking. Rayleigh, in a few years, made 
it possible to determine with good accuracy the volt, the ampere, and 
the ohm. He retired, owing to his multitudinous duties and in- 
terests, and the University of Cambridge was somewhat startled to 
find the great Chair of Physics conferred on a " boy " of twenty- 
seven, the illustrious J. J. Thomson. 

It would seem that he was born to prove the accuracy of the first 
half of Maxwell's prophecy, for he promptly investigated electrical 
discharges in gases, and the timely discoveries of the cathode rays 
and of Rontgen rays enabled him to make two great forward steps, 
namely, the theory of gaseous ionization, and a clear view of the 
nature of electrons. 

When a current is passed from metal plates through a highly- 
exhausted tube a stream of particles is projected from one plate (the 
cathode). It was known that these were readily deflected by a 
magnet, but Sir Joseph Thomson succeeded in deflecting them also 
by an electrostatic field. He thus showed that the cathode particles, 
or corpuscles, are exceedingly light, with a mass about one-eighteen- 
hundredth part of the hydrogen atom. These corpuscles are now 
usually termed electrons, and are the fundamental units or atoms of 
negative electricity. It is scarcely credible that this most primary 
conception can ever be dethroned from a foremost place in human 
knowledge. 

Sir Joseph Thomson also gave us a theory of the manner in 
which a gas conducts electricity. If the molecules were all un- 
charged, then he believed that the gas would be a perfect insulator. 



3 Maxwell himself termed Ampere the Newton of electricity. 



Am Jour Pharm. i y{ ews on Constitution of the Atom. 185 

April, 1915. f J . 

The current of electricity in a gas is always carried by " ions," or 
charged molecules of gas which have gained, or lost, one or possibly 
more electrons. At low pressures or high temperatures the negative 
electricity may be conveyed by electrons instead of by negative ions; 
but positive electricity has never been found detached from atoms, 
or from the nucleus of atoms, so that the term positive electron has 
at present no concise meaning. Later we shall see Sir Ernest Ruther- 
ford's suggested interpretation of it. 

It is necessary to write a few words about the radio-active sub- 
stances, or radiants, as I find it convienent to call them. 

There are about thirty-seven radiants known, and they are divided 
into three great families: (1) uranium- radium, (2) thorium, (3) 
actinium. 

When any one of the atoms disintegrates it projects a funda- 
mental part of the atom, either an alpha ray or a beta ray, with a 
high velocity into the surrounding space. That which remains of the 
old atom is a new atom of different physical and chemical properties 
to the parent atom from which the ejection took place. 

The beta particle is an electron. The alpha particle is a helium 
atom stripped of two electrons. As the alpha particle slows down it 
picks up two electrons from some neighboring matter, and it is then 
an ordinary helium atom, and emits the same spectrum as helium. 

Radiants may also emit gamma rays, which are closely analogous 
to Rontgen rays and are doubtless similar to light, consisting of ether 
undulations, but with wave-lengths several hundreds of times shorter 
than those of light. 

Much theoretical deduction was confirmed when C. T. R. Wilson 
photographed illuminated ions, mist-ladened, marking the tracks of 
electrons, which had been hurled forth by a pencil of Rontgen rays 
(Fig. 1). 

As Bragg surmised, the Rontgen rays did not ionize the gas 
directly. They ejected high-speed electrons, and these electrons, 
passing through the molecules, drove some low-velocity electrons 
from the latter, thus giving rise to pairs of ions. The beautiful 
photographs of C. T. R. Wilson showed this very clearly. They 
bring us, moreover, abruptly face to face with one of the profound 
mysteries in physics. 

The Rontgen rays are caused by the quick stoppage on a target 
of fast-moving electrons in the Rontgen tube. These rays, like light, 
must spread outwards with the flux of energy decreasing by the law 



1 86 



Views on Constitution of the Atom. { Am A ^[; ? 9 \f m - 



of inverse squares. Yet when these diverging rays strike some one 
out of a vast number of molecules there is ejected an electron with 
a speed almost equal to that of the primary cathode rays. The 
ejection may take place, moreover, many metres away from the tube. 



Fig. i. 




No explanation of this anomaly is forthcoming. The energy cannot 
come from the atom, for when the intensity of the rays is increased 
there is a corresponding increase in the number of ejected electrons. 
When the frequency of the waves of the Rontgen rays is increased 



Am Ap?n^9T[5 arin ') Views on Constitution of the Atom. 187 

there is an increase in the kinetic energy of the projected electrons. 
Indeed, we may write approximately that 

I mv 2 = hn 

where the left member i$ the kinetic energy of the electron, n is the 
frequency of the X-rays, and h is Planck's number equal to 6.6 x icr 27 
erg second. 

This interesting relation represents a fact, but explains nothing 
and itself demands as much explanation as the initial difficulty. 

In conversation W. H. Bragg once gave to me a striking analogy. 
Let the moon represent the source of X-rays, and the moonlight, 
shining on the earth, represent the Rontgen rays falling on a body. 
Just as the Rontgen rays eject here and there a high-speed electron, 
so the moonlight would have to cause something about the size of a 
pea to leap out with great velocity, first one, say, from Siberia, then 
one from South Africa, next from New Guinea, and so forth. 
Violent and very local action produced by a uniform and homo- 
geneous radiation ! 

The Counting of the Alpha Particles. — Before C. T. R. Wilson 
had taken the photographs already ^escribed. Sir Ernest Rutherford 
had devised an apparatus which enabled him to detect the alpha 
particles entering, one by one, into a testing chamber in such a 
manner that their number could be counted. In this way he was 
able to deduce that the alpha particle had a charge twice as great, but 
opposite in sign, to the charge of an electron ; that a gramme of the 
metal radium expelled 3.57 x 10 10 alpha particles per second, and he 
found accurate values for other fundamental constants. 

For the detection of the individual alpha particle this eminent 
physicist was, with a pretty humor, justly awarded the Nobel Prize 
for chemistry. 

The Detection of the Individual Electron. — The alpha-ray de- 
tector was altered and improved, and a few years later Geiger was 
able to report that he had succeeded in detecting single electrons 
entering a suitable orifice in his new testing chamber. As I had, 
owing to the kind help of the secretary, Dr. Owens, the pleasure of 
performing experiments with this type of apparatus at The Franklin 
Institute, it may be well to give a fairly full description of it. 

When an electron, say a beta particle from a radiant, enters the 
small hole in the testing vessel B, it approaches a point N which is 
almost sparking to the high-potential chamber (Fig. 2). The ions 



i88 



Views on Constitution of the Atom. -j A 




produced by the particle, particularly the negative ions, are urged 
forward with a very high velocity by the intense electric field, and 
these ions produce more ions by collision. It is as though a temporary v 
minute spark passed, so that the needle leaps up from zero to 36 or 40 
volts. As the needle is connected to the quartz fibre FF this latter is 
at once charged, and, being between charged plates, is deflected. A 
stable state is swiftly re-established, owing to the high resistance R, 
and the trap is reset to show the next electron. The movements of 



Fig. 2. — B is a hollow brass cylinder (4x1 cm.) with a small hole in the end (where the 
electron enters), Voltage + 1500. N is a fine, sharp, clean needle with its point about 8 mm. 
from the hole. R is a high resistance, about 100 megohms, of xylol and alcohol in a glass U 
tube. FF is a fine, silvered, quartz fibre between two metal plates 8 mm. apart, 15 cm. long, 
charged to low opposite voltages. 



the quartz fibre are seen when projected on a white screen. With 
this apparatus many beautiful experiments can be shown, such as the 
range of the alpha particles from polonium ; individual alpha particles 
passing through a pinhole in paper; the reflection of scattering of 
rays from lead or from aluminum, in which case the lead is the more 
effective; the long-distance effect of the gamma rays and their 
highly-penetrating nature. But the most excellent and impressive 
sight is that of a piece of pitchblende, just as it came from the mine 
in Bohemia, continually expelling alpha and beta particles into the 



+40 
M 




Am Aj?ii r *i9i5 arm ' } Views on Constitution of the Atom. 189 

surrounding air. Remember also that it is capable of continuing to 
do so for a period exceeding one thousand million years. 

On the Nucleus of Atoms. — Sir Joseph Thomson had suggested 
an atomic structure having a number of electrons revolving in con- 
centric circles within a vague entity consisting of positive electricity. 
Sir Ernest Rutherford, working with Geiger, found that when alpha 
particles bombarded thin gold leaf the great majority of the particles 
passed through, but about one in every eight thousand returned on 
the side of entry. He came to the conclusion that the returning alpha 
particle had encountered a highly-charged nucleus. Working out 
this idea on the basis of Newtonian mechanics, he concluded that the 
nucleus was small in its effective dimensions, but that it had a charge 
equal to about one-half of the atomic weight of the atom. This idea 
was amply verified by a long series of experiments, and it fitted well 
with results obtained by Barkla, who, stimulating matter with 
Rontgen rays, obtained evidence that an atom contained electrons 
to a number about half that of the atomic weight. 

Putting these results together, we obtain something resembling 
a miniature solar system, with the minute central body consisting of 
a large positive charge, and in concentric surrounding rings are 
electrons revolving like planets, 4 but perhaps with several in each 
ring, and so adjusted that their total charge, which is negative, 
balances the positive charge on the nucleus. 

The Alpha Particle and Hydrogen Nucleus. — In one of Wilson's 
photographs of the track of an alpha particle (Fig. 3) there appears, 
near the end of the path, a small projecting spur, which he explained 
as due to an atom of an air molecule, struck by an alpha particle, 
receiving sufficient velocity to ionize the air for a short distance. It 
immediately occurred to Rutherford that if an alpha particle passed 
through hydrogen, then the light hydrogen atom, or rather its nucleus, 
would be projected, not merely to a greater distance than the nucleus 
of the oxygen or nitrogen atom, but to almost four times the distance 
of the alpha particle itself. This forecast was verified by Marsden, 
using a zinc sulphide screen, when the scintillations due to the 
hydrogen nuclei were seen at a range nearly quadruple that of the 
alpha particles. This important verification has placed the theory 
of the nucleus on a foundation which excludes doubt as to its reality. 



4 There is, however, no direct experimental evidence that the electrons 
revolve. They may vibrate about stable positions. 



190 Views on Constitution of the Atom. {^Ap^'iSs"™' 

The Beta and Gamma Rays. — Another photograph was obtained 
by Wilson showing the long range of the electron expelled by in- 
cident gamma rays. In air at atmospheric pressure this secondary 
beta particle will traverse more than a metre. As will be seen later, 
the gamma rays are electromagnetic disturbances having a minute 

Fig. 3. 



wave-length, even compared with light waves, and a correspondingly 
high frequency. The kinetic energy is, as with Rontgen rays pro- 
pelling electrons, again approximately equal to h times the frequency, 
when h is Planck's constant. The mechanism by which these phe- 



Am. jour. Pharm. } Viezus on Constitution of the Atom. 191 

April, 191o. / , ■ 

nomena occur is unknown, whether we consider electrons projected 
by ultraviolet light, Rontgen rays, or gamma rays. 

Planck's Constant. — When in a reflecting enclosure there is a 
heated body and, necessarily, ether, the former has a limited number 
of degrees of freedom, and the latter an unlimited number. It may, 
therefore, be expected that, as theory appears to indicate, the energy 
of the body would decrease and that of the ether increase, particu- 
larly towards vibrations of the shorter wave-lengths. Experiment 
proves that this does not occur, and that the distribution of energy 
is utterly different from that which Newtonian mechanics demand. 
Planck found himself able to explain this distribution only on the 
supposition that energy could leave the oscillators in the body by 
exact quanta, the magnitude of which was in each case proportional 
to the frequency of the oscillator, or equal to hn. Shortly before his 
death Poincare thoroughly investigated this hypothesis and con- 
cluded that an explanation on the basis of Planck's hypothesis was 
inevitable, and that no other view was in accordance with observed 
radiation phenomena. An able summary of the whole subject has 
been given by Jeans in a report published by the Physical Society 
of London. 5 We have, therefore, a unique situation in physics. The 
quantity h has been introduced and its magnitude determined without 
our having any approximate idea of what h represents. To the 
student of radio-activity it is the ratio of the number of units of the 
kinetic energy of the projected electron, divided by the frequency 
of the incident, electromagnetic disturbance, or possibly by some 
exact multiple of that frequency. 

Rontgen Rays and Crystal Re-flection. — It was foreseen by Laue, 
at a time when the potentialities of Rontgen rays appeared almost 
exhausted, that these rays would be scattered in a definite direction 
from any set of orderly parallel planes in which the atoms of a 
crystal are arranged. An analogy may be useful. If troops with 
fixed bayonets are not drawn up in rank the sunlight reflected from 
the bayonets will give to a spectator a glint here and there. In well- 
dressed ranks, however, a spectator will in some positions see no 
reflections, but in other positions, when the angles of reflection and 
incidence are equal, he will obtain a powerful flash from all the 
bayonets in all the ranks. 



5 " Report on Radiation and the Quantum Theory," by J. H. Jeans, The 
Electrician Printing Company, Fleet Street, London. 



192 Views on Constitution of the Atom. { Am ;4rii r 'i9i5 arm ' 

Professor W. H. Bragg and his son have developed this method 
and obtained information as to the distribution of atoms in various 
crystals, the distance between the atoms, and the wave-lengths of the 
Rontgen rays. He has himself summarized this work in an article 
published recently in Science (December 4, 1914). 

Crystal Reflection of Gamma Rays. — The gamma rays have been 
reflected from the regular layers of atonjs in a crystal in a manner 
quite similar to that employed with Rontgen rays, a radiant taking 
the place of the X-ray tube. In this way Rutherford has found that 
the wave-lengths of the most penetrating gamma rays, glancing from 
the crystal face at 42', is about 0.7 x 10 ~ 9 cm. This is the smallest 
wave-length known, but the phenomenon may as justly be attributed 
to an electromagnetic disturbance in the ether as a radiotelegraph 
wave with a length of several kilometres. 

It is interesting to note, in some papers of Rutherford's, how he 
appears to use language and ideas which are at present totally irrec- 
oncilable. I am not venturing to criticise this, for the statements 
do indeed represent the facts. At one time Rutherford is speaking 
of " a gamma ray," thus suggesting linear propagation of energy, 
and at another time he is discussing the wave-length of a gamma 
ray with a meaning applicable to ordinary light radiation and there- 
fore involving an expanding wave front. We are reminded of 
Newton's troubles in explaining diffraction by a corpuscular theory, 
and concluding that light has an " eel-like " motion. 

Atomic Number. — Since the positive charge on the nucleus of an 
atom is about half the atomic weight, and since that charge is neces- 
sarily a whole number when expressed as a multiple of the magnitude 
of the charge of an electron, it has been suggested by van den Broek 
that there is a fundamental and important number connected with 
every element, known as the atomic number. This number is pos- 
sibly the place of the element in the periodic table (Hi, He 2, Li 3, 
Be 4, Bo 5, C 6, etc.). This theory has had strong confirmation from 
a series of experiments by Moseley. He exposed most of the ele- 
ments to the bombardment of electrons in a vacuum tube, these 
elements forming, in turn, the anticathodes of a Rontgen tube. The 
natural or characteristic radiations of the elements were reflected 
from a crystal surface, and the frequencies of the vibrations were 
thus determined. After a correction for the outer electrons, it was 
found that in every case the frequency was proportional to the square 
of an integer which was identified with the atomic number. Accord- 



Am Aprii r 'i9i h 5 arm " } Views on Constitution of the Atom. 193 

ing to Sir Joseph Thomson, when an atom has, suppose, three rings 
of revolving electrons, the outer ring is that influenced by ionization 
and is investigated by spectrum analysis, the inner ring is connected 
with the penetrating, or hard, or K series of characteristic Rontgen 
radiations, and the middle ring with the less penetrating, or soft, 
or L series. To the nucleus we must look for the main effects of 
mass and inertia, and gravitational attraction, and, when they exist, 
for the radio-active transformations and expulsions. 

Bohr's Theories. — It has been pointed out that when a single 
electron revolves round a unit charge nucleus, as in the case of 
hydrogen, that by electromagnetic theory there should be a continued 
stream of energy radiated away into space, necessarily demanding 
that the revolving electron would lose speed and fall into the nucleus. 
To overcome this and similar difficulties, Bohr has suggested a 
theory of stable states, non-radiating, with the angular momentum 
an exact multiple of h/2ir, where h is Planck's constant. When the 
multiple is, for reasons unknown, diminished by unity, the electron 
abruptly changes from the old stable state to the next stable position, 
and in doing so radiates away an exact quantum such as Planck first 
conceived. It must be admitted that these ideas appear at first highly 
imaginative, and they might well be ignored but for the remarkable 
degree of success which they have already achieved. Notably he 
foretold the existence of certain lines in the ultra-violet spectrum 
of hydrogen, and these were subsequently discovered by Lyman. He 
identified lines found by Paschen in the infra-red, and also obtained 
an excellent numerical verification between his theory and the value 
of the constant of Rydberg which links up the spectral series of 
various elements. Perhaps the most interesting suggestion is that 
lines seen in the spectrum of certain stars may be assigned to 
hydrogen in a state of extreme tenuity, so that the electron revolves 
in a greatly-enlarged orbit about the nucleus, a state which it is im- 
possible to imitate in the small vessels of our laboratories. 

Valency Lazv of Radiants. — A band of chemists who have 
made a careful study of the properties of the radio-elements have 
succeeded in the discovery of an interesting law which removes the 
difficulty of finding places in the periodic table for all the radiants, 
about thirty-seven in number. A full account of this work is given 
by Soddy in " The Chemistry of the Radio-elements " (Longmans, 
Green & Co., 1914). 

Briefly, it has been found that when a radiant expels an alpha 



194 Views on Constitution of the Atom. { Am ™J rm - 

particle, thus reducing the charge on the nucleus by two electronic 
units, there is a corresponding change of valency, say from tetrav- 
alent to divalent, so that the new product is two columns to the left 
in the periodic table, while the decrease of atomic weight is four. 
When a beta particle is expelled there is no effective change of 
atomic weight, but the nucleus charge or atomic number has in- 
creased by one, since the loss of a negative is equivalent to the gain 
of a positive electronic unit charge. The subsequent product is now 
found one column to the right in the table, relative to the parent 
element. Two elements with different atomic weight, but with the 
same nucleus charge, may find themselves in the same place in the 
periodic table, and are known as isotopes. Such elements have 
chemical and physical properties so similar that they are at present 
deemed inseparables or non-separables. As an example, it is 
possible to obtain radium D as it forms from the disintegration of 
radium C. If this radium D is mixed with lead, separation 
becomes impossible, because their chemical properties are identical. 
This theory has already achieved a notable success. In the early 
days of radioactivity Sir William Crookes obtained uranium X by 
chemical separation from uranium, and it was shown that it was a 
linear descendant. The uranium was found to eject two sets of alpha 
particles of different ranges, so that it was presumably two radiants 
and not one. The law above described suggested both the presence 
of an undiscovered radiant and also its chemical properties. This 
substance, uranium X2, or brevium, for it is short-lived, was quickly 
discovered. 

The conclusion arrived at is set forth in the following typical 
scheme, where uranium 1 and uranium 2 are inseparables or isotopes, 
with atomic weights differing by 4, but with atomic numbers and 
valencies identical. 



IV. V. VI. At.wts. 



Ur Xi ^ 


Ur X2 


Ur 


2 


234-5 


ft 90 




a, 


92 








Ur 


1 


238.5 






a, 


92 





Am. jour. Pharm > views on Constitution of the Atom. 105 

April, 1915. j ' 

The Positive Electron. — In the early days of the electron theory 
it was not unnaturally supposed that the positive electron was similar 
in general character to the negative electron, the two, of course, 
neutralizing one another. The diligent search of many eminent 
physicists has failed to obtain evidence of any such entity, and in no 
case has a positive electronic charge been observed except accom- 
panied with a mass of atomic dimensions. Sir Joseph Thomson has 
found that the hydrogen atom, alone of the elementary atoms, never 
loses more than one electron. It has been suggested by Sir Ernest 
Rutherford that the long-sought positive electron may, in fact, be 
the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, and, in that case, that its mass 
would be 1800 times as great as the mass of the negative electron. If 
this mass is electromagnetic in character, it must vary inversely as 
the radius, so that the positive electron would have a sphere of action 
extremely minute, even compared with the negative electron. The 
radii of the three spheres would then be of the following orders : 

Atom, icr s cm. 
Electron, io~ 13 cm. 
Positive electron, icr 16 cm. 

It is clear that the investigation of the inner constitution of the 
electrons will offer formidable difficulties to future generations of 
physicists. 

Conclusion. 

There are generally not a few men of small intellect or foresight 
who ask, " What is the good of these philosophical discoveries? " 
Such is not the attitude of those who are engaged in the practical 
work of applying scientific discoveries to the benefit of mankind. 
But, apart from inventions, so often misdirected to the destruction 
rather than the elevation of the human race, it is well to urge con- 
tinually the high aim of the search for truth for its own sake, where- 
soever it may lead us. It may be noted that the discoveries set forth 
in this brief summary have been achieved by savants in the western 
half of Europe, and it may be asked if the education in the New 
World is at the present time sufficiently thorough, imaginative, and 
philosophical. In any case, the future improvement of mankind is 
likely to arise from education in the sense of development of knowl- 
edge, character, and principles, rather than from the acquisition of 
wealth, or by the multiplication of material resources. 



196 



Current Literature. 



1 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1915. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 



Alkaloidal Content of Stramonium Leaves. 



In Bulletin 692 of the University of Wisconsin, H. A. Langenhan 
records the results of some investigations undertaken to determine 
the alkaloidal content of several species of stramonium that have 
been examined chemically, and to ascertain the alkaloids present in 
the leaf of a given species for a succession of years. The results of 
the assay of Datura Stramonium Gigantea and Datura Stramonium 
Inermis bring forth the statement from the author that no satis- 
factory generalizations can be made. The material worked with was 
cultivated in the Northern Experiment Station at Madison, a co- 
operative experiment for the cultivation of medicinal plants by the 
United States Department of Agriculture and The University of 
Wisconsin. J. K. T. 



E. R. Miller (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No. 693) 
has made an interesting study of the chemical and physical properties 
of this oil. As the wormwood industry is the oldest medicinal plant 
industry in the State, the oil having been produced for over fifty 
years, it seemed that an investigation having for its object a more 
systematic cultivation and distillation of the plant would be welcome 
to those engaged in this industry. Work of this kind, if consistently 
kept up, will eventually be of material aid and help to make Wisconsin 
oil the best in the market. J. K. T. 



E. R. Miller (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No. 693) 
has made an exhaustive chemical study of the oils of several species 
of Eupatorium. A tabulation gives the time of collection, the yield 
of oil, the specific gravity, index of refraction, rotation in a 100-mm. 
tube, percentage of methoxy group, saponification number, saponifi- 
cation number after acetylating, the acid number, and the percentage 
of thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether calculated from the percentage 



Wisconsin Wormwood Oil. 



Oils of Eupatorium. 



of methoxyl. 



J. K. T. 



THE AMEEIOAE" 

JOURNAL. OF PHA 



MAY, 1915 




A NOTE ON COMPRESSED T, 
By S. Bertha Muller, Assistant Pharmacist, German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

Considerable has, at various times, been written on the subject 
of compressed tablets, their history and development up to the 
present-day method of manufacture. The various excipients and 
diluents, such as sugar, starch, etc., used at various times in their 
manufacture, have also been dealt with in detail. This paper, there- 
fore, is only intended to add a few more facts that have come out in 
the course of some investigations made by the writer. 

Recently, in doing some work on commercial compressed tablets 
and tablet triturates, it was found that at the present time white 
dextrin is the most generally used diluent and disintegrator, both 
for compressed tablets and tablet triturates. 

White dextrin is of very variable quality. Different samples of 
it differ widely as to degree of conversion ; some reduce Fehling's 
solution readily, while others hardly affect it at all, and between the 
two extremes one can get almost any degree of reduction of Fehling's 
solution with different samples. 

White dextrin appears to be well fitted as a disintegrator and 
lubricant for insoluble material. It causes rapid disintegration of a 
compressed tablet, provided it is used in sufficient quantity and a 
careful working method is adopted. Some substances require more, 
others less dextrin to bring about an immediate disintegration. Thus, 
for instance, commercial tablets of acetyl salicylic acid contain only 
30 per cent, of dextrin, while those of the basic bismuth salts and 
of salol contain between 40 and 50 per cent, of it. 

The immediate breaking up of a tablet on contact with water does 
not, however, mean that such a tablet is fit for solution and conse- 
quent ready assimilation. The adhesive substance used in granulat- 
ing the material is a factor of no small importance. Indeed, the 
complete disintegration of a tablet depends largely upon it. For 
instance, if gelatine or glue is used in granulating, such tablets re- 

(197) 



198 The Cutting of Micro-sections. { Am Ma y ^9u> iarm ' 

quire two or three hours in water before the individual granules 
absorb sufficient water to become softened. 

A tablet, therefore, prepared from material granulated with 
gelatine, is not what, on superficial observation, it looks to be; for, 
while it does break up readily into granules, these in turn do not 
soften rapidly, and consequently ready disintegration and solution 
of the medicinal substance is out of the question. 

Furthermore, it seems some manufacturers have gotten into a 
rather routine method of manufacturing compressed tablets, the 
same excipient being used for all kinds of material. It certainly 
is not good practice to use dextrin in the making up of tablets of 
soluble material. A readily soluble salt like sodium salicylate does 
not need a disintegrator at all. In fact, in such tablets dextrin does 
more harm than good, because, on contact with water, it forms a 
thick starch paste, enveloping the soluble substance in such a way 
as to prevent ready solution. 

Such tablets require from two to three hours for solution, while 
the same kind of tablets prepared without dextrin are completely 
dissolved in fifteen to twenty minutes' time. 

To sum up, then, it is safe to say that, while dextrin is a good 
and valuable disintegrator in the manufacture of compressed tab- 
lets, it should not be used indiscriminately, and when it is used it 
should be done with intelligence, otherwise more harm than good will 
be the result to the patient, whose welfare should always be kept 
in mind. 



THE CUTTING OF MICRO-SECTIONS. 

By H. H. Crosbie, Baltimore. 

In the commercial laboratory where time is an important factor 
the cutting of sections is usually done by hand, an operation calling 
for considerable skill and patience. The microtome of commerce is 
usually to be found resting in desuetude on a top shelf, hand cutting 
being found to be easier and quicker. 

The instrument illustrated has been devised and has been in use 
for some time, and we find it entirely replaces the skilled hand cutting 
previously in use. As an instance, one is able to cut a satisfactory 
cross-section of a henbane leaf through a vein, as thin as 0.05 milli- 
metre, with only a few minutes' preliminary soaking in warm water. 

The microtome consists of a brass body hinged to open down 



Ato May r i9i5 aim ' } Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. 199 

the central orifice, which is 10 millimetres in diameter and is fitted 
with a plunger actuated by a micrometer screw, the top against 
which the cutting is done being fitted with a hard steel surface. 

In use a half cylinder of supporting material is placed in each 
side of the body and the hinge closed with the specimen between ; it 
is then clamped with a swing bolt. 




A new hand microtome. 

In the case of a leaf or a delicate bark the best supporting material 
is found to be ivory soap; with thicker bark or roots elder pith is 
preferable, while cork is resorted to only when very refractory 
material is encountered. An ordinary razor is used to make the 
sections, using a drawing cut and pressing the razor firmly against 
the steel plate. The micrometer screw is fed forward between each 
cut by an amount determined by trial, but rarely less than 0.002 inch. 

SOME STUDIES ON THE OXY-PINENES. 
By J. Emile Blomen, A.M., Ph.D. 
. Historical. 

In the Medical Record of February 13, 191 5 (also this Journal, 
April, 1915), appears an article by Dr. Bertram H. Waters relating to 
the use of ozonide of pinene vapors in the treatment of pulmonary 
diseases. As very little is to be found in ordinary text-boks in 



200 Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. {^'^^S^™' 

regard to ozonides in general and ozonide of pinene in particular, I 
thought it would be of interest to see what the periodical literature 
accessible in the New York Public Library contained in this line, 
and, in the hope that the investigation might interest others as it did 
me, I herewith submit the result of the research. 

The first thing that impressed me was that the very vapor of 
ozonide of pinene which Dr. Waters says he used was known as early 
as 1865. 

By his many contributions to the Comptes rendus . . . de V Acade- 
mic des Sciences from 1854 J. L. Soret added considerably to our 
knowledge of ozone, and in one of his articles (Compt. rend., 1865, 
p. 41) he states that he has found that oil of turpentine was able 
to absorb ozone in its molecular form, i.e., as 3 , and without de- 
composing it in any way. 

Cornelius B. Fox, in his work on " Ozone and Antozone," London, 
1873, refers to this work of Soret in the following words : " He has 
discovered that, whereas most substances only remove the third atom 
of oxygen from ozone, oil of turpentine is capable of absorbing the 
whole molecule. If 92 cubic inches of ozonized oxygen are treated 
with oil of turpentine instead of with mercury, a white cloud is pro- 
duced, and the residual oxygen is found to occupy a volume of only 
76 cubic inches." 

This was undoubtedly the first discovery and description of 
ozonized oil of turpentine, or rather ozonide of pinene, and is the very 
same vapor which Dr. Waters describes in his article. 

In his seven ways of producing ozone Fox further states : " By 
the slow oxidation from exposure to light and air of certain ethers, 
volatile and resin oils and other bodies, which have been denominated 
" ozone carriers," such as . . . oil of turpentine . . . cinnamon . . . 
the blood-corpuscles, etc., these bodies are said to absorb ozone 
without combining with it, and to possess the property of yielding 
it up to other substances. . . . Some have said that these essential 
cils ... do not betray the presence of ozone, but of peroxide of 
hydrogen." 

A most significant statement, in the light of our present knowl- 
edge of the matter ! 

Previous to this, however, in the Lancet, February 3, 1866, Dr. 
Day, of Geelong, advocated the use of these " ozone carriers " for 
sanitary purposes. He recommends that "shirts, blankets, bedclothing 
and bandages of the sick " be sprinkled with an ether which had 
undergone this process of ozonization. 



Am 'May r i9i5 arm '} Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. 201 

Although its medical properties were not recognized or rather 
mentioned, ozonide of pinene was well known to chemists more than 
ten years before Dr. Day's recommendation of them. So, for in- 
stance, does Leopold Gmelin, in his standard work, " Handbook of 
Chemistry," London, 1850, vol. 14, p. 256, state: " Oil of turpentine 
absorbs oxygen gas, acquiring new properties, and being converted 
into ozonized oil of turpentine. In this compound part of the ab- 
sorbed oxygen appears to be more intimately, a second part less in- 
timately, combined, inasmuch as the latter may be transferred to new 
bodies and still exhibit the properties of free oxygen.'' 

This is in perfect accordance with our modern conception of 
pinene ozonide, which is that, in contact with water, only so much 
oxygen is given up to the formation of peroxide of hydrogen as is 
not required to form pinene aldehyde and pinene aldehyde-peroxide. 

A little later, or 1857, William Allen Miller, in his text-book 
" Elements of Chemistry," vol. 3, " Organic Chemistry," says : " Oil 
of turpentine absorbs oxygen from the air with formation of certain 
proportions of ozone." 

Chas. T. Kingzett, in the Journal of the Chemical Society, London, 
1874, vol. 12, p. 511, takes up these assertions and tries to disprove 
them. He claims that what really happens when oil of turpentine 
absorbs oxygen from the air — which fact he admits — is the formation 
of monohydrated oxide of turpentine (C 10 H 16 O.H 2 O) . 

Hardly a year later, in the same journal, vol. 13, p. 210, he re- 
tracts this view and considers the oxidation product of oil of turpen- 
tine to be C 10 H 16 O 4 , which when boiled with water forms peroxide 
of hydrogen. 

This almost exactly coincides with the formula of some oxy- 
pinene which has recently been examined by the author and found 
to have the empirical formula C 10 H 16 O 4 ^ 5 . This oxy-pinene is un- 
questionably a mixture of pinene ozonide and the aldehyde and 
ketones of pinene, whereas pinonic acid can easily be proved to be 
absent. 

The nature of ozone was in dispute for more than twenty years 
after its discovery by Schoenbein. On one side it was said that it 
was " electrified oxygen," on the other that it could not be formed 
except in presence of water, and that it therefore must be an oxy- 
compound of hydrogen. 

In his remarkable prize-essay, June, 1861 (printed in Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal, September, 1864), Dr. E. S. Gaillard 



202 Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. {" A ™ i jJ^ r i^*™' 

gives this subject a thorough airing. He quotes both sides and 
comes to the conclusion that ozone can be formed only in the presence 
of moisture. He considers ozone and peroxide of hydrogen identical, 
and often uses the expression " peroxide of hydrogen or ozone." 

He gives a very graphic description of the poisonous nature of 
ozone, and then he describes some beneficial actions which can be 
ascribed only to peroxide of hydrogen. He also states that ozone 
ki unites rapidly with metals, if they are zvet " — a very clear thing to 
us who know the tendency of moisture to transform ozonides into 
peroxide of hydrogen in presence of a third substance. 

He is familiar with the fact that oil of turpentine transforms the 
atmospheric oxygen to ozone, and ascribes to this property the bene- 
ficial effect pine forests have in malarial cases. 

He describes different ways in which " ozonized oil of turpentine " 
may be prepared, and with our present knowledge there can be no 
doubt that it is the ozone and not the peroxide of hydrogen which he 
refers to. He cites cases in which the administration of this ozonized 
oil has been beneficial in cystitis, gout, rheumatism, vesical catarrh, 
hematuria, and many other vesical disorders. 

Speaking of the use of an ozonized oil of turpentine in pulmonary 
diseases, he cites Dr. Theophilus Thompson, physician to the Hos- 
pital for Consumptives, London, and gives a number of definite cases 
which have been successfully treated with ozonized oil. He cor- 
roborates this with quotations from others, and at last draws the 
conclusion that : " The administration of ozonized oils has a most 
remarkable tendency to reduce the frequency of the pulse, in addi- 
tion to producing a decided improvement in the general health and 
condition in consumptive patients." 

In the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for 1864 (p. 174) Charles M. Wetherill tells us: 
" One of the best ozone carriers known is the oil of turpentine. 
If a bottle be one-quarter filled with this body, exposed to the sun 
and frequently shaken with air, removing the stopper from time to 
time to renew the air, the oil is speedily laden with ozone." Further 
down he says that " all turpentine kept with access of air becomes 
ozonized," and ends up by stating (p. 178) : " From what is known 
at present respecting ' antozone ' (peroxide of hydrogen) it would 
seem that this body plays an important part in depriving the at- 
mosphere of ozone." This is no surprise to us, who now know that 
ozonides in contact with moisture easily form peroxide of hydrogen. 



Am. Jour Pharm. j Some Studies on the Oxy-pmenes. 203 

May, 1915. J J 1 

John S. Townsend, in the Proceedings of the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society, January 13, 1899 (vol. 10, p. 5), says: "The 
cloud which is formed when ozone is bubbled through turpentine 
differs on some points from those which are described above (potas- 
sium iodide vapors). It can be shown . . . that the cloud is due 
to the action of ozone on turpentine vapor. ... In the case of the 
cloud formed with turpentine its intensity is not diminished to any 
marked extent by bubbling through sulphuric acid ; so that we see 
that the main constituent is turpentine." 

This seems to prove that the vapor which Dr. Waters uses was 
known not only to Townsend, but to the general scientific world at 
that time, and is identical with the one described by Soret thirty- 
four years previously. 

If we adopt the definition given in most text-books and dic- 
tionaries, that " peroxide is that oxide of a given base which con- 
tains the greatest quantity or an unusual amount of oxygen," then 
we can hardly speak of a peroxide of a hydrocarbon, and decidedly 
not in the case of pinene, as nobody yet has been able to set the limit to 
the amount of oxygen which can be absorbed by oil of turpentine. 

If, again, we mean with an organic peroxide such as oxy-com- 
pound wdiich forms metallic peroxides, then this difficulty of distin- 
guishing between peroxide and ozonide is quite explainable, for the 
ozonide has also the power of forming metallic peroxides. 

This uncertainty regarding the nature of oxy-pinene was really 
not quite cleared up until Dr. Harries and his disciples began their 
splendid investigations of the ozonides, to which I will refer later on. 

In concluding this little historical sketch of the literature on 
ozonides of turpentine, which is to be found in the New York Public 
Library, I will quote from an article by Dr. Debierre, which appeared 
in the American Meteorological Journal, April, 1887 (vol. 3, p. 575) : 
" Schoenbein, in 1850, proposed the use of ozonized oil of turpentine 
for pulmonary diseases. Seitz employed this preparation of turpen- 
tine with success, it is said, in chronic catarrh of the urinary organs, 
and even in hematuria and incontinence of urine. Thompson em- 
ployed ozone and fatty oils in phthisis with good results, probably 
due to the oil." 

As will be seen, the ozonide of pinene has been known for a long 
time, and there is not the least doubt that as the chemistry and nature 
of the oxy-pinenes in general will be better understood their thera- 
peutic use will vastly increase. 



204 Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. { Am "^y r i 9 i!? arm- 

The Oxidation-Process, Chemistry and Bibliography of the 

Oxy-pinenes. 

When man awakened to the fact that Nature itself provided 
remedies for his ills, his 'attention undoubtedly was first turned to 
turpentine and its oxidation products. Turpentine, this wonderful, 
aromatic exudation from the pine forests in which he lived, and its 
still more wonderful oxidations, varying in consistency from a light, 
amber-colored syrup to a hard rosin, could not help but attract his 
attention. 

This fact can be verified in our days, for in the northern part of 
the Scandinavian peninsula, as well as in the pine districts of this 
country, the first thing that inhabitants and lumber workers turn to 
in their illness is the friendly pine-exudations. 

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that as far as the history 
of materia medica and therapeutics goes back we will find the name 
of " Terebinthina " mentioned and its properties discussed. 

And this is proper, for nowhere in Nature can be -found a more 
marvellous " dead " organic substance than this one which, like a 
living being, inhales oxygen from the air and, transforming it, gives 
it off in another form. 

Nevertheless, the process by which this takes place and the nature 
and chemistry of the changes are almost as great a mystery in this 
age of science as it was at the time of the cave-dwellers. 

I have above given a short history of the oxy-pinenes ; it will be my 
endeavor now to show the chemical processes which take place when 
pinene absorbs and gives off oxygen in its different forms in a 
natural way, without entering upon the possible derivations of the 
oxy-pinenes, on which volumes already have been written and many 
more could be written. 

In this connection it should be stated that no distinction can be 
made between the oxygen-carrying property of pure pinene and tur- 
pentine, because it has been established time and again that the 
reason that the latter is an oxygen carrier is entirely due to the 
presence of its principal constituent, pinene. 

It will be sufficient to quote one authority on this point : C. Engler 
and J. Weissberg {Ber., vol. 31) prove, by very exhaustive and ex- 
tensive parallel experiments, " that the oxygen-carrying property of 
turpentine is not due to impurities, but solely to the presence of 
pinene." 



Am M J a y r i9^5 ain ''} Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. 205 

One of the authors, C. Engler, two years later (Ber., vol. 33), 
oxidizes turpentine by oxygen in the presence of indigo-sulphuric 
acid solution containing acetic acid, and finds " that half of the total 
oxygen at first absorbed is ' active ' and is subsequently used for 
oxidizing other substances or for intermolecular oxidation." This 
rather perplexing experience will be quite clear when viewed in the 
light shed on the subject by Professor Harries and his disciples. 

In the year 1840 the eminent German chemist, Schoenbein, found 
that oxygen, like sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, etc., could exist in 
different allotropic modifications ; that ordinarily the oxygen mole- 
cule was composed of two atoms of oxygen (0 2 ), but that under 
some conditions it also could form molecules containing three atoms 
of oxygen (0 3 ), and this allotropic modification of oxygen he called 
ozone. 

This modification of oxygen naturally was very " active " on 
account of its instability, and easily gave off its third atom of oxygen 
in the form of nascent or atomic oxygen. 

The usual chemical combination between oxygen and hydrogen, 
water (H 2 0), possesses only a very feeble oxidizing power, but in 
the year 181 8 Thenard discovered that oxygen and hydrogen could 
be combined in the proportion H 2 2 (hydrogen peroxide), and in 
this state the oxygen became very active indeed, readily combining 
and forming peroxides with anything with which it came into contact. 

No wonder these two substances were confused — particularly as 
the " peroxide of hydrogen is produced whenever ozone is found in 
the presence of water" (E. Molinari, "Treatise on General and 
Industrial Chemistry," London, 1913), and that there was consider- 
able doubt about when the active oxygen appeared in the form of 
ozone or that of hydrogen peroxide. This was, as has before been 
pointed out, particularly the case with the oxygen-carrying tur- 
pentine. 

How little was really known about the oxidation of turpentine 
at so recent a date as 1898 may be judged from an article in Rev. de 
Chim. hid. (vol. 9) of that year by R. Robine. In this he says that 
the only known way to oxidize turpentine " consists in exposing the 
ordinary oil to the action of the air until a sufficient degree of oxida- 
tion has taken place." He admits, however, that the process may be 
hastened by " forcing air through the oil under predetermined condi- 
tions of temperature and pressure." He describes the product ob- 
tained as " a syrupy liquid with the color of honey and soluble in 



206 Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. { Am M a ° J ur i 9 p 1 5 arm - 

alcohol, ether, and chloroform," and in general does his description 
of this oxidation product of turpentine tally exactly with the one 
Harries definitely identified as ozonide of pinene. 

That the oxidizing of turpentine by ozone was not entirely un- 
known by this time seems to appear from the discussion of a paper 
read by Colonel W. J. Engeldue to the Society of Chemical Industry 
on December 5, 1898, in which Mr. W. F. Reid remarks : " For ages 
turpentine has been used as an oxygen-carrier, and it is not surprising, 
therefore, that it was now found to be a useful carrier for ozone " ; 
and : " When ozone passed through turpentine white vapors were 
given ofT of an intensely active character." Here again we meet the 
white vapors described by Dr. Bertram H. Waters. 

After Schoenbein had discovered ozone he began the study of 
the absorption of oxygen by turpentine from the atmosphere, and has 
given the result of his investigations in a series of articles (Journ. 
pr. Ch., vols. 52, 53, 54, 66, and 67; Ann., vol. 102, and Jahr., 1851, 
1859, and i860), in which he advances the theory that the oxygen 
is transformed by the turpentine to ozone, and ascribes its chemical 
properties to this fact. 

This theory is hotly contended by a number of chemists, such as 
Berthelot {Jahr., 1859, and C.-B., 1861) and Houzeau {Jahr., i860), 
who claim that oxygen can be absorbed by turpentine only in the 
presence of water, and then forms a peroxide of pinene. This 
view is supported by Kingzett {Journ. of Chem. Soc, vol. 27 ; Pharm. 
Journ., Ber., 3, vols. 5, 6, 9, and 20; Ber., vol. 29, and Jahr., 1876), 
who tries to prove that the oxidation takes place by the turpentine 
first forming peroxide of camphene and then peroxide of hydrogen 
and oxy-pinene according to the reaction C 10 H 16 O 4 + 2H 2 = H 2 2 
+ C 10 H 16 O 4 . 

Closely allied to this point of view are the opinions of Bradsky 
{C.-B., 1882), Schaer {Ber., vol. 6), and Papasogli {Jahr., 1876, and 
C.-B., 1888). They all fail, however, to explain why — if this is the 
case — the oxy-pinene formed gives reactions which the peroxide of 
hydrogen does not; for instance, liberates iodine from potassium 
iodide. 

In order to explain away this troublesome fact another hypothesis 
was advocated by Engler and Wild {Ber., vol. 30), Engler and 
Weissburg {Ber., vol. 31), Engler {Ber., vol. 33), Engler and 
Frankenstein {Ber., 34), and particularly in a monograph by Engler 
and Weissburg, " Uber die Auto-oxidation." 



Am 'May r 'i9i5 aim * } Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. 207 

According to this supposition auto-oxidation takes place by direct 

/O 

addition of a molecule of oxygen to the pinene Ci Hi 6 <^ | • 

\0 

It has already been referred to how Engler and his helpers tried 
to use this hypothesis in explaining the oxidation phenomena of 
pinene, but were baffled by the different absorption of " active " and 
ordinary oxygen at different temperatures. 

That ozone and peroxide of hydrogen could not exist together 
was definitely proved by Schoenbein as early as 1879, who showed 
that in that case the reaction 3 + H 2 2 = H 2 + 2 0, necessarily 
must take place {Ann., vol. 196). H. Schiff, in two exceptionally 
thorough articles (Ber., vol. 16, and Chem. Zeit., vol. 20), has set 
beyond all doubt that by air oxidation of turpentine an aldehyde of 
pinene is formed, but he is in doubt if to give it the formula 
G 10 H 16 O 3 or C 10 H 16 O 4 . He also proves that the property of turpen- 
tine to absorb oxygen and give it off again to other substances has 
nothing whatever to do with the presence of water. 

Although ozone had been known as a powerful oxidizer ever since 
its discovery, 1840, there is very little mentioned about it in scientific 
literature in this connection — at least as a direct oxidizer. Adolphe 
Renard, in 1895, produced what he called ozo-benzol (Compt. rend., 
vol. 120) from direct action of ozone on benzol, and this, undoubtedly 
was a true ozonide, but it attracted no attention at the time. 

Instead of following this clue to what an ozonide is, a bitter con- 
troversy arose — as has been previously stated — over the question of 
in what form " active " oxygen existed on oxy-pinenes — some holding 
stubbornly to the theory that it was there as ozone, and others with 
equal tenacity maintaining that it could exist only in the form of a 
peroxide. 

It was only after Dr. Karl Harries, professor of chemistry at the 
University of Kiel, took up the investigation that the question was 
satisfactorily and definitely settled, and to him and his disciples and 
followers is due the greatest credit for our present knowledge of the 
ozonides and the oxy-pinenes. 

Already in 1903, in an article in Berichte der deutschen chem- 
ischen Gesellschaft (vol. 36, 2, p. 1933), Harries begins a series of 
researches on the oxidation of ozone. In this article he only calls 
attention to the fact that alcohols oxidized by ozone form aldehydes ; 
so, for instance, does methyl alcohol, when oxidized by ozone, form 
formaldehyde in water solutions. 



208 Some Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. { Km ^ r \^ vm ' 

In the same year P. Fenaroli and E. Molinari each published ac- 
counts of oxidation by ozone, but without giving the decomposi- 
tion products, in Annuario della Societa Chimica de Milano. The 
real, systematic investigation of the ozonides, however, was begun a 
year later, when Harries described the preparation of ozonides in 
two different ways {Ber., vol. 37, 1). 

The first method is to let the ozone act directly on the substance 
without any solvent and in the cold — the temperature is kept low 
and moisture excluded by a current of carbon dioxide — and the 
second to act on the substance to be oxidized in a solution in presence 
of water. 

He finds that in the first case peroxide of hydrogen is not formed, 
whereas in the second case it is invariably formed. In the same 
volume of the Berichte are two articles by Harries and A. S. Oza 
and Harries and Richard Weil, which fully establish that the ozone 
molecule enters into the combination with different hydrocarbons and 
fatty acids of the oleic series by direct addition, and are entirely dis- 
tinct chemical compounds, with a different linking from any other. 

In an exhaustive article published in Liebig's Annalen der Chemie, 
entitled " Ueber die Einwirkung des Ozons auf organische Verbin- 
dungen," 1907, (vol. 343, pp. 311-374), Harries gives a full account 
of his work on the ozonides. He is now able to state that the ozonides 
in general are " heavy oils or water-glass like, almost colorless liquids 
of more or less explosive character," and that their formation takes 
place in the following way : 

\ c = c/ + o = o = Nc - c( 

and that when they come into contact with water they are decom- 
posed into aldehydes or ketones and peroxide of hydrogen in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

>c - c< 

I +H 2 = NC0 + 0C< / + H 2 2 

In this dissertation, " Zur Kentniss der Dialdehyde und Ketoalde- 
hyde," Kiel, 1905, Hans Tuerk takes advantage of this fact pointed 
out by Harries, and proves its correctness by preparing a large num- 
ber of aldehydes direct from the ozonides. 



Am M J a°y 1 i9i5 arm '} S° me Studies on the Oxy-pinenes. 209 

Harries's results are strongly contested by E. Molinari, E. Soucini 
and P. Fenaroli in Annuario della Societa Chimica di Milano, 
Berichte, and in other places, but Walter Frank, in his dissertation 
" Ueber Oelensauerozonid und seine Zersetzungsprodukte," Ham- 
burg, 19 1 o, in comparing the two different opinions, comes to the 
conclusion that the reason for their ostensibly contradictory results 
lies in the strength of ozone used and the method of production, and 
in his text-bopk, " Treatise on General Industrial Organic 
Chemistry," 1913, Molinari says that " the decomposition of ozonides 
with dilute alkali or hot water results in the formation of acids and 
in the cold of aldehydes. . . 

In 1908 Harries gives an account (Ber., vol. 41, 1) of the ozoni- 
zation of pinene. He obtains two different ozonides in the same 
mixture, viz., one solid and one liquid. The solid, which amounts to 
10 to 20 per cent, of the total, consists of " small, elastic clusters of 
undefined crystallinic form," and this he calls pinene perozonide. 
He is unable to get a definite formula for it, and can only say that 
it is nearer C 10 H 16 O 4 than C 10 H 16 O 3 , and is insoluble in all the usual 
organic solvents. 

The oily ozonide 80 to 90 per cent, of the yield, on the other hand, 
has the definite formula of C 10 H 16 O 3 . The decomposition products 
he finds to be peroxide of hydrogen, and at ordinary temperature the 
intermediary oxy-pinenes, i.e., aldehydes and ketones, and, by heating 
or by prolonged intermolecular or auto-oxidation, pinonic acid. 

In 1909 W. J. Knox devised and patented an apparatus for the 
production of vapors of pinene ozonide. The apparatus consists of 
a tank partly filled with pure pinene, over which a current of air, 
dried by being drawn through chloride of calcium, is passed, evapor- 
ating and carrying pinene vapors along to a mixing chamber, where 
it is met by a current of ozone generated by silent electrical discharges 
in an ozonizing tube. When the pinene vapor and the ozone meet 
they form ozonide of pinene, which appears in the form of a thick, 
whitish vapor or cloud. 

An examination of this vapor by the test-papers ordinarily used 
for such purposes will show that no free ozone exists, nor any per- 
oxide of hydrogen, but if the test-paper is moistened a peroxide of 
hydrogen reaction will immediately take place. 

If the vapor is compressed in an ordinary air compressor and 
then allowed to strike against a cold surface, such as the bottom of a 
glass beaker, clusters of ill-defined crystals can be detected by a 



210 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



magnifying glass. The vapor will be invisible when escaping from 
the compressor, but will soon again be visible carried around by the 
air currents. 

This vapor seems without doubt to be the " perozonide of pinene " 
described by Harries, and, by his investigation and the author's own 
experiments, it can be positively stated that its decomposition products 
at ordinary temperature on contact with moist surfaces are peroxide 
of hydrogen and the intermediary oxy-pinene, i.e., aldehydes and 
perhaps ketones of pinene. 

To sum up our present knowledge of oxy-pinene, then, it may be 
stated : 

1. When pinene or turpentine is oxidized by the air, ozone is 
absorbed from the air, either in the form of ozone, or the ordinary 
oxygen is, partly at least, transformed into ozone. 

2. When pinene is directly oxidized by ozone one or more ozonides 
of pinene will result. 

3. When either of the above ozonides of pinene comes into con- 
tact with moisture a decomposition will take place, resulting in the 
formation of peroxide of hydrogen and the intermediary oxygen com- 
pounds of pinene (oxy-pinenes). 

4. On prolonged standing or by heat intermolecular or auto- 
oxidation will take place, resulting in the higher oxidation products 
of pinene — pinonic acid, etc. 

How these properties of the oxy-pinenes have unconsciously been 
taken advantage of during the course of centuries for therapeutical 
purposes is a matter of considerable interest, and the history of the 
therapeutical use of oxy-pinenes is a subject the author hopes he will 
be allowed to come back to in the near future. 

232 Schermerhorn Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 
March 30, 1915. 

REMARKS ON DIGITALIS. 1 
By William C. Alpers, Sc.D. 

It is generally stated in text-books and also in the United States 
and other pharmacopoeias that the digitalis leaves of the second 
year's growth are preferable to those of other years, and that the 

1 Abstract of paper read before the Pharmaceutical Section of the Cleve- 
land Academy of Medicine, January 29, 1915. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ( 
May, 1915. / 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



211 



cultivated ones are inferior to the wild ones. Recent observations 
do not seem to support this statement. F. H. Carr, in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, states that the first and second year's 
growths have proved identical in their activity, and the cultivated 
leaves are at least as active as those wild grown. Hatcher, who 
in his " Text-book of Materia Medica," by Hatcher and Sollmann, 
indorses the preference of the second year's growth, has since, in a 
recent article (Drug. Circ, 1914), claimed equal value for first and 
second year's leaves, as well as for cultivated leaves in comparison 
with wild ones. Lloyd's observations also confirm this view, and 
he attributes the erroneous statement about the second year to 
the fact that formerly also the root was used, which in the first 
year is insignificant and sappy, while the second year's root is larger 
and heavier and more pronounced in quality. There may be another 
reason, however, for adhering so long to the second year's leaves 
as better. The statement in the text-books is followed by the other 
one, " gathered at the commencement of flowering." Now, digitalis 
does not flower till the second year, and leaves could not be gathered 
in the first year at the commencement of flowering. As the flowers 
were also used formerly, and are used to-day in Japan, it can be 
understood how the statement of the second year's growth originated, 
flowers and leaves being gathered at the same time. According to 
the best investigators, this statement should therefore be changed 
to " leaves of the first or second year's growth should be used." 

Professor Hivohashi, of the University of Tokio, Japan, who 
made extensive investigations in digitalis, states (Apoth. Zg., 1913* 
vol. 28, p. 9) that digitalis flowers probably contain more of the 
active constituents than do the leaves, and the buds are more active 
than are the expanded flowers. 

As to the preservation of the gathered leaves, all kinds of more 
or less complicated directions are given in the various pharmacopoeias. 
According to recent literature, however, foxglove leaves do not differ 
materially from most other vegetable drugs; that is, they will 
deteriorate if kept carelessly, and keep almost indefinitely if properly 
stored in air-tight containers in dark places. The changes that do 
undoubtedly happen take place in the time between gathering and 
marketing, according to the manner in which the drying is done. 

There are four pharmaceutical preparations of digitalis official 
in our pharmacopoeia, viz. : The extract, the fluidextract, the 
tincture, and the infusion, of which the first one is but rarely and 



212 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



the second one not often used. According to all authorities, the 
tincture and infusion are the two most reliable preparations, but 
there is a vast difference of opinion as to the relative value of the 
two. Herzfeld states that: 

" I believe that in this country the tincture is the least reliable 
of all preparations of digitalis, particularly since, for the sake of 
convenience, it is frequently prepared by diluting the fluidextract, 
which in itself may be inferior." 

Other authorities also dwell on the improper preparation of 
tinctures from fluidextracts. It is well worth while to stop a minute 
to investigate this charge. I myself have in former years, when 
physicians made this remark, asked them how many pharmacists, to 
their positive knowledge, made their tinctures from fluidextracts. 
Generally the answer was: " Well, of course, I do not know, but 
conclude, from the fact that sometimes tinctures do not produce 
the desired effect, that they are made improperly." And when I 
replied : " Doctor, are you sure that in such cases you always 
ordered the right medicine?" the answer would be: "Of course 
I did; I diagnosed the case myself." In other words, whenever the 
patient does not respond to the treatment the fault lies with the 
pharmacist, but not with the physician. The unbiased observer will 
say, if men are apt to make mistakes there will be as many mistakes 
made by physicians in diagnosing as by pharmacists in dispensing. 
I personally do not believe that the practice of making tincture from 
fluidextract is general ; it may prevail among lazy and indifferent 
druggists, who hardly have any prescription trade for this very 
reason. 

Coming back to our subject, there is besides Doctor Herzfeld no 
other authority to reject the tincture. As a rule, the tincture is 
preferred to the infusion, so far as reliability is concerned, and 
whenever the full cardiac effect of digitalis is required. As a 
diuretic, in cases of faulty circulation of blood through the kidneys, 
the infusion is preferred by probably 95 per cent, of all practitioners. 
An exception is Doctor R. A. Hatcher, who in a recent paper states 
that : 

" As a matter of fact, a properly-made infusion, as well as the 
tincture, contains all of the therapeutic active principles of digitalis." 

He tries to prove this statement by saying that the marc left 
after making the tincture is inert, and if an infusion be made with 
this marc and tested on a frog, the truth of this statement becomes 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



213 



apparent. It is to be regretted that he did not also examine the marc 
left after making the infusion. Later on, in the same article, he says : 

" An infusion from a fiuidextract might be unsightly, but it 
would probably be more active than the official infusion which one 
would obtain from the nearest pharmacy. This practice is distinctly 
not advocated, but pharmacists should understand the fact." 

We ask; Why not advocate it if it makes a better infusion? 
And if the tincture and infusion are of equal value, why not make 
the infusion from the tincture, or why not delete one or the other? 

In direct contradiction to Hatcher's results we will cite Herz- 
feld: 

" According to the methods of Keller-Fromme, no digitoxin or 
digitalin could be detected in an infusion prepared according to the 
U. S. P., while in an infusion, made after my method, as high as 
0.02086 per cent, digitoxin could be found." 

Doctor Herzfeld's method is as follows : The leaves are finely 
broken up and freed from the stems and ribs. They are then covered 
with the entire quantity of boiling water and allowed to digest upon 
the water-bath at 50 C. for one hour. When cooled down to about 
32 C. an amount of alcohol corresponding to 10 per cent, of the 
finished infusion is added and the whole permitted to stand for 12 
hours. The resulting product is then filtered, the leaves expressed, 
and the necessary amount of water added to restore the volume. 
Later on he says that this " infusion " (it is rather a weak tincture) 
should always be prepared fresh. This would compel the patient to 
wait about 14 hours for his medicine, a rather long wait for cardiac 
patients. 

In an editorial of the American Druggist, 1913, vol. 16, p. 12, 
the statement is made that : 

" According to Henry Beates, not one physician in ten can tell 
the difference in the effect produced by an infusion of digitalis made 
from a fiuidextract and that produced by one made from the assayed 
leaf." 

This may be interpreted that physicians are not able to tell the 
effect of their medicine, or that Doctor Hatcher's statement of in- 
fusions made from fiuidextract is correct. 

As to the reliability of the fiuidextract itself, we quote J. D. 
Riedel : 

" Fiuidextract of digitalis U. S. P. VIII was found to vary in 



214 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1915. 



specific gravity from 0.945 to 0.991, and in extract content from 
10.30 to 17.41 per cent." 

And Puckner (Jour. Amer.Med. Assn., 1913) claims: 

" Examination of 20 samples of fluidextract of digitalis con- 
firmed the generally-held belief that commercial digitalis prepara- 
tions vary most widely. The most active were found to be nearly 
four times as active as the weakest." 

Against this statement protests were afterwards printed in a 
number of pharmaceutical publications. 

In the coming pharmacopoeia the formula for the infusion of 
digitalis will remain the same while the alcohol in the tincture will 
be increased to 60 per cent, and the fluidextract to 70 per cent. It 
is claimed that this large amount of alcohol is necessary to preserve 
the preparation. 

I regret that the formula for the infusion will remain unchanged. 
It is now made with boiling water and 10 per cent, of alcohol is 
added after straining. For what purpose is the alcohol added ? The 
properly-prepared infusion without alcohol will keep long enough to 
be taken, and for a longer preservation the amount of alcohol is 
inadequate. The alcohol should be omitted and the remark: 

" To be freshly prepared, when wanted " 

added to the formula. As it stands now, the presence of alcohol 
misleads many thoughtless pharmacists to think that the infusion 
may be kept in stock. 

Prolonged medication with tincture of digitalis often produces 
nausea and other untoward effects. It is stated that a certain fat 
or fixed oil present in the leaves is the cause. As this substance 
is soluble in petroleum benzin, the leaves can be freed from it by 
subjecting them to the action of benzin before making the tincture. 
The general verdict of the medical profession is in favor of this 
fat-free tincture, although Hatcher and others deny its preference. 

According to Hatcher's experiment, isolated fat from digitalis 
proved harmless. This probably is true, but would be no proof that 
even a small amount of this fat in the presence of various alkaloids 
may not influence their action. 

As to the source of the best leaves of foxglove not much literature 
is available. It is stated that the plant grows in England, Middle 
Europe, and also in America, and here and there the timid state- 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. ) 
May, 1915. J 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



215 



ment is made that soil containing iron is best adapted for its growth. 
According to Gehe (Handesberichte, 191 3, p. 84) : 

" Digitalis is found generally on soil containing iron and man- 
ganese, and does not occur in Switzerland on this account. It is 
assumed that manganese is essential for the life of digitalis." 

In contradiction of this, Hatcher says : 

" Another curious misconception regarding digitalis which is 
hard to explain is that the leaf grown in certain regions is more active 
than that grown in other localities." 

This is probably the most remarkable statement in Hatcher's 
excellent paper. Whosoever has paid attention to the development 
of agricultural chemistry, the introduction and first results of which 
have made Liebig immortal, would rather say : " It would be hard to 
explain if the leaf grown in certain regions were not more or less 
active than that grown in other localities." I do not think that a 
plant of powerful and characteristic properties is known that does 
not change its nature nor produce its constituents in a larger or 
smaller quantity when transplanted to a new soil. Every farmer in 
France and Germany knows that the same potato planted in a 
marshy soil will produce a different tuber than when planted in a 
sandy soil. Grape-vines brought from the Rhine or Garonne to 
California will flower and bring fruit, but the grape differs in flavor 
and amount of alcohol produced. The same vine even differs in 
different parts of California. Many European aromatic flowers, like 
chamomile, mullein, and others, grow abundantly in America, but 
lack the ingredients that make them valuable ; and they even differ in 
aromatic properties in different parts of the home country. Why 
should digitalis be an exception to this general rule ? Doctor Thorns, 
of the Pharmaceutical Institute of Berlin, one of the best and most 
careful pharmacologists living, states in the last volume of the 
Arbeit en aus dem Pharmazeutischen Institut, 1914, p. 202, speak- 
ing of the difficulties of cultivating certain medicinal plants : 

" How important, for instance, it would be to have digitalis, 
which in different parts of Germany is subject to such extraor- 
dinary variations in respect to its active principles, under proper 
scientific cultivation and discover the conditions which for the growth 
and production of the active principles of digitalis are most favor- 
able." 

The chemistry of digitalis is still more confused than its phar- 
macy, and so far every new assayer has discovered — or claims to 



2l6 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



have discovered — new principles of various nature. The number 
of so-called active constituents of the plant is growing- daily. Merck 
& Co., in their annual report of 191 1, mention 92 different articles, 
with their discoverers and properties, and the number has been in- 
creased considerably since then. Many of these are identical, and 
a good many are mentioned only in the papers published by their 
authors, but were never isolated or brought in the market. Among 
these many names four stand out prominently, namely, digitalin, 
digitonin, digitoxin, and digitalein. ' 

The oldest one of these, digitalin-Xativelle, was isolated by the 
French chemist Nativelle, who claimed it to be a pure substance, 
while Schmiedeberg, who made an extensive examination of the 
plant, pronounces Nativelle's digitalin a mixture of several sub- 
stances, and gave the name digitalin to another chemically uniform, 
amorphous body for which he presented a formula. Another digi- 
talin was isolated by Kiliani, another by Homolle-Ouevenne, another 
by Lancelot, another by Lebourdais, and so on. In Merck's list the 
name of digitalin appears 37 times, each time denoting a different 
article. No wonder that a confusion prevails and that prescribers 
and dispensers are at a loss what is meant by digitalin. It is not the 
object of this paper to enter into the merits of these numerous 
glucosides for each of which the discoverer or manufacturer claims a 
certain superiority over others. But in view of these different re- 
sults obtained by men of great learning, long experience, and re- 
nowned ability, we are led to the question if there is not a reason 
for this disagreement and if perhaps some fundamental facts or 
principles have been overlooked. 

Now, in trying to bring the various results into some classifica- 
tion, we notice that nearly all agree on the fact that some of the 
products are soluble in water, some insoluble in water but soluble in 
alcohol. Kiliani states that digitoxin is insoluble in water, Hatcher 
makes the same statement, while Cloetta separated a soluble digitoxin, 
to which the name of digalen was given. It is further stated that, 
while digitoxin is insoluble in water, it becomes soluble in water, best 
in hot water, in the presence of a certain saponin that is also present 
and which, according to some authorities, is identical with digitalein, 
according to others with digitonin. The presence of a saponin is 
also claimed by a number of other investigators, but by no means by 
all. It is on this basis that Hatcher makes the claim that the infusion 
contains all the active ingredients of digitalis held in solution by 



Am May r iw5 arm "} Remarks on Digitalis. 217 

saponin. He therefore supposes that no change takes place when the 
infusion cools, although every druggist knows that a slight pre- 
cipitate forms, and he also must suppose that this saponin and the 
insoluble digitoxin are present always in the right proportion, — that 
is, enough saponin to dissolve the digitoxin. As a matter of fact, 
however, the presence of saponin is still in doubt, and even those who 
claim its presence do not agree on the quantity, some speaking of a 
trace only. But nearly all investigators agree on the instability of the 
various digitalis preparations and the ease with which the one is 
changed into the other. Some doubt the presence of any preexist- 
ing digitoxin in the plant, believing that it forms, after the leaves are 
gathered, through the influence of this saponin. We are reminded 
of bitter almonds, where the amygdalin, through the action of a fer- 
ment, is changed into benzaldehyde, hydrocyanic acid and glucose. 
Might there not be a similar cause in digitalis that would account 
for the evasiveness of the various chemicals? It cannot be doubted 
that a soil containing iron and manganese is most favorable to the 
development of the plant, and, if the claim that manganese is nec- 
essary for the production of digitoxin is correct, what hinders us 
to suspect a certain relationship between manganese and this com- 
plex body? To the adherer of the infallibility of the theory of 
elements such a thought may appear like the outgrowth of a dis- 
ordered imagination. But other apparently impossible theories have 
been proved to be founded on facts, and a chemical genius may come 
some day and upset many of our pet theories. The inadequacy of 
the chemistry of digitalis should certainly lead the investigators to 
consider the plant as a harmonious total, and not take out its chem- 
istry as a part that can be studied and understood without reference 
to its whole life and development and productions. 

It would be wrong to write a review of digitalis without men- 
tioning the physiological tests to which this plant has been subjected 
in the last two decades. Here the same confusion reigns as in its 
chemistry. Naturally so. How can we successfully test a chemical 
before we have absolute knowledge of its properties? Frogs, mice, 
rabbits, dogs, cats, have been used to establish what is called a 
standard. But no two investigators agree. These physiological 
tests are beyond the scope of the pharmacist and physician, as they 
require especially-arranged biological laboratories that cannot be 
established without considerable expense. In the same way the 
physiological chemist requires special training and long experience. 



2l8 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Consequently these laboratories are, as a rule, constructed by large 
manufacturing houses who employ the best talent that they can 
find. It is natural that these men work in the interest of the firm 
that employs them and that their researches always confirm the 
superiority of the preparation that their employers prepare. This is 
no adverse criticism of their activity. The commercial houses that 
go to the expense of establishing and maintaining such laboratories 
try, without doubt, to produce the best articles in every line, and 
as each and every digitalis preparation has some advantages and 
characteristics of its own, it is but natural that these advantages 
are exploited in preference to others. But science gains but little 
by these efforts, and the skepticism that many entertain in reference 
to biological tests is justified. This became evident some years ago 
in New York, when the representatives of a large German manu- 
facturing house undertook a crusade against the sins of certain 
druggists, as stated, in reality, however, to push and advertise a 
certain proprietary article. Numerous prescriptions were written 
by their physicians and then analyzed by chemists of repute, and 
incidentally a result was obtained that was not looked for. Among 
the prescriptions were a number for tincture of digitalis. The dis- 
pensed articles were sent to a biologist of good name, who conducted 
the physiological laboratory of a manufacturing house. He tested 
them secundum art em, without prejudice, and his report was pub- 
lished. It now happened that some of the samples had come from 
his own house, had been tested by him, and a certificate as to the 
strength had been attached to the containers. In his report he de- 
clared some of these same tinctures worthless, others too strong. 
Guaranteed assayed tinctures from other firms shared the same 
fate. No greater discredit could have been thrown on biological 
assaying by its worst enemy than by these careful, conscientious 
examinations. When they were introduced into the pharmacopoeia 
it was stated that they were needed on account of the inadequacy of 
the chemical test; but, far from solving the problem, they have only 
added to the confusion and uncertainty. 

Before closing I wish to refer again to Thorns' Arbeiten aus 
dem Pharmaseutischen Institut. On page 204 L. Rosenthaler is 
quoted as follows : 

" I am of the opinion that plants produce some of their con- 
stituents as a protective weapon against vegetable or animal at- 
tacks ; but as their enemies do not always have the same geographical 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Remarks on Digitalis. 



219 



distribution as the plants themselves, these protective principles are 
not needed where the respective enemies are lacking, and conse- 
quently are not produced. This supposition explains the fact that 
the amount of digitalin of cultivated digitalis is less than that of the 
wild-grown plants." 

This is not a new theory. It has been shown that the cinchona 
tree produces quinine as a protective against the attacks of certain 
insects and bacteria, and whenever the tree is transplanted to 
countries where it is not attacked by these enemies the production 
of quinine gradually decreases. I also refer to Doctor R. C. Eccles's 
paper on " Pharmaceutical Bacteriology " in the Proceedings of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, 1894. 

Many other instances of self -protection of plants against sur- 
rounding enemies, be they of vegetable or animal nature, or condi- 
tions of the atmosphere, could be mentioned. Here, then, is an 
unexplored field. We generally do not grant self-consciousness and 
individuality to plant organism, but the few observations that we 
have made seem to indicate that there is in these low organisms far 
more foresight and judgment in action than we admit. They may 
not think, but their work and productions could not be more correct 
and logical if they had been planned by the most highly developed 
mind. Nobody ever expects to discover the thoughts of a human 
being by dissecting his body after death and analyzing the various 
parts. Can we expect to explore plant life in its conception and its 
influence on surrounding Nature by dissecting the plant and analyzing 
what is left after its death? 

Literature. 

A. A. Herzfeld, M.D. : Remarks on the Use of Digitalis. 

R. A. Hatcher : Digitalis and its Preparations. 

J. W. Lloyd : A Treatise on Digitalis. 

Merck & Co. : Digitalis Glucosides and Allied Drugs. 

Doctor H. Thorns : Arbeiten aus dem Pharmaseutischen Institut, Berlin. 

Gehe & Co. : Handelsberichte, 1913. 

Schmiedeberg : Pharmacologic 

H. Kiliani : A Review of the Chemistry of Digitalis. 

C. E. Vanderkleed: Proc. Pa. Pharm. Assn., 1913. 

S. Hirahuschi : Yahngakuasshi No. 369. 

Am. J. Pharm. : 1913. 

/. Am. Pharm. Assn.: 1913-1914. 

Am. Druggist : 1913. 

Apotheker Zg.: New York, 1913. 

W. A. Puckner: /. Am. Med. Assn., 1913. 



220 Salt and its Relation to Nutrition. /Am jour Pharm. 

1 May, 1915. 

O. Cockayne : Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starkaft, before the Norman 
invasion. 

J. Gerarde: The Herball of General Historic of Plantes, 1597. 

F. A. Fliickiger : Pharmacographia. 

L. W. Rowe: Proc. Am. Ph. Assn., 1914. 

Britton & Brown : Illustrated Flora. 

E. R. Eccles: Am. Ph. Assn., 1894. 

H. K. Mulford: Pamphlets on Digitalis, etc. 

Hoffmann-La Roche: Originalarbeiten, 1913, 1. 



SALT AND ITS RELATION TO NUTRITION. 1 

Carnivora Eat Little Salt — The Desire of Vegetarian Ani- 
mals for Salt Probably Due to Excess of Potassium 
over Sodium in their Food. 

By Percy G. Stiles. 

Common salt is a commodity the annual production of which is 
known to exceed 12,000,000 tons. Of this huge total a large share 
is used as a preservative or otherwise employed in industry, yet an 
immense quantity is deliberately added to the diet of mankind. It is 
said that an individual consumption of 20 grammes a day is not un- 
usual. This average, sustained for a year, would amount to about 17 
pounds. The ration appears surprisingly large when we observe that 
it may be as much as one-quarter of the total weight of protein 
taken and equal to one-twelfth of the combined starch and sugar 
which constitute our main dependence for running the human en- 
gine. 

It is agreed by all writers on the subject of nutrition that only a 
small part of this salt consumption is necessary. The rest is dic- 
tated by appetite ; it is due to the common liking for the salty flavor. 
Individuals are found who do not care for this and who are said to 
eat no salt. This means that they use none voluntarily at table and 
perhaps direct that none shall be used in the kitchen. Yet they con- 
tinue to receive a small salt ration because some is present in most 
foods and there is reason to believe that this minimal supply cannot 
be dispensed with. Sodium chloride is the chief salt in the blood and 
in the other fluids of the body. It is accordingly plain that growth 



1 Reprinted from Science Conspectus, vol. 5, No. r. 



Am Ma°y, r iM5 arni '} Salt and its Relation to Nutrition. 221 

cannot be continued unless this compound is furnished along with the 
other necessary nutrients. 

When full stature is reached the need for salt is doubtless di- 
minished. It might cease entirely if it were possible to avoid all loss 
of salt in the excretions. This possibility is nearly but not quite 
realized. When a man fasts for several days the escape of sodium 
chloride from his system sinks to a low level but remains appre- 
ciable. It may be in the vicinity of 0.6 gramme in the twenty-four 
hours. In complete starvation this gradual loss is probably not out 
of proportion to the general reduction of weight. Hence it does not 
lead to an actual lowering of the percentage of salt in the body. A 
diet sufficient in all other respects, but lacking salt, might bring to 
pass such a lowering. 

One interesting result of using a salt- free diet has been observed 
in the failure of the glands of the stomach to produce hydrochloric 
acid. This valuable aid to digestion and antagonist of putrefaction 
must be evolved from the chlorides of the blood. Apparently it is 
not secreted when the concentration of these substances in the blood 
is at all below the normal, and this in spite of the fact that the chlorine 
ions of the gastric juice can probably be recovered quite successfully. 
The suggestion has been made that rigid restriction of salt should be 
beneficial in cases where the gastric acidity is excessive. 

Bunge, an Austrian physiologist, has collected a great volume of 
data concerning the habits of different races as to the use of salt. It 
is evident that some people set a high value upon it, while others do 
not care for it at all. Where it is prized it has often figured in 
maxims and metaphors. " To earn one's salt " is a familiar phrase 
which gains point from the common origin of the words " salt " and 
" salary.'' Bunge learned that a certain East Indian tribe used as 
the most solemn oath in their court procedure the formula, " May 
T never taste salt again if I speak not the truth." 

A little investigation shows that the desire to add salt to the 
food is experienced most by those who are vegetarians or nearly so. 
Men who are strictly carnivorous abhor salt. Thus it was found by 
the agents of the Russian Government that the natives of Kamchatka 
could not be prevailed upon to salt the fish which formed their 
entire diet. The supply of fish was uncertain and that which was 
saved to eat in the long intervals between catches decomposed in 
shallow pits. Still it was preferred to salt fish. We notice the same 
detestation of salt among carnivorous animals. They present a 



222 Salt and its Relation to Nutrition, /Am. Jour Pharm. 

I May, 191o. 

marked contrast to many of the herbivora, like cattle, sheep, and 
deer, which are very fond of salt. 

The Arctic explorer Stefanson has recently reported a striking 
instance of the objection to salt which accompanies the use of a flesh 
diet. The Esquimaux, whom he knows so well, have little vegetable 
food. When he settled among them he was embarrassed by their 
demands upon his hospitality. Policy dictated that he offer them 
food on all occasions, but there was every prospect that his stores 
would be rapidly depleted. The situation was relieved by a simple 
device. It was only necessary to salt the food moderately — merely 
to his own liking — to deter his visitors from making inroads upon it. 
The requirements of courtesy were satisfied and the provisions were 
conserved. 

When a sample of food is burned as completely as possible the 
mineral constituents remain as ash. Chemical analysis of this ash 
leads to very different findings in the case of different foods. Several 
acids and bases will always be found. We will consider only the 
occurrence of sodium and potassium. The ratio between the quan- 
tities of these two bases is widely varied, though in the great ma- 
jority of instances potassium is the more abundant. In animal foods 
the disparity is not marked, but in most vegetable substances it is 
striking. For example, the proportion of potassium to sodium in 
meat (veal) is 4 to 1, while in potato it is more than 3 to 1. 

Can we recognize a causal connection between the excess of 
potassium in a vegetable diet and the craving for sodium chloride 
which is attendant on the use of such a diet ? Bunge maintains that 
we can. His explanation has been criticised in detail, but is probably 
valid in its main thesis. The absorption into the blood of a quantity 
of salts, unlike those normally present there, imposes upon the kid- 
neys the duty of restoring standard conditions. If the chief demand 
is for the removal of potassium compounds the task will soon be ac- 
complished. But this will not be done without a considerable loss 
of sodium chloride. It would be remarkable indeed if the kidney 
cells could select all the foreign ions and not occasionally let slip some 
of the much more numerous native ones. 

Bunge was able to demonstrate upon himself the fact that an ex- 
cessive intake of potassium salts does lead to a loss of sodium 
chloride. He swallowed as much potassium phosphate and citrate as 
he could tolerate and subsequently excreted all the potassium — 
equivalent to 18 grammes K 2 — but simultaneously eliminated 6 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Book Reviezvs. 



223 



grammes of sodium chloride. Such a draft upon the tissues could 
not be continued indefinitely unless salt were supplied in correspond- 
ing amount. Bunge's personal experiment was not an unreasonable 
one, for it is calculated that when potatoes form the bulk of a man's 
ration twice as much potassium may be ingested as in this trial. 

There is, therefore, no doubt that salt is a necessary addition to 
diets in which the ratio of potassium to sodium is unusually high. 
The instinctive craving for it is a marvellous instance of the almost 
infallible correctness of such impulses. Bunge has recorded the 
use by an African tribe of the ash of a certain tree as a seasoning 
for their food. Most kinds of wood reduced to ashes would yield a 
mixture over-rich in potassium, which would be a most undesirable 
adjunct to other articles of vegetable origin. But the tree in favor 
with these people was the rare exception; its ash contained a most 
unusual proportion of sodium compounds. It is rather painful to 
fancy the tedious succession of experiments by which the ancestors 
of this tribe eliminated various kinds of wood, and pleasant to 
imagine the satisfaction realized when the fortunate choice was 
finally made. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Chemistry of Familiar Things. By Samuel Schmucker 
Sadtler, S.B. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company. 
There are a great many persons who have not received any special 
training in the sciences but who are nevertheless interested in the 
results of scientific research, and for them a book which is readable 
and accurate is very welcome. There has always been a demand for 
popular books treating of chemistry, botany, biology, astronomy, etc. 
In view of the application of the studies of chemistry not only to the 
development of industrial processes but their importance to the life 
of mankind a book like the present one by Mr. Sadtler will be much 
appreciated. 

In the first chapter we find enough elementary chemistry to 
enable the reader to understand and appreciate much of the informa- 
tion which follows in the subsequent chapters. Among the subjects 
discussed may be mentioned : Historical Development of Chemistry; 
The Periodic System of Elements ; The Chemistry and Production of 
Light ; Heat, Combustion and Insulation ; Air, Oxidation and Venti- 
lation ; Water ; Alkalies and Salts ; Metals ; Gold and Silver ; Chem- 



224 



Book 



Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



istry of the Earth's Evolution ; Soil and Its Conservation ; Food Ele- 
ments and Food Classes ; Individual Foods ; Animal Feeding ; Fer- 
mentation ; Chemistry of the Body ; Soaps, Solvents, and Paints ; 
Paper and Textiles ; Leather and Rubber ; Silicious Substances and 
Glass ; and A Few Important Definitions. The present volume con- 
tains a large amount of valuable information and will be appreciated 
by those who desire information on the chemistry of familiar things. 
It might also be advantageously placed in the hands of beginners, as 
it will be very stimulating to them in their studies. The work con- 
tains a large number of illustrations, many of which are drawn 
especially for this work by Miss Alice H. Sadtler. The paper, print- 
ing, and binding are excellent and the work should have a wide 
distribution. 

Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Poisons and 
Powerful Drugs. By Dr. Wilhelm Autenrieth, authorized transla- 
tion of the completely revised fourth German edition by William H. 
Warren, Ph.D., with 25 illustrations. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's 
Son and Co. Price, $2 net. This work is too well known to require 
an extended review. The present volume is considerably larger than 
the third edition and has been entirely revised. Among the new 
substances discussed the following may be mentioned : Cantharidin, 
cytisine, ergot, papaverine, pilocarpine, saponin substances, solanine, 
thebaine, and the toxalbumins, ricin, abrin, and crotin. In Chapter II 
hydrastine and veronal are elaborated. Chapter V has to do with 
special qualitative and quantitative methods, such as the quantitative 
estimation of phosphorus in phosphorated oils ; the electrolytic de- 
tection and estimation of arsenic ; the biological test for arsenic ; the 
destruction of organic matter and detection of arsenic by A. Gautier 
and G. Lockemann ; Karl Th. Morner's estimation of minute quan- 
tities of arsenic ; methods of estimating alkaloids by H. Matthes, 
H. Thorns, and A. H. Gordin. This chapter also includes A. J. J. 
Vandevelde's estimation of the toxic action of organic compounds 
by means of blood haemolysis. 

Chapter VI takes up the estimation of alkaloids and other active 
principles in raw materials (drugs) and in their preparations. 
Pharmacopceial as well as other estimations, such as that of nicotine 
in tobacco, caffeine in tea, coffee, kola preparations, etc., pilocarpine 
in jaborandi leaves, piperine in pepper, solanine in potatoes, and 
theobromine in cacao and its preparations, have been included. The 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Book Reviews. 



225 



author has endeavored to treat these subjects as thoroughly as 
possible. Chapter VII describes the methods employed in detecting 
carbon monoxide in blood, in recognizing blood itself in stains, and 
in differentiating human from animal blood. 

This work is of very great value to the practical chemist and 
will be of interest to pharmacists, as it contains a great amount of 
information on drug assaying, alkaloidal chemistry, and toxicological 
methods of procedure. The work has become of an international 
character, translations of the original German work having been 
made into English, Spanish, and Italian. 

Squire's Pocket Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia, 
1914, Second Edition. J. and A. Churchill, 7 Great Marlborough 
Street, London, W. Foolscap octavo, pp. 1040 (i6mo.) ; measure- 
ment 6% x 4/4 x 15 /i 6 , weight nj/2 oz. Price, 10s. 6d. net. The 
First Edition of Squire's Pocket Companion to the B. P. was pub- 
lished in 1904, and resulted from the necessity of dividing the older 
Squire's Companion to the British Pharmacopoeia into two publica- 
tions, owing to the very great increase in matter which had to be 
reviewed. The present, or Second Edition, follows the style of its 
predecessors, and is arranged in alphabetical order, thus obviating 
the necessity for frequent reference to the index, each monograph 
being subdivided into paragraphs, first a description of the drug 
with its usual method of preparation, solubility, medicinal properties, 
dose, prescribing notes, incompatibles, official preparations, not 
official preparations, and antidotes. This subdivision of the mono- 
graphs is adopted for the purpose of making the book as convenient 
and practical a work of reference as possible for both prescriber and 
dispenser. A clear distinction in type enables the reader to dis- 
tinguish at once whether a drug or preparation is official or not 
official, and this is further supplemented, except where the official 
preparation immediately follows the principal monograph, by a 
complete list of the official and not official preparations. 

The subject of solubility has always been a feature of Squire's 
Companion, and dates back to the First Edition in 1864. For the 
present volume the figures have had to be carefully revised, and 
where a disparity exists between the official figures and those given 
in the Companion they have been carefully redetermined and, if 
necessary, modified. As an instance of the amount of work involved 
on these paragraphs alone, the change of the official ether from 



226 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Phari 
May, 1915. 



Sp. Gr. 0.735 t0 0.720 has necessitated the redetermination of the 
whole of the figures relating to solubility in this menstrua. 

The medicinal properties have been entirely revised and brought 
thoroughly up to date by the inclusion of many references up to the 
end of the year, and no single important reference to an official or 
generally used unofficial substance has been omitted. 

Doses are given in both the imperial and metric systems, and are 
those generally used by the medical profession. In the case of toxic 
drugs, reference is also made to the maximum single or maximum 
daily dose given in a continental pharmacopoeia. 

The prescribing notes, which perhaps are the most useful feature 
of Squire's Pocket Companion, as they appeal both to the prescriber 
and to the dispenser, have been systematically revised and con- 
siderably enlarged. Typical instances appear under Acidum Boricum, 
p. 22 ; Acidum Carbolicum, p. 28 ; Iodine, p. 478 ; Pituitary Gland, 
p. 637 ; Salvarsan, p. 734 ; Tinctures, p. 885. Many excellent methods 
of exhibiting drugs are embodied in these prescribing notes. 

The paragraphs on incompatibles and antidotes have been brought 
into complete accordance with modern knowledge and requirements. 

A chapter on therapeutical agents of microbial origin has been 
completely revised and almost entirely rewritten by Professor R. 
Tanner Hewlett, Professor of Bacteriology in the University of 
London, and includes up-to-date information on antitoxins, serums, 
tuberculins, vaccines, etc. 

Immediately facing the first page of Materia Medica is a list of 
the important alterations in the new British Pharmacopoeia, 1914, 
and each separate monograph is clearly distinguished by a bracketed 
sub-title, thus, [new], [modified], [altered], etc. Typical mono- 
graphs may be selected from the following examples: Acid Acetyl 
Salicylic, p. 10; Adrenalinum, p. 72; Chloral Formamidum, p. 257; 
Diamorphinae Hydrochloridum, p. 324; Methyl Sulphonal, p. 545; 
Theobrominae et Sodii Salicylas, p. 847; a typical example of a not 
official preparation appears under Pituitary Gland, p. 633. 

Squire's Pocket Companion is a handsome volume, bound in red 
leather, with flexible covers, and gilt-lettered. It is printed on India 
paper from entirely new type. Notwithstanding that it contains 
some 274 pages more than the first edition, it is a considerably 
smaller-sized book. It gives the prescriber and dispenser a system- 
atic and complete account of all the additions and alterations to the 
British Pharmacopoeia, 1914, complete and up-to-date information 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Modern Medicine. 



227 



not only on all official but also on all important not official subjects, 
and an exhaustive review of over half a century's progress in thera- 
peutics and pharmacy. 

The adoption by the B. P. of the international atomic weights 
with 0=16 has necessitated the recalculation of the whole of the 
molecular equivalents throughout the book. An elaborate thera- 
peutical classification of remedies, a list of remedies for special 
ailments, a list of the spas of Europe, classified as to their properties 
and temperature, are also included in the work. 

It is easy to see that convenience of reference is studied well 
throughout the book, as even in the index a clear distinction in type 
enables the preparation to be classed as either B. P. or not B. P., 
the official name being printed in Roman, all the others in italics. 

The book should be of considerable use to American pharma- 
cists, as the preparations of the United States Pharmacopoeia are 
compared with those of the British and also with the French 
Pharmacopoeia. 

MODERN MEDICINE AND ITS SOCIAL 
RESPONSIBILITIES. 1 

By Frederick R. Green, A.M., M.D., 

Secretary, Council on Health and Public Instruction of the American 
Medical Association. 

When I received an invitation from your Program Committee to 
discuss this question before the Utah State Medical Association, I 
gladly accepted the opportunity. There is to-day serious need of an 
increased appreciation of the social responsibilities of the medical 
profession. As these are largely responsibilities of physicians in the 
aggregate than as individuals, it is important that they should be 
discussed in medical organizations and should become the basis of 
intelligent action. The unprecedented growth of our knowledge re- 
garding disease and its prevention during the last forty years and the 
stimulus to scientific research which has come through the newer 
methods of investigation have so monopolized the attention of 
physicians that the greater part of our ability and energies has gone 
into the exploration of these new fields. Knowledge has increased 

1 Read before the Utah State Medical Association, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
September 30, 1914, and reprinted from North West Medicine, December, 1914, 
and January, 1915. 



228 



Modern Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



so rapidly that it has been difficult even for members of the medical 
profession to keep track of its advance. In most cases, individual 
physicians have only been able to master one particular field. So 
far as the people are concerned, they have been utterly unable to 
keep pace with the rapidly-growing knowledge of the profession and 
are consequently often unable to understand what physicians are 
trying to accomplish. Yet the most superficial survey of the field 
will convince any one not only that the social responsibilities of the 
medical profession are to-day greater than ever before, but also that 
never before has there been so wide a gap between technical scientific 
knowledge on the one hand and popular opinions on the other. 

One of the paradoxes of the situation is that we have to-day a 
medical profession better educated, more competent, capable of doing 
more and desirous of doing more for the prevention of disease and 
the benefit of society than ever before, while the mass of people, 
although more intelligent and better informed on general subjects 
than their forefathers, are largely unaware of the benefits which 
they may derive from the application of the knowledge of modern 
medicine, and are hindering and delaying, by their indifference and 
at times by their open opposition, the application of knowledge in 
the hands of physicians which can be utilized in protecting the people 
from disease and in prolonging their lives. This anomalous condition 
has long been recognized. It has not, however, been as generally 
recognized as should have been the case, that such a condition must 
be due to definite causes, and that if sufficient study were given to it 
some solution must be found. As the will of the majority is the only 
compelling force recognized in our government, and as the support 
of public opinion is indispensable for the successful carrying out of 
any social measure, whether in the form of laws or customs, it is 
evident that the recognition of the causes underlying the present 
situation and the removal of any obstacles to the fullest cooperation 
and understanding between the medical profession and the public 
constitute a problem of the highest importance and worthy of the 
attention of the greatest minds in the profession. 

For a clear understanding of any problem it is constantly neces- 
sary to revert to essential principles. Too often those who are par- 
ticipating in current events are unable to estimate correctly the 
relative value of different factors in the problem on account of their 
very nearness to and intimate participation in its phenomena. Ac- 
curate history cannot be written until years after the events which 
it describes. We are living to-day in a period of greater importance 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



Modem Medicine. 



229 



to the future of civilization than the years of the Napoleonic wars. 
Yet we know far less about the movements of contending armies in 
Europe than we do of any of Napoleon's campaigns. Active par- 
ticipation in any campaign and personal advocacy of any measure are 
apt to develop personal prejudices and opinions, often based on 
insufficient evidence or biased statements, with which opinions we 
are often reluctant to part. It is only by reducing the problem to its 
simplest term, stripping off all non-essential and obscuring details 
and stating the questions involved in their fundamental form that we 
are able to divest our minds of personal and local prejudices and to 
recognize all the factors in the situation. 

My subject carries with it by implication several questions which 
must be answered. These are : How does modern medicine differ 
from the medical knowledge of preceding generations, and how has 
this change altered the relations of society and physicians? What 
are the social responsibilities of modern medicine, and how do they 
differ from those of previous generations? What are the ideal re- 
lations which should exist between the medical profession and the 
public? What are the mutual duties and responsibilities of the two 
parties to each other ? How can these responsibilities be made plain, 
both to physicians and to the people, and how can each party to the 
obligation be led to recognize and perform its plain duty? 

If I were addressing a general audience I would consider it 
necessary at this point to discuss the change which has taken place 
in the last half century regarding our knowledge of epidemic dis- 
eases, and to show from history how plagues have afflicted mankind 
in all ages ; how, in spite of advancing knowledge on all other 
subjects, they still continued to be truly pestilences which walked 
in darkness. No one knew whence they came, how they were caused 
or how they could be prevented, because their cause lay below the 
vision of man — in the microscopic world. Few realize the impor- 
tance of the invention of the compound achromatic microscope in 
1835, which first made it possible to study microscopic life. The work 
of many investigators in this field did not culminate until the middle 
of the last century, in the m6numental work of Louis Pasteur, who 
first demonstrated the microscopic cause of diseases and devised an 
effective method for their prevention. His work, probably the 
greatest which any one man has ever done for humanity, finally led 
him to the epoch-making and immortal assertion : " It is possible for 
civilized man to cause all contagious diseases to disappear from the 
face of the earth." 



230 



Modern Medicine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t May, 1915. 



These facts are well known to all physicians. They are not as 
well known nor their importance as well understood by the public as 
they should be. The work of Pasteur and his successors has entirely 
changed the relation of the State to public health. A danger which 
is visible to all and readily recognized needs only to be stated to be 
avoided. Dangers to life and health which the average normal man 
and woman can see require little, if any, legislation. The instinct of 
self-preservation is sufficient, if the danger is known. But in dis- 
eases caused by microorganisms the cause is not only invisible, but 
the specific cause can only be recognized by men of expert technical 
training, equipped with delicate instruments of scientific precision. 
The avoidance of such diseases clearly cannot be left to the in- 
dividual. It therefore becomes the duty of society to do for the 
protection of the individual what he cannot do for himself, and to 
utilize scientific knowledge in protecting him from harm which he 
alone cannot avoid. The entire relation of the State to the people 
and of the medical profession to society and to organized government, 
whether of the city, the State, or the nation, has changed entirely 
during the last forty years through the development of our knowl- 
edge regarding the causes of disease. The moral and legal justifica- 
tion for State activity for the prevention of disease lies not in the 
demands of the medical profession, but in the fact that it is the duty 
of the State to protect its citizens against dangers from which they 
cannot safeguard themselves. 

The justification for public education is the prevention of disease 
and the prolongation of life. Such objects need no argument. It 
is necessary, however, to convince the mass of the people of the 
possibility of their accomplishment. 

When we look over the history of public health legislation 
during the last fifty years it is difficult to say whether surprise, 
indignation or amusement is most predominant. The misunderstand- 
ings, antagonisms and conflicting efforts on the part of physicians 
and the public might well be cause for amusement were the results of 
such misunderstanding not so serious. Prior to the middle of the 
last century there was practically no recognition of the responsibility 
of society and of the State in the prevention of disease. The State 
was in the same position as the medical profession : it had nothing 
to tell the people; it could only wait until a man or woman was 
stricken with disease and then care for them, if they were without 
other protectors. Late in the '6os growing conceptions regarding 
the duties of the State toward its citizens began to take definite form. 



Am. Jour. Pharui. 
May, 1915. 



M odern M edicine. 



231 



In 1869 Massachusetts established the first State Board of Health. 
California followed in 1870. At various periods since that time each 
State has created some kind of health organization. Some began as 
quarantine bodies, some as examining bodies, some as State boards 
of health de novo. The United States Public Health Service has 
recently issued an interesting summary of the history and general 
condition of our State health organizations. A careful reading of 
this study must impress every one with the amazing diversity of 
method and machinery as well as the large amount of waste effort 
required to secure the creation and perpetuation of these boards. 
Examination of the Proceedings of the Association from 1870 to 
1877 will show that the principal force in their creation was the 
American Medical Association, and that the most important factor 
in securing the establishment of these boards, in maintaining them 
and in performing their functions was the medical profession. Now, 
the object of establishing these boards was and is to prevent unneces- 
sary sickness, reduce the death-rate and make the people of the State 
healthier, happier, richer and longer lived. If there is any work 
which is more unselfish, self-sacrificing and clearly for the public 
good, history does not record it. Yet the principal difficulty during 
the forty-five years which have elapsed since Massachusetts passed 
her first law has been to convince enough of the people of any State 
of the desirability of such work to secure its establishment and devel- 
opment. Certainly when concerted and continuous effort is neces- 
sary to persuade people to allow themselves to be saved from sickness 
and suffering, and when the facts in the case are as readily demon- 
strable as the figures of the multiplication table, something must be 
seriously wrong with the manner in which this subject has been 
presented to make such a situation possible. When the history of 
the last forty-five years is reviewed, it is not difficult to see why the 
task has been a difficult one. 

Following the development of modern bacteriology and pathology 
and recognition of the possibilities of State activity in preventing 
disease, efforts began to be made, as we have seen, to utilize the 
power of the State for the protection of the public. Now the average 
American has the utmost confidence in the power of legislation to 
accomplish almost any reform. Here was a field for legislation 
entirely for the public good, and yet the knowledge on which effective 
legislation could be based lay entirely outside the grasp of the 
average citizen. The specialist and the expert are not necessarily 
the wisest guides in legislative or public affairs. The expert is 



232 



Modem Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



usually the purely scientific type, engrossed in the problems of his 
particular field, positive as to his specific knowledge, but not neces- 
sarily broad in his conceptions or tolerant of the attitude of the 
average individual. He sees many wrongs which should be corrected, 
waste and loss of power which should be avoided and evils which 
should be eliminated, and, with his special knowledge and technical 
training, the way to secure these reforms seems clear and straight 
if only he could be allowed to enact and enforce the regulations 
which he knows would be effective. He is often impatient with the 
layman, who, lacking his training and expert knowledge, is unable 
to follow his reasoning or to understand his conclusions. The task 
of convincing a majority of average citizens by translating scientific 
facts into popular terms and placing the results of scientific research 
before the public in easily-understood form seems to the expert to be 
a hopeless task. How much easier it would be, he thinks, if only by 
the exercise of benevolent despotism a law could be passed decreeing 
that certain things should or should not be. So long as the object of 
such laws is the public good, the enthusiast concludes that any 
means are justifiable by which such legislation can be secured. This 
has been the line of reasoning which has too often been followed 
in planning public health legislation. When it is recalled that the 
forty years which cover the development of our present-day knowl- 
edge of preventive diseases coincide almost exactly with the period 
of special influences and class legislation in most of our legislative 
bodies, it is not strange that the medical and sanitary expert has 
too often fallen into the ways of the professional politician. The 
further and graver errors of mistaking legislative enactment for 
constructive progress, of thinking that the passage of a law marked a 
real achievement, whether the law was supported by public opinion 
or drafted so as to be enforcible or not, and that the end to be gained 
in a campaign for sanitary legislation was to " put over " the in- 
tended bill, and that something was accomplished when this was 
done, have also been far too prevalent. When to this situation is 
added the fact that the rapid growth of any special line of knowl- 
edge favors the development of those who mistake a working hypoth- 
esis for a proven fact, or who allow their interest in a special but 
comparatively unimportant topic to lead them to regard it as one of 
paramount importance, it is not strange that the extremist and the 
hobby-rider have too often exercised an undue influence in public 
health legislation. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1915. 



M odem M c die inc. 



233 



The greatest single mistake has been the belief, common in the 
medical profession for the last forty years, that sanitary reforms 
could be accomplished by the passage of laws. This is all the 
stranger in view of the fact that a clear and definite note of warning 
was struck early in this period by one of the leaders of medical 
thought of his day. In 1877, at the Chicago session of the American 
Medical Association, Dr. Stanford E. Chaille, of New Orleans, 
presented a paper on " State Medicine and State Medical Societies," 
which to the student of the development of State medicine in this 
country must ever remain as one of the clearest and most far-sighted 
papers ever presented before the association. Discussing the neces- 
sity of systematic education of public opinion as a necessary precedent 
to the enforcement of sanitary laws, Dr. Chaille says : 

" It requires no great wisdom to enact laws, but great wisdom 
to enact on many subjects laws which can be enforced. The history 
of legislation is glutted with the enactment of laws which not only 
failed to accomplish the object intended, but which did accomplish a 
very different one, often bringing the object sought for into public 
contempt. Rarely do writers on State medicine realize the truth of 
the lessons taught by students of the philosophy of lawmaking, that 
there is a class of subjects in regard to which laws can be enacted in 
advance of public opinion without fear of bad results ; but that there 
is another class of subjects in regard to which no laws can success- 
fully precede their public sanction, and, if enacted, violation and 
contempt for them will ensue. Unfortunately, to this class belong 
such subjects as the regulation of the practice of medicine, com- 
pulsory vaccination, registration of vital statistics, etc., and their 
satisfactory disposal cannot be hoped for until an enlightened and 
organized medical profession exercises its influence on public 
opinion." 

In spite of this clear statement of the problem, we have, as a 
profession, placed far too much confidence in legislative enactment 
as a means of social and sanitary improvement. This is partially 
due to the prevailing popular idea that the passage of a law in some 
way accomplishes something, and that a law necessarily contains 
within itself the power for its own enforcement. A law is not a 
force and never can be. A law is simply a rule of action, a state- 
ment of the way in which a force acts or should act. Now in this 
country the only possible force is public opinion, the will of the 
majority. It has come to be recognized as axiomatic that no law 



234 



Modern Medicine. 



fAm. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1915. 



which is not approved by a majority of the people can be enforced. 
As Dr. Chaille has clearly stated, the important thing is to convince 
the people and to mould public opinion. As soon as this is done, 
necessary laws will follow as a natural consequence. But with a 
convinced and aroused public only a minimum amount of legislation 
is necessary. Public opinion can accomplish as much as, if not more 
than, legislation in some lines, leaving to the law-making powers only 
the necessity of enacting, and to the administrative officials the 
necessity of enforcing, so much legislation as may be necessary to 
make public opinion effective. 

But there is another and more serious consequence of the enact- 
ment of public health laws without the support of public opinion. 
Not only are laws so obtained generally ineffective, but their passage 
encourages the feeling on the part of the public that health legisla- 
tion is a matter which is in the hands of physicians, and that the 
people have no responsibility on this subject. It is an axiom in 
physiology that an unused function always undergoes atrophy. The 
more physicians relieve the people of the responsibility for securing 
proper health laws, the greater will be the difficulty in making them 
realize that they have any responsibility. We have, through short- 
sightedness in the operation of free clinics in our large cities, pau- 
perized a large proportion of the people. Let us beware lest we 
pauperize them mentally by relieving them of the responsibility of 
protecting themselves from disease. 

Not only has the growth of knowledge altered the relations of 
the State and the individual, but it has no less radically altered the 
professional relations between physicians and patients. The respon- 
sibility of the physician was formerly limited to the individual pa- 
tient. This is no longer the case. The present-day physician wants 
to know not only what is ailing his patient, but also how his patient 
acquired the disease, whether any other persons are exposed to 
contagion from the same source, whether the patient himself is a 
danger to his friends and relatives, and whether the disease will 
spread throughout the entire community or can be confined to the 
single case in hand. He owes a responsibility not only to his patient, 
but to the community. He is not only the caretaker and medical 
adviser of the sick ; he is also the guardian and protector of the well. 
Each practising physician is or should be a sanitary policeman for 
the protection of the community against contagion. In a few cases, 
notably State boards of health and a few of our larger cities, men 



Am M J a °y r ig^ arm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 235 

especially expert devote all of their energy to sanitary police work 
as public health officers, but this does not and cannot take the place 
of the constant vigilance and cooperation of the mass of the medical 
profession. Yet because in previous generations the relations of a 
physician and his patient were entirely personal, and because com- 
pensation was based on these personal relations, the public health 
police work of the medical profession, done for the sake of the 
community, is largely unrecognized and entirely uncompensated. 
In other words, physicians as a class have recognized their duty to 
the community before the community has recognized its duty to 
physicians. Careful reflection will, I think, sustain the conclusion 
that in this situation is found an explanation of many of the economic 
difficulties of the medical profession at present. That it is a transitory 
condition and one which will be remedied in the future admits of 
little doubt. 

(To be continued.) 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Annual Meeting. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was 
held March 29, 191 5, at 4 p.m.. in the Library ; the President, Howard 
B. French, presiding. Twenty members were present. 

The minutes of the quarterly meeting held December 28, 1914, 
were read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees fot 
December, 1914; January and February, 191 5, were read by the 
Registrar, J. S. Beetem, and approved. 

President French then delivered his Annual Address, containing a 
summary of matters of general interest that have occurred in the 
institution during the past year. Lpon motion of George M. Beringer, 
it was ordered that the address be entered on the minutes,' a mime- 
ographic copy be sent to every member of the College, and an abstract 
be published in the American Journal of Pharmacy ( see p, 238). 

Report of the Committee on Publication. — In the abscence 
of the Chairman, Professor S. P. Sadtler, the report was read by 
Air. John K. Thum. " In spite of the financial depression during the 
past year we can make a most gratifying showing for the year. The 
receipts from advertising, subscriptions, and sales of back numbers 
exceed all previous records. The financial statement accompanying 



236 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, j Am ^ r \^ Atm - 

the report is for the year ending March 17, 191 5, all bills for the year 
having been paid." 

Editor's Report was read by Professor Henry Kraemer. " The 
subject of the growing of medicinal plants is of growing and practical 
interest, and during the past few years much original matter on this 
subject has been published. This interest is reflected in the demand 
for back numbers. The European war has caused some delay and loss 
in our foreign subscribers receiving their Journal. It is hoped that 
this will soon be remedied. The twelve issues during the year com- 
prised a total of 568 pages and a complete index of 10 pages. The 
articles have been up to our usual standards, and we are indebted to 
a number of our members for their literary and scientific contribu- 
tions. Mr. Wilbert has continued to send us his quarterly reports on 
the ' Progress of Pharmacy.' " 

Report of Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings was read 
by Professor Henry Kraemer, in which he referred to the work 
accomplished during the past year and suggested that the by-laws re- 
lating to this committee be changed. 

Curator's Report. — In the absence of the Curator, Mr. Joseph 
W. England, on account of illness, the report was read by the Secre- 
tary. " The Museum is in good condition ; a rearrangement of some 
of the cases and hanging of pictures, etc., on the walls has had a very 
pleasing effect. The Curator suggests changing the desk and plat- 
form to the south end of the Museum, as being much better for the 
holding of meetings and lessening the confusion of persons coming 
in during addresses and business. Suggestion is made that each one 
of the departments be given space in the cases to exhibit specimens of 
apparatus, etc., especially of an historical character. More shelf 
room could be secured in the Museum by replacing the larger con- 
tainers with smaller ones." The suggestions of the Curator were, on 
motion, referred to the Committee on Property. 

Report of the Librarian was read by the Librarian, Miss 
Katharine E. Nagle. " During the past year the accessioning, classi- 
fication, and shelf-listing have been completed. There have been ac- 
cessioned 1492 books, making a total of 8756 books ready for catalogu- 
ing. There have been received from the United States Government 
reports of the Census, Treasury, Library of Congress, Smithsonian 
Institution, Public Health, Commission of Labor, Daily Consular 
Trade, and Bulletins and Circulars from Department of Agriculture, 



I 



Am ^May r i9i h 5 aim ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 237 

Digest of Comments on the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and 70 volumes of 
miscellaneous reports from other sources." 

Information was asked as to the number of volumes stored in 
boxes, in addition to the volumes in cases. Answer was made that 
there were several thousand, making a total of about 20,000 volumes 
now in the Library. 

The report of the ^Committee on Nominations was received and 
ordered entered and filed. 

Elections of Officers, Committee, and Trustees. — The Pres- 
ident appointed C. Stanley French, Mitchell Bernstein, and E. F. 
Cook tellers to conduct the election. While the ballots were being 
counted the President announced the following appointments : 

Committee on By Laws : George M. Beringer, Joseph W. Eng- 
land, and C. A. Weidemann. 

Delegates to Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association: C. B. 
Lowe, Joseph P. Remington, F. X. Moerk, F. P. Stroup, Charles 
H. LaWall, E. F. Cook, and O. W. Osterlund. 

Delegates to New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association : Henry 
Kraemer, George M. Beringer, C. B. Lowe, Charles H. LaWall, 
H. P. Thorn, and John W. Hayes. 

Delegates to Delaware Pharmaceutical Association : A. W. Miller, 
C. B. Lowe, H. J. Watson, and S. Loraine Foster. 

Dr. A. W. Miller, for the Special Committee on Relief for Belgian 
and Other Pharmacists, reported that a circular letter had been sent 
to every member of the College soliciting contributions, and that a 
number of responses had been received. 

The following contributions have been acknowledged: Warren 
H. Poley, L. Gerhard, Adolph Miller, Henry P. Thorn, John E. 
Carter, George B. Evans, Aubrey Weightman, Henry Kraemer, 
Frank G. Ryan, Harry Matusow, Howard B. French, George M. 
Beringer, Alfred Mellor, L. E. Say re, Richard M. Shoemaker, E. G. 
Eberle, Charles E. Sniteman, F. F. Muller. and John F. Hancock. 

Dr. R. V. Mattison offered the following resolution : " Resolved, 
That this meeting, in its annual assemblage, heartily endorses and 
upholds the position taken by our President, as announced in his 
Annual Address, in regar.d to the desirability of maintaining the 
present high standard of education as set forth by our curriculum." 
After remarks by several of the members the resolution was unani- 
mously approved. 

A paper submitted by Mr. Joseph W. England, entitled, " An 



238 Abstract of President's Address. {^■ 3 f°™ifi h 5 arm " 

Historic Store," accompanied with a photograph of the place of 
business of Bullock and Crenshaw, northeast corner of Sixth and 
Arch Streets, was received, and on motion the thanks of the College 
were tendered the donor. 

The tellers, having concluded their count, reported the election of : 
President, Howard B. French; first vice-president, R. V. Mattison, 
M.D.; second vice-president, Joseph L. Lemberger; treasurer, 
Richard M. Shoemaker; corresponding secretary, A. W. Miller, 
M.D. ; recording secretary, C. A. Weidemann, M.D. ; curator, Joseph 
W. England ; editor, Henry Kraemer ; and librarian, Katharine E. 
Nagle. 

Trustees for three years : Walter A. Rumsey, Jacob M. Baer, and 
Warren H. Poley. 

Publication Committee : Samuel P. Sadtler, Henry Kraemer, 
Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Remington, Martin I. Wilbert, Charles 
H. La Wall, and George M. Beringer. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings : Henry Kraemer, Joseph 
P. Remington, C. B. Lowe, M.D., George B. Weidemann, and 
E. H, Hessler. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



ABSTRACT OF ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

Following the practice which was established some years ago, 
your President will submit a brief summary of matters of general 
interest that have occurred in your institution during the past year. 

Your property is in fairly good condition, and it has not been 
necessary, during the past year, to make any extensive improve- 
ments. The minor repairs have been sufficient to keep your build- 
ings in proper condition and up to their usual standard. 

Your President regrets that he cannot report an increased number 
of students over the previous year, the total number in attendance 
being 431, against 434 during the previous year. Special chemistry 
students number 37. Food and drug course has 4 students. Special 
course in bacteriology comprises 22 students ; of this number 16 are 
regular pharmacy students, 4 are graduates, and 2 new matriculants. 
Five students attend the special course in microscopy, and all are 
special chemistry students. 



Am *>/a°y r i9i5 arm ' } Abstract of President's Address. 239 

Your President desires to bring to your attention the increased 
number of students doing special work in the Laboratory. Last 
year there were 13 first-year students, this year 27 first-year students ; 
last year there were 28 second-year students, this year 51 second-year 
students, and 35 third-year students last year and 25 this year, making 
a total increase of 27 students this year doing special chemical work. 

The requiring of recording the attendance of students has been 
continued during the present session and shows a satisfactory im- 
provement upon the part of the students. 

AYork in the Chemical Department has been conducted in a most 
satisfactory manner. Your professor of chemistry has had delivered 
to the students several very completely illustrated lectures on chem- 
ical industries, in which both materials of the industry and the actual 
working steps were interestingly presented by the aid of moving-pic- 
ture reels, thus making it possible for the class to understand the prog- 
ress of manufacture and the working out of details from the crude 
to the finished product : in other words, giving them what might be 
termed a practical illustration of commercial production. It is of 
interest to know that two more illustrated lectures will be delivered 
before the close of the session. 

Your Department of Pharmacy reports a marked improvement in 
the attention of students, and that the average scholarship is higher 
and better than that of the two previous years. 

Extra lectures on pharmaceutical subjects have been delivered 
and have proved of great value to the large number of students at- 
tending. 

In operative pharmacy there has been a marked increase in the 
number of hours devoted to instruction, and a close system was fol- 
lowed for checking the work done by the students. Special atten- 
tion has been given to instructing the student as to the desirability 
of profitably manufacturing preparations under his own brand, so 
as to establish a reputation among his customers and well-merited 
commendation from the practising physicians, as well as increasing 
his financial success. 

The course of commercial training has been successfully pros- 
ecuted during the past year, and many additions have been made, 
thus improving the department. It is now expected that during the 
coming session of the College this course will be increased so as to 
include instructionjn salesmanship. 

The Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy has been most 



240 Abstract of President's Address. { A %a^i 9 ^ arm ' 

active during the past year and has brought the College prominently 
before the public, causing numerous inquiries to be made of the de- 
partments for information regarding the experiments they have made 
in the cultivation of medicinal plants. It is commendable that the 
department, with an inadequate space furnished by only a moderate 
roof garden and a small green-house, has been able, through its ex- 
periments, to attract so much attention as to induce upwards of a 
hundred inquiries to be made concerning its success in growing 
medicinal plants. In addition to the inquiries, it has had a number of 
visitors, including teachers accompanied by pupils, from some of the 
higher educational schools of the city, who showed much interest in 
the work being done by your Department of Botany and Pharma- 
cognosy. 

It is truly unfortunate that the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy is not in a position to furnish greater space in the shape of an 
adequate garden for use of this department. It has been hoped that 
the Park Commission would deem it desirable to set aside, under 
the direction of your College, a space of ground to be used as a botan- 
ical garden to instruct not only the students of your own College, 
but those of other advanced institutions of Philadelphia and, in fact, 
of the State of Pennsylvania, on the value of growing medicinal 
plants. 

Some institutions in other States have large appropriations made 
them to develop and advance the study of botany and pharmacognosy, 
and we can but regret that this College has not been placed in a posi- 
tion where it could be of still greater service in assisting students to 
study this most interesting branch of science. 

Since your last annual meeting the Clayton French Fellowship 
has been established and a tablet has been erected in the hall of your 
College, bearing the following inscription : 

1824 1890 
Clayton French 

FELLOWSHIP 

Established by his daughter 
Mary I. Banks 
May 16th, 1914. 

The Honorary Roll Tablet, which has also been placed in the 
hall since your last annual meeting, contains three class years, viz., 
1889, 1914, and 1904, each having contributed the required amount 



Am '3iw, r "wi5 arm '} Abstract of President's Address. . 241 

towards the Centennial Fund, thus warranting its class year being 
placed upon the tablet. 

There have been elected to the membership of your College, during 
the past year, 2 active members but no associate members. It is 
with regret that we have to record, during the same period, the death 
of 8 active members, as follows : 

Peter T. Fox, April 24, 1914; joined the college, 1872. George 
J. Scattergood, July 16, 1914; joined the College, 1859. William 
E. Lee, July 20, 1914; joined the College, 1907. Henry C. Eddy, 
August 29, 1914; joined the College, 1869. William H. Lacey, Sep- 
tember 30, 1914; joined the College, 1886. Charles L. Eberle, October 
4, 1914; joined the College, 1867. Edward H. Hance, December 14, 
1914; joined the College, 1857. Charles G. Dodson, March 17, 1915 ; 
joined the College, 1891 ; and 1 associate member, John F. McGovern, 
March 1, 1915; joined the College, 1908. This leaves 141 active 
members and 12 associate members. It may be of interest for you 
to know that one of your active members, Edward H. Hance, had 
been associated with the College since 1857, a period of 57 years; 
another, George J. Scattergood, had been a member since 1859, a 
period of 55 years; another, Charles L. Eberle, since 1867, a period 
of 47 years, and another, Henry C. Eddy, had been a member since 
1869, a period of 45 years. 

In 1 821 your College was organized at a meeting held in the 
historical Carpenter's Hall, of this city. It has grown from that very 
small beginning to the largest and most influential institution of its 
kind in the United States, if not in the world. It has from its incep- 
tion increased in importance as an educational centre, and it is 
believed that its curriculum to-day is unequalled by any similar insti- 
tution. And, while it has passed its 94th birthday, it is filled with the 
vigor of youth and can be referred to as ninety-four years young, in- 
stead of ninety-four years old. 

Its aggressive and progressive methods have been objected to by 
the educational department of one of the larger States, which has 
urged that the high standard maintained by your institution be less- 
ened and your term of tuition be changed from a three to a two years' 
course, so as to do away with the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree and 
return to a Pharmaceutical Graduate Degree. It has seen fit to ac- 
credit your institution with but one year, thus necessitating a gradu- 
ate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy to take another year's 
course in a college giving but two years' instruction. Upon refusal 



242 Abstract of President's Address. { Am, M a °y r i 9 i5 arm * 

to comply with this requirement or penalty — as it may properly be 
termed — a student leaving your institution for that State, although in 
many, if not in most, cases qualified to teach in any one of its schools 
of pharmacy, must submit, as stated above, to being penalized for 
graduating from the oldest and, your President thinks, the best 
College of Pharmacy in the United States. Your President earnestly 
hopes that the membership of your College will stand strongly to- 
gether, firmly bound, with the intention of maintaining her present 
high standard. 

It would be a source of great regret to your President to see the 
curriculum of your institution changed to lessen the present high 
standard that is maintained, and he desires to express the hope that 
not only the membership of your College, but that the men in whose 
hands is entrusted the management of its affairs, will not be found 
wanting in courage to enable them to stand up and fight for what they 
believe to be right, even though it may be against great odds ; and 
he ventures to express the hope that their consciousness of having 
done what they believe to be for the best interests of the institution in 
maintaining its present high standard and leadership in the pharma- 
ceutical world will be sufficient recompense for the anxiety and labor 
which they have and will be forced to bear. 

But six more years remain until ^your centenary anniversary 
occurs, and it is to be hoped that every effort will be made towards 
securing for this grand old institution a new home, with proper and 
commodious buildings and grounds surrounding same to enable it 
to continue the noble work it has been doing in the past. 

To those of the officers and faculty who have cooperated, with 
much self-sacrifice, with your President during the past year he 
wishes to extend his appreciation and to express the hope that those 
who have not been in accord with his views may at least credit him 
with doing what he believed to be for the best interests of the in- 
stitution. He has no personal ambition to serve — his sole compen- 
sation being the hope that the College may continue to prosper, 
whether he continues as your chief executive or not, and that from 
the present date until the centenary has been reached hearty co- 
operation and united action may be the sole purpose and inspiration 
of all those connected with the College, officially or otherwise. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Howard B. French. 

March 22, 1915. 



m Ma^9 P i5 arm '} Minutes of the Board of Trustees. 243 



ABSTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF 

TRUSTEES. 

December 1st, 1914. — Sixteen members present. 

Committee on Scholarships reported that an additional Dobbins 
Scholarship was available, and recommended a candidate to whom 
the award should be made, which was agreed to. 

Committee on Accounts and Audit recommended that the usual 
honorarium be given the Editor and Business Manager of the Bulletin 
for services rendered during the past year. It was agreed to do so. 

Committee on Athletics reported favorably concerning the peti- 
tion of the women students to establish a basket-ball team. This was 
approved. 

Mr. French read a communication from the Secretary of the Cen- 
tenary Celebration relative to class inscription on the Honor Tablet. 
The Dean moved that the arrangement of the tablets on the walls 
of the College and the lettering thereon be in charge of the Property 
Committee, and that when a class had paid the necessary amount the 
Treasurer should notify the committee. It was so ordered. 

A communication was read from the Secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania State Pharmaceutical Board relative to the necessity of all first- 
year students applying for a State preliminary certificate. The Dean 
said he had read the communication to the class and impressed its 
importance upon them. 

January $th, 191 5. — Fifteen members present. 

Mr. Poley read the following resolution which had been offered 
at a previous meeting : 

" Whereas, Many benefactors of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy or of pharmacy in general are deemed by their surviving 
associates worthy of some permanent memorial, so that the inspira- 
tion of their deeds and life may be kept before the students and 
members of this College in perpetuity ; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy will maintain 
and display a Memorial Tablet, constructed and erected by the donors 
in honor of any person whose life in the drug or allied business or 
whose services to this institution may be deemed by the Board of 
Trustees worthy of such recognition. Material, design, and inscrip- 
tion of proposed memorial shall be approved by the Board of 
Trustees, and location assigned by the Property Committee of said 



244 Minutes of the Board of Trustees. { A ^ a ° ur ^5 arm - 

Board. In order to maintain and care for said tablet, a sum of at least 
five hundred dollars shall be paid to the College." 

After some discussion the Preamble and Resolution was adopted. 

Committee on Examinations reported the names of four persons 
for the degree of Master in Pharmacy, when the Dean moved to 
amend to add one other name, which was agreed to, and, in accordance 
with the By-Laws, these names were referred to a special committee 
for further consideration. The committee further recommended a 
change in Article 8, Section 3 of the By-Laws, which, according to 
rules, was held over for one month. 

The Chairman read a communication from Mr. French recom- 
mending, first, that the title of our solicitors be corrected to Gill and 
Linn, and that Edgar S. McKaig, Esq., be appointed an additional 
solicitor. This was agreed to. 

The Secretary read a communication from the St. Louis College of 
Pharmacy appreciating the sending of a representative to the celebra- 
tion of their fiftieth anniversary. 

February 2nd, 191 5. — Fourteen members present. 

Committee on Instruction recommended R. B. Brown, third-year 
student, as assistant in Department of Operative Pharmacy, and same 
was approved. 

Committee on Examinations presented a communication from 
Professor Kraemer giving the names of those students who had taken 
the course in bacteriology during the session from 1909 to 1913 and 
satisfactorily passed their examinations and were, by a recent ruling 
of the Board, entitled to a certificate, which motion was ordered. 

The committee reported the name of Archibald Wolever as having 
complied with all the requirements of the College and satisfactorily 
passed his examinations, recommending him for the Certificate of 
Proficiency in Chemistry. Agreed to. 

The special committee to whom were referred the names of those 
proposed for the degree of Master in Pharmacy — Honoris Causa — 
reported unanimously in favor of the recommendation of the Com- 
mittee on Examinations. A ballot was taken and the Chair declared 
the five persons named elected to receive the degree of Master of 
Pharmacy at the next commencement. 

A communication from Edgar S. McKaig was read, in which he 
acknowledged receipt of notice of his election as solicitor, and stated 
that he appreciated the honor thus conferred and would have pleasure 
in serving the College to the best of his ability. 



THE AMERICAN 




JOURNAL OF PH^4MA 



JUNE, i 9 i 5 Uj 



THE ESTIMATION OF FREE AClh^m^^VfXY- 
CHLORIDE SOLUTION. 



The test for oxychloride and for free aeid in solution of ferric 
chloride as given in the Netherlands Pharmacopoeia differs from that 
in the United States, the Belgian, and the German Pharmacopoeia. 

The test is this : " When a mixture of I Cc. of the solution with 
5 Cc. of water is boiled for one minute, the liquid must be turbid 
after cooling." 

The other pharmacopoeias mentioned direct the boiling with 
sodium thiosulphate, with this difference : that the U. S. P. requires 
that no brownish-red precipitate of ferric hydroxide should separate, 
the other two permitting a slight precipitate. 

Three of the pharmacopoeias permit a slight, but not definite, 
amount of oxychloride; the U. S. P. proscribes this, but permits free 
hydrochloric acid. • , 

With different specimens of ferric chloride solution the test of 
the Netherlands Pharmacopoeia gives very different degrees of tur- 
bidity; I therefore endeavored to determine the acidity of the solu- 
tions. 

The test of the U. S. P. could not be employed for this purpose, 
for when applied to a solution with free hydrochloric acid the liber- 
ated thiosulphuric acid decomposes in the hot solution into free 
sulphur, sulphur dioxide, and water. 

At the ordinary temperature the conversion of ferric thiosulphate 
into ferrous tetrathionate proceeds very slowly. I have found that 
the reaction is very much accelerated by the addition of a few drops 
of a cupric chloride solution. This becomes evident by the following 
test: Into each of two 100 Cc. flasks place 2 Cc. ferric chloride 



By Dr. G. Romijn, 'S Hertogenbosch, Holland. 



(245) 



246 x The Estimation of Free Acid. { Am jS^um™ 1 ' 

solution, 50 Cc. water, and 2 Cc. decinormal sodium hydroxide 
solution. To the contents of one, five drops of a ten per cent, solution 
of cupric chloride are added. After one-half hour's standing, 9 Cc. 
of a normal solution of sodium thiosulphate are added to the contents 
of each flask. Both liquids are immediately colored deep violet. The 
copper- free solution decolorizes very slowly; after five minutes the 
color is Madeira brown, and after another five minutes or more the 
liquid becomes almost colorless and deposits a precipitate of ferric 
hydroxide. 

The solution containing the cupric chloride decolorizes almost 
instantly, and becomes turbid in a very brief space of time. 

When the decinormal sodium hydroxide was replaced by hydro- 
chloric acid a clear acid solution was obtained. 

In this liquid the free acid may be approximately determined * 
by titration, using methylorange as an indicator. The estimation 
is not exact, as the deposition of ferro-ferric hydroxide begins early 
in the operation, covering the change of color and deflecting a por- 
tion of the base from the titration. This fault may be largely over- 
come by adding a starch solution as protecting colloid. Other col- 
loids may give better results or may react in such a manner as not 
to be serviceable for this purpose. 

I have obtained good results with Kahlbaum's soluble starch and 
with soluble starch prepared after the method of Fernbach and 
Wolf. 1 

The following reagents are recommended for the estimation : 

Normal sodium thiosulphate solution containing 24.8 grammes 
sodium thiosulphate in 100 Cc. 

Cupric chloride starch. Mix one gramme cupric chloride with 
49 grammes of soluble starch previously dried at ioo° C. 

The titration is effected as follows : 

To the cooled solution of 0.5 gramme cupric chloride starch 
in 50 Cc. of water, contained in an Erlenmeyer flask of 100 Cc. 
capacity, add 2 Cc. of the ferric chloride solution to be tested. Nor- 
mal thiosulphate solution is now added, 5.5 Cc. for U. S. P. ferric 
chloride solution and 9 Cc. for that of the P. N. IV. 

The decolorized liquid is colored fairly strong with methyl- 
orange solution. If the reaction of the mixture is acid, it is titrated 
drop by drop with decinormal sodium thiosulphate. 



1 Zeitschrift f. analytische Chemie, 1914, p. 708. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



The Estimation of Free Acid. 



247 



If the liquid is alkaline, it is rejected and the operation repeated 
after adding 1 Cc., or as much as may be required, of decinormal 
hydrochloric acid before adding the other reagents. 

As the free thiosulphuric acid decomposes with notable rapidity, 
even in the cold solution, the titration should be effected rapidly. 
The change of color can best be observed by looking from above 
through the liquid onto a white foundation. Side light must be shut 
out. 

The following results will illustrate the value of the method: 



With soluble starch 



Without starch 



No. 



Ferric chloride solution 
employed 



Decinormal Aspect of the Decinormal Aspect of the 
solution mixture ten solution mixture ten 
required minutes after required minutes after 



Prepared from sublimed 
ferric chloride 

f Solution 47.5 Cc.l 

1 Normal NaOH. . 2.5 Cc. I 

Solution 2.00 Cc. I 

Water 20.00 Cc. 1 

Decinormal 

NaOH 2.50 Cc. 

Complete after 30 min- 
utes' standing J 



99 Cc. Xo. 5 with 1 Cc. 
\ hydrochloric acid of > 
( 1. 1 9 specific gravity j 
[48 Cc. No. 5 with 2 Cc. \ 
\ normal NaOH 



2.55 Cc. Unchanged 2.55 Cc. Very turbid 
1.37 Cc. Unchanged 1.70 Cc. Very turbid 



0.02 Cc. Unchanged 0.12 Cc. Slightly tur- 
bid 



0.53 Cc. Unchanged 0.70 Cc. Very turbid 
0.08 Cc. Unchanged 0.12 Cc. Almost un- 
changed 

2.45 Cc. Unchanged 2.55 Cc. Very turbid 



0.68 Cc. 



Alkaline 
reaction 



0.25 Cc. ; Very turbid 



Decinormal sodium hydroxide was employed in the first six double 
assays ; in the last double assays the mixtures, being alkaline, were 
titrated with decinormal hydrochloric acid. 

All the solutions were according to the P. X. IV., sp. gr. 1.470- 
1.482. 

Solution one, prepared from sublimed ferric chloride, yields a clear 
liquid with the test of the P. N. IV. Examined by the tests of the 
other three pharmacopoeias, free sulphur is separated. These two 
tests are thus in accordance with the results in the table and show 
that the solution contains free acid. 

This may result from the hydrolysis of the ferric chloride and the 



248 The Rapid Determination of Heroin. { ^ i^s*™ 1 " 

difference in ionization between the thus formed hydrochloric acid 
and ferric hydroxide, or from an impurity in the sublimed salt. 

A minute examination of the product, for which, however, the 
time was lacking, might have determined the question. 

The sodium hydroxide solution added to number two was equiva- 
lent to 1 Cc. decinormal in the 2 Cc. employed. Neither with nor 
without starch solution is this quantity exactly found. In number 
three the added quantity of decinormal sodium hydroxide is very 
accurately found in both cases. 

A much greater difference resulted between the two tests num- 
bered seven. In the first, where starch solution was employed, 0.68 -f- 
0.08 Cc. decinormal acid was found, a very slight difference from the 
added portion, which was 0.80 Cc. The titration without starch 
shows a considerable deficit, 0.25 -|- 0.12 = 0.37 Cc. only being found. 

After all, I cannot assert how nearly the result of the titration 
corresponds with the true composition of the solution. Yet the 
results obtained in this simple operation may be prescribed within 
narrow limits. Repeated titrations give but slightly different results. 

From the examination of several specimens I concluded that these 
limits may be formulated as follows : 2 Cc. of the solution should 
require no more than 1.2 Cc. decinormal sodium hydroxide when 
examined in the above-mentioned manner. If the mixture be alkaline 
toward methylorange, the addition of 1 Cc. decinormal hydrochloric 
acid to the ferric chloride solution should produce a mixture of acid 
reaction. 



THE RAPID DETERMINATION OF SMALL QUANTITIES 

OF HEROIN. 

By Reginald Miller. 

This laboratory frequently receives samples of drugs for analysis 
among which are heroin and cocaine. 

In many cases the total quantity of heroin does not .exceed 
Y A grain mixed with varying amounts of milk sugar and sometimes 
cocaine. To determine this quantity of heroin by the extraction 
method is extremely difficult, particularly if cocaine is present as 
well as heroin. A rapid method by which small quantities of heroin 
could be determined with reasonable accuracy was sought to facilitate 
these examinations. 



A %ane'i9i5 arm '} The Rapid Determination of Heroin. 249 

The following method was used and found, in the absence of 
morphine or any other interfering substance, to be sufficiently ac- 
curate and to possess the additional advantage of being rapid. 

After the presence of heroin and absence of morphine or other 
interfering substances are ascertained, a weighed amount of the 
powder is taken sufficient to contain from 1/50 to 1/20 grain of 
heroin. This can be roughly determined by the qualitative reactions. 
It is placed in a Nessler tube, and 1 Cc. of a one per cent, solution 
of sulphuric acid is added, and then 3 Cc. of a solution consisting 
of 600 Cc. of commercial sulphuric acid, 300 Cc. of water, and 
25 Cc. of a 40 per cent, formaldehyde solution. This reagent will 
produce a coloration, varying from a yellowish straw for 1/150 
grain to a deep cherry red for 1/5 grain of heroin, depending upon 
the length of time the reaction is allowed to proceed and the amount 
of heroin present. 

A series of standard tubes are prepared, containing 1/50, 1/40, 
1/30, 1/20, and 1/15 grain of heroin respectively (or any other 
suitable quantity from 1/150 grain to 1/5 grain), and each of which 
is treated with the reagent in the same manner and at the same time 
as the sample. The reaction is allowed to proceed for 10 or 15 
minutes in all the tubes, when the coloration in the tube containing 
the sample is compared with the colorations in the standard tubes. 
The standard tube which has the same intensity of color as the 
sample contains the same amount of heroin, and from this figure 
we compute the total amount of heroin in the powder under exami- 
nation. 

If, however, a mixture of cocaine and heroin is submitted, we 
determine the heroin and cocaine as follows : 

The substance is extracted in the regular manner by the im- 
miscible solvents, and the residue of heroin and cocaine is weighed, 
and dissolved in a known amount of 1 per cent, sulphuric acid, 
so that 1 Cc. of the solution will contain between 1/100 and 1/20 
of a grain of heroin. One Cc. of this solution is put into a Nessler 
tube and treated with 3 Cc. of formaldehyde sulphuric acid solution. 
The color produced is compared and measured as described. The 
standard tube containing the same intensity of color is used as the 
basis for computing the amount of heroin in the weighed residue, 
and the difference between the heroin and weight of residue ob- 
tained by the immiscible solvent represents the cocaine. 

The following table illustrates the sensitiveness and the limita- 



250 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
June, 1915. 



tion of the method. A period of 15 minutes after the addition of 
the reagent (formaldehyde sulphuric acid) was allowed in each of 
the following cases before a note of color produced was made: 

1/200 grain of heroin: slight coloration produced. 

1/100 grain of heroin: light reddish-yellow color produced. 

1/50 grain of heroin: red-yellow color produced. 

1/45 grain of heroin: deeper than 1/50 of a grain. 

1/40 grain of heroin: deeper than 1/45 of a grain. 

1/30 grain of heroin: much deeper than 1/40 of a grain. 

1/20 grain of heroin: very much deeper than 1/30 of a grain. 

1/10 grain of heroin: cherry-red color produced. 

1/5 grain of heroin: deep cherry-red color produced. 

I have found that a difference of 1/450 of a grain of heroin will 
produce an appreciable change in color when 1/50 of a grain is 
used, and that a difference of 1/100 of a grain of heroin will 
produce a very perceptible change in color when 1/20 of a grain of 
heroin is used. 

I prepare these standards by making up several solutions of 
heroin in one per cent, sulphuric acid solution, and then pipetting 
by means of a pipette graduated in 1/100 Cc. 

One solution is prepared containing 1/5 grain of heroin per Cc. 
Another solution is prepared containing 1/10 grain of heroin per 
Cc. A third is prepared containing 1/20 grain of heroin per Cc. 
A fourth solution is prepared containing 1/40 grain of heroin per Cc. 

Chemical Laboratory. Department of Health, 
New York City. 



RELATION BETWEEN DRUGGIST AND VETERINARIAN. 1 

By T. B. Rogers, D.V.S., Woodbury, N. J., 
Veterinarian, Scientific Department, H. K. Mulford Company. 

There are few things more impressive to one who, like myself, 
has passed the meridian of life than to stand before a class of young 
men in a great institution of learning and contrast their virile, though 
fleeting, youth with their venerable Alma Mater. For, while the 
students and alumni of your institution, from the irrepressible fresh- 

1 Special lecture delivered at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
March, 1915. 



Am "jinT"i9?5 arm '} Druggist and Veterinarian. 251 

man to that lean and slippered pantaloon, the oldest alumnus, are 
of to-day, and to-morrow are not, a great school is as nearly as any 
mundane thing can be immortal. 

It has a corporate existence and a perpetual succession. The 
fires on your altars are never quenched : each one tends them for 
a while, and then becomes a memory to his successor. 

I am glad to address you, because pharmacy was my first love, 
and even to-day I occasionally find myself longing for your profes- 
sion. I can sympathize with your joys and your sorrows. I have 
arisen at 2 a.m. with a smile on my lip and murder in my heart, to 
show a belated rounder the directory. I have lolled on your flowery 
beds of ease; " I also have dwelt in Arcadia."' 

My good friend, Mr. England, got a little mixed when he an- 
nounced that my address would be on " Dispensing for the Veterina- 
rian." That would indeed be carrying coals to Newcastle. My 
object is rather to foregather with you and suggest methods that will 
tend toward closer and more profitable relations between the phar- 
macist and the practitioner of veterinary medicine. 

Some of you have heard of that now somewhat venerable 
" Kitchen Pharmacopoeia," Airs. Glass's Cook Book. The recipe for 
making hare soup commences : " First catch your hare " — sound ad- 
vice beyond question. 

Let us then see how best to attract the veterinarian to your es- 
tablishment : What is the best bait, the best way to display it ? 

Perhaps it will be well to attack the negative side first and point 
out to you some manners and methods that, in my opinion, will not be 
likely to catch the veterinary fish, or, for that matter, the medical 
fish or any other fish whatever. 

Here are a few advertisements not calculated to give me confi- 
dence in either your knowledge, sense, or good faith. 

No. 1 is from a Boston drug store : " Lunches put up to take out. 
Baked beans, bread and butter, doughnut and coffee, 15 cents." 

No. 2 : " Saturday is apple day at our fountain ; an apple given 
with every glass of soda." 

No. 3 : " Our 59-cent offer : One-half dozen cakes ivory soap, 
one-quarter pound Bunko Brand coffee, one-half dozen carriage 
candles, 2 pounds washing soda, one bottle Tonko Brand vanilla." 

Here is a quotation from one of your journals ; the article goes to 
show how to build up a run-down store, and I pass it on to you with 



252 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



the remark that if you think the suggested method will tend to endear 
you to my profession, you have another think coming to you. 

"Is your dog sick? 
Try Dr. Soso's 
Mange Cure 
Distemper Cure 
Bowel Regulator 
Worm Eradicator." 

" When Brown sold her a bottle for the dog's eczema he advised 
her to use Dr. Soso's sulphur tablets with it. Buying for the dog, 
she bought for herself (Query — ' Trying it on the dog and one of 
her friends told him that the bowel regulator had saved her from tak- 
ing the dog to the veterinary, and that he (certainly not the veteri- 
nary) could never know how grateful she Avas to him." 

Now in my State of New Jersey we have, among other courts, a 
Court of Equity, where wrongs for which no remedy is provided by 
law may be adjusted, and the first requirement of this court is that 
a suitor must appear before it with clean hands ; asking equity, he 
must do equity. 

Now the ethics of Brown are, to put it mildly, what Carlyle calls 
the ethics of kites and crows. Imprimis: Brown demeaned his 
profession (for, believe me, pharmacy is a profession, or it has no 
reason for existence) by recommending a remedy of which he knew 
nothing (a secret remedy) for a disease of which he knew less. 

Sarcoptic mange and distemper are rarely cured, so in order to 
turn a dollar into the till he has disgraced himself by alliance with a 
quack, has exposed a pet of more or less pecuniary and sentimental 
value to 1 all the risks attendant upon ignorant prescribing, and side- 
tracked the veterinarian, whose business would have been a desirable 
asset. 

If this is business, help yourselves, but don't blame the veterina- 
rian if he comes back saying " If you take my prescription to Brown's 
store, get another doctor." 

The veterinarian will not be attracted by a store where there is 
no ocular evidence of the drug business. Recently I entered a 
drug store on a prominent thoroughfare. One side was given up 
entirely to cigars and soda water, the other side and end to a mixed 
display. The proprietor said that the drug department was con- 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 253 

centrated in the kk laboratory " in order to insure the necessary 
quietude. 

A little study of the geography of the premises demonstrated 
that the laboratory could hardly be big enough to swing a cat. He 
further assured me that he made, tested, and standardized all of his 
own preparations, and J thought, well ! never mind what I thought. 

The veterinarian is not attracted when the proprietor of such an 
emporium as the one I have just described assures him that the 
retail drug business is absolutely dead. 

Nobody cares to mix up with a corpse, and I would suggest if 
the business is really dead then an indecent interval of time has been 
allowed to intervene between the demise of the dear deceased and 
the call for the undertaker. If the business is dead, bury it, and let 
us make a fresh start. 

However, the retail drug business is not dead, but rather, perhaps, 
in a somewhat valetudinarian condition, largely due to too much 
concentration of attention upon its own woes. 

A somewhat lengthy experience has taught me that if we look 
well to our duties our rights will take care of themselves, and I am 
of the opinion that if you young gentlemen face modern conditions 
cheerfully, determined to conduct the retail drug business as it ought 
to be conducted, the rewards will be proportionate to the endeavor. 
If you want our business, meet us with a smile, put out your best 
goods to the front, and by this I mean your pharmaceuticals. Here 
a few words. 

The veterinarian needs the best ; if you want to hold him you can't 
substitute kk Just as good " for the best ; we demand standardized and 
physiologically tested extracts and tinctures ; we are willing to pay 
for quality, but you must deliver the goods. You can't put a display 
of the best in the window and dispense the worst in the back room. 

We like to meet the proprietor, and take it kindly if we find that 
he is sufficiently interested in our branch of medicine to acquire a 
little information on the subject. We appreciate pharmaceutical in- 
formation; some of us are willing to learn improved methods of 
prescription writing or dispensing, things the up-to-date druggist, 
seeing many prescriptions from many writers, is usually qualified 
to teach. On the other hand, the veterinarian can help the druggist 
in the matter of veterinary dosage, the most suitable way of adminis- 
tering drugs to different species of animals, and can instruct him 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



254 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
June, 1915. 



usefully in the matter of idiosyncrasies of the different species of 
animals. 

Another point worth remembering when dispensing veterinary 
prescriptions is that a commercial element exists in the relation of 
the veterinarian to his patient. Save in comparatively rare instances, 
a veterinarian's client won't spend more on a patient than he is 
worth. " 

The veterinarian's prescriptions usually call for large amounts of 
often expensive drugs, and if the druggist wants to hold this busi- 
ness a little concession may sometimes be necessary. 

Some years ago I wrote a prescription for one ounce of quinine, 
divided into eight powders. The dispenser charged the unfortunate 
race-horse owner ten dollars, and when I called his attention to the 
infernal overcharge I was told that his price for quinine in prescrip- 
tions was two cents a grain, and that in his opinion the dispensing 
charge of forty cents was most reasonable. 

Don't renew the veterinarian's prescriptions without orders. If 
he prescribes a combination of drugs for the colic of Brown's horse, 
it does not follow that it is just the thing for Smith's horse ; it may 
kill the horse, lose the veterinarian's custom and influence, and also 
the good-will of the horse owner. 

Now it is not uncommon to hear druggists declare that the veter- 
inarian is poor pay, and, for that reason, not a dependable customer. 
This is arrant nonsense. There are careless, dishonest, unscrupulous 
medical men, veterinarians, and druggists, but the bulk of each of 
these professions pay their bills ; if this were not so, the manufac- 
turing pharmacists and biologists would have to get out of business. 
It is the man, not the profession, that we must look to. That doctors 
and veterinarians are occasionally slow pay is true, but I also know 
that a good many druggists are on the C. O. D. lists. Believe me, 
you will rarely make a mistake in extending to a young, hard-work- 
ing veterinarian of good habits all reasonable credit. 

If I were to sit down and write all my clients who failed to remit 
in thirty days that I had drawn on them at sight for the amount, I 
should soon have no clients to draw on. 

Another way to attract veterinary business is to carry a stock of 
veterinary biologicals. We use more biologicals than do physicians, 
and we often want them quickly. Almost all of us prefer to buy at 
home, if we are allowed to do so, and a wholesale profit on doctors' 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 



255 



and veterinarians' supplies comes in nicely when you consider that 
it can be gathered without any increase of overhead expenses. 

Let us now look at the practical side : Dispensing for the veterina- 
rian. 

Boluses for the veterinarian should be made oblong, not round; 
should weigh not more than two ounces ; should have a stiff, pilular 
consistence, and be dispensed in gelatine capsules, or, in my opinion, 
preferably in oiled tissue paper. 

The samples I pass around among you illustrate the requirements 
I have mentioned. Pill masses for the dog or cat may be placed in 
capsules, coated (tolu makes a good coating), or, if the mass is not 
nauseous, may be rolled in an inert powder and dispensed plain. See 
to it that they are of such consistence as will insure their rolling easily 
off the back of the tongue ; remember that a man tries to swallow a 
pill, a dog tries to eject it. 

It may be well for you to know that if when giving a pill to a dog 
you grasp the muzzle in the left hand, and with the right hand give 
him a smart tap under the lower jaw, an automatic effort at degluti- 
tion ensues, usually resulting in the pill going down all right. 

In dispensing bulk powders for veterinary use, paper boxes or 
cartons are to be preferred to tin, for the reason that they are not as 
apt to lose their labels, and it is an excellent practice to put the 
prescription number on the container as well as on the label. If the 
powders are divided they will keep in better condition if wrapped in 
paraffin paper, as a preventive of efflorescence or deliquescence. 

Liquids should be dispensed in regular prescription ware, 
not in any old bottle. The drugs won't be any better ; the impression 
made on the prescriber and owner will, however, be more favorable. 

A neat japanned tin box is good enough for ointments for stable 
use. 

When dispensing for Fido or pussy, you cannot take too much 
pains. Ladies who feed their pets French chops and angel cake think 
nothing is too good for them, and the dog and cat business is well 
worth cultivating. 

You may from time to time have to answer the question : What 
is the easiest way of giving medicine to an animal? 

It differs with the species. 

Solids are best given to horses in bolus or made into an electuary 
with molasses. 

Liquids should be given with a dose syringe, as there is some 



256 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



danger in getting them down the trachea if the horse is drenched ; 
and if this happens, traumatic pneumonia is the usual result. If a 
horse retains liquid in the mouth, a few drachms of lukewarm water 
poured into the nostril will always cause him to swallow, but medicine 
should never be thus given. Cattle may be drenched ; it is as easy 
as pouring water down a rat hole. A nice way to give liquids to a 
dog is to close the jaws with a piece of tape or string and then, 
making a pocket of the commissure of the lips, pour in the dose and 
elevate the head. Pills may be given by opening the mouth by press- 
ure where the under and upper jaw come together, dropping the pill 
on the base of the tongue, then allow the mouth to close, and give 
the dog a smart tap with the flat of the hand under the jaw. Cats 
will lick many preparations off their fur ; in default they may be 
handled like dogs. If they are inclined to scratch, roll them up in 
a towel or apron. 

The dose for animals compared with the dose for man. 



Horse 30 times. 

Cow 20 to 30 times. 

Sheep . 4 times. 

Foal '.About 4 times. 

Pig ..... 5 times. 

Dog . About same as man. 

Cat One-half. 



This table, however, is not altogether trustworthy. 

The lower animals are more susceptible to the action of spinal 
stimulants than man. They don't stand nux vomica or strychnia as 
well as we do. I have seen ^io of a grain of strychnia given to a 
nursing bitch produce light convulsions in her puppies, and especially 
should we be careful of strychnia if there is suppression or reten- 
tion of urine. 

Morphia often acts like apomorphia in the dog, although its 
secondary action is narcotic, and it often acts as an excitant to the 
cat ; on the other hand, the horse takes opiates well. I have given a 
light horse a drachm of morphia in twelve hours without any un- 
favorable result. 

Cocaine used as a local anaesthetic in canine surgery is often 
unduly exciting, and may well be replaced with quinine and urea 
hydrochloride. Most of the lower animals stand chloral well, the 
exception being old pet dogs with fatty heart. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



Druggist and Veterinarian. 



257 



For general anaesthesia, use ether for cat and dog, chloroform 
for the horse. It is almost impossible to etherize a horse. 

The best purgative for the horse is aloes, but it must be of Bar- 
badoes type; i.e., must give a rose-red reaction with tincture of 
iodine in dilute aqueous solution. 

Don't ask for an explanation. Cape or Socotra aloes does not 
give as good results, and aloin is not to be relied upon as a substi- 
tute for aloes. Don't give croton oil or gamboge to a horse unless 
the drugs are prescribed by a veterinarian. For cattle the salines, 
Epsom or Glauber salts, are the best purgatives. 

Dogs get castor oil and buckthorn or cascara, and the same reme- 
dies may be given to cats. 

A good, rough way to estimate the dose of aloes for the horse is 
to allow a thousand pounds of weight per ounce of drug, and add or 
subtract a drachm for every hundredweight over or under that 
standard. 

It may be useful to know that light diet, bran mashes, etc., help 
the action of equine purgatives. 

For superpurgation pulv. creta aromat. in two- to three-ounce 
doses, in whiskey and water, will be found useful. 

Now I am going to touch on a somewhat mooted subject: Pre- 
scribing by the druggist. 

As an old druggist, I know that if you do your whole duty to your 
community you must sometimes prescribe, and I am frank to say that 
in many cases you do so with just as much care as the doctor. 

If I stop in my physician's office and tell him that I have caught 
a little cold, and he hands me a bottle of cough syrup, ready put up 
for him by a wholesaler, and tells me to take a teaspoonful three or 
four times daily, he is not prescribing for me more intelligently 
than would the druggist if he handed me a fifty-cent bottle of Jones's 
Pulmonic Balsam with directions printed on the label. 

If a lady customer rushes in and tells you her dog has con- 
vulsions, and you prescribe full doses of bromides and order the dog 
wet-packed, you may help the owner, the dog, and the veterinarian. 

If a customer asks for turpentine to treat a nail wound in a 
horse's foot you are justified in suggesting the use of an immuniz- 
ing dose of tetanus antitoxin, and you can increase your business 
and get the good-will of your veterinary customers by posting your- 
self on {he use of veterinary biologicals and passing on the knowl- 
edge as occasion serves. If called on to prescribe for a case of colic, 



258 Druggist and Veterinarian. { Am 'j'i™ r iSf™" 

in the absence of a veterinarian, play safe. Don't give opiates. 
Cannabis with spt. seth. comp. and camphor will usually serve your 
turn and will not interfere with the veterinarian's treatment after 
he reaches the case. 

Don't put euphorbium or sulphuric acid in a blister unless on 
prescription ; you may permanently blemish a good horse. 

In closing let me outline my ideas regarding the relations be- 
tween the medical, veterinary, and pharmaceutic branches of the 
science and art of medicine. 

If every physician and veterinarian were compelled to take a 
course in pharmacy as a requirement for matriculation it would be 
better for all concerned, and I would rather have the pharmacy de- 
gree than the degree of A.B. as an introduction to the study of 
medicine. 

It is to me a matter of deep regret that the druggist feels that he 
is being sidetracked by the physician and veterinarian, but, speaking 
for myself, I assure you that I prefer to prescribe whenever possible, 
if for no other than financial reasons. Most of the drugs I furnish 
must be charged to profit and loss, as I rarely get direct pay for 
them, and no doubt most of my veterinary confreres are in like fix. 
However, it is rarely possible to prescribe in country practice, and, 
while I realize that my patients might fare a little better if I could 
sit down and prescribe such remedies as seem best suited to the 
case in hand, circumstances forbid. 

There is, however, no reason why a local druggist cannot supply 
most of the drugs used by physicians or veterinarians if he is satis- 
fied with the differential discount, and if he is not content with his 
share, he is not entitled to kick. If I come into your store offering 
cash or good credit, and you decline to meet my reasonable price re- 
quirements, you should not take it ill if I take care of myself. Neither 
my diploma nor your diploma conveys any profit privileges. 

We must meet the conditions of our day successfully or be side- 
tracked. If I cannot render my services at a reasonable rate and in a 
satisfactory manner, some one else will do so, and if you think 
that the profit you can get through dealing with me is insufficient, 
let it go. 

Neither of us is entitled to howl under the conditions outlined, 
and if either of us takes for our motto the quotation from Carlyle: 
" What is my share of the Universal Swine Trough? Whatever I 
can get without being transported or sent to the hulks." " Y\ hat 



Am. Jour. Ph.irm. 
June, 1915. 



An Historic Drug Store. 



259 



is porcine bliss? Attainability of hog wash"; if we pollute our 
several professions for the sake of gain, we are in court with unclean 
hands; not doing equity, we cannot ask it. If we want to play the 
charlatan we must take his wage. 

A druggist pleading against cut rates on Jones's Sure Cure for 
Consumption, or a veterinarian pleading for state protection when 
he is making fake tuberculin tests, is not a subject for sympathy, 
but rather for contempt. However, I am assured that most of us 
want to help the world along ; that we desire to leave our profession 
better for our precept, life, and example. 

I am an old-fashioned man, and sometimes I find myself think- 
ing that some of the business efficiency I see advocated in your 
journals could be very well replaced by a greater devotion to your 
profession, and I take this view because my own life has demon- 
strated to me that most of us in the long run get our deserts. 

" Let not your hearts be troubled." The Nurnberg druggists were 
asking for protection in the fifteenth century, the English in the 
seventeenth, and the Americans have carried on the cry to -the 
twentieth. 

Charles the Second of England apologized to the courtiers round 
his bed for being so long a-dying, and surely poor old pharmacy 
should make a similar apology to you, who are, so far as I can see, 
very much alive. 

Place Charles Kingsley's motto over your desk and try to live 
up to it. Here it is : 

If I were a cobbler, it should be my aim 

The best of all cobblers to be ; 
If I were a tinker, no man in the land 

Should mend a tin kettle like me. 

Gentlemen, I wish you a safe delivery from your finals, and a 
happy issue out of all your youthful tribulations. 
March 29, 1915. 

AN HISTORIC DRUG STORE. 

By J. W. England. 

On behalf of Edmund A. Crenshaw (who received it from the 
grandchildren of the late Daniel B. Smith), I wish to present to the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy a photograph of a drug store 
which, in its day, was one of the most noted of the country. Founded 



260 An Historic Drug Store. {^'j^iqisT' 

by Daniel B. Smith, it was conducted, later, by Smith & Hodgson, 
and, still later, by Bullock & Crenshaw. 

Daniel B. Smith was born in Philadelphia in 1792, and in 1819 
opened a drug store on his individual account at the northeast corner 
of Sixth and Arch Streets. In 1828, William Hodgson, Jr., became 
associated with him in the business, under the firm name of Smith & 
Hodgson. 

Daniel B. Smith was not only famous as a pharmacist but also 
as a leading citizen of Philadelphia. He was the first secretary of 
the College of Apothecaries of 1821, which became, in 1822, the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. He was the first chairman of 
the Committee on Publication of the American Journal of Phar- 
macy, and served the College most efficiently for many years in 
various official capacities. He was president of the College for 
twenty-five years (1829-54). 

William Hodgson, Jr., of the firm of Smith & Hodgson, was 
a most accomplished druggist. He received his pharmaceutical edu- 
cation in the store of John Bell & Co., of London, one of the most 
celebrated establishments of that metropolis. He was an excellent 
chemist and a skilled manipulator. 

The store of Smith & Hodgson at this period was the only place 
in Philadelphia where chemicals and chemical apparatus especially 
adapted for schools and laboratories could be obtained,, the articles 
being mostly imported direct from Europe, some few of the chemicals 
being made in their own laboratory. 

In 1844 Charles Bullock became an apprentice of Smith & Hodg- 
son, and in 1847 graduated from the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. He served the College for many years as trustee, secretary, 
vice-president, and president. Later, Edmund A. Crenshaw, who 
was also a graduate of the College, was engaged with the same firm, 
and in 1849 these two succeeded to the business of Smith & Hodgson. 

The attention given to chemistry in its application to the arts in- 
creased so rapidly with the development of the mining and manu- 
'facturing industries*of the country that the new firm found that this 
branch of the business required special attention. Charles Bullock 
visited Europe in 185 1, obtained much valuable information, and 
formed important foreign business connections in England and on 
the Continent, and the firm soon became famous for its large and 
valuable stock of imported chemicals and chemical apparatus. In 



Am 'i r i9w arm ' } Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid. 261 

1868, the firm, finding that more room was necessary, moved to 528 
Arch Street, where the business was conducted until its dissolution 
after the demise of the partners. Mr. Crenshaw died in 1894 and 
Mr. Bullock in 1900. 

It is interesting to add that Thomas H. Powers was a one-time 
apprentice of Smith & Hodgson, leaving them to become associated 
with William Weightman in the firm of Powers & Weightman, the 
world-famous firm of manufacturing chemists, at Ninth and Parrish 
Streets, Philadelphia. 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF SMALL QUANTITIES OF 
HYDROCYANIC ACID. 1 

By Arno Viehoever and Carl O. Johns. 

In our work on cyanogenetic plants we found it necessary to esti- 
mate small quantities of hydrocyanic acid. The various titration 
methods as well as the silver gravimetric methods had to be excluded 
because we were working with plant distillates which usually contain 
reducing compounds. Furthermore, the quantities to be determined 
were often too small to permit the use of the above methods. We 
frequently had to deal with less than 0.5 mg. of hydrocyanic acid. 
Chapman 2 has shown that the picric acid colorimetric method of 
Waller 3 is not applicable to plant distillates which usually contain 
reducing substances other than hydrocyanic acid. This left two 
colorimetric methods to be examined, namely, the thiocyanate method 
and the Prussian blue method. 

In the thiocyanate method of Francis and Connell 4 the hydro- 
cyanic acid is distilled into a solution of potassium hydroxide, yellow 
ammonium sulphide is added, and the solution is evaporated to 
dryness. The residue is dissolved in water, acidified with hydro- 
chloric acid, and the mixture is filtered to remove sulphur, after 
which the filtrate is further acidified and boiled to cause precipitation 
of the free sulphur. The process of boiling and filtering is repeated 

1 Reprinted from the Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 
xxxvii, No. 3, March, 1915. 

2 The Analyst, 35, 471 (1910) ; 36, 269 (1911). 

3 Proc. Royal Soc. (B), 82, 574, 1910; The Analyst, 35, 406 (1910). 
4 Journal of the American Chemical Society, 35, 1624 (1913). 



262 Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid. { Am jiJ" iST" 11 ' 

until all of the sulphur has been removed from the nitrate. Ferric 
chloride is then added to the filtrate and the color of ferric thiocyanate 
is obtained. After an examination of this method we found that 
it was not accurate enough for our work. Our two chief objections 
to this method are as follows : 

In boiling an acid solution of a thiocyanate, some free thiocyanic 
acid is lost because it is volatile, the boiling-point of the acid being 
85 °. This loss was shown by taking two equal quantities of potas- 
sium thiocyanate, diluting both portions with water, acidifying 
with hydrochloric acid, and boiling one of them for ten minutes in 
an Erlenmeyer flask. The boiled solution was then cooled. Both 
the boiled and unboiled portions were tested by adding equal quanti- 
ties of ferric chloride. The portion that had been boiled gave less 
color than the one not boiled. This test was repeated and we found 
that in every case boiling resulted in a loss of thiocyanic acid. 

The second important objection to the thiocyanate method is 
based on the nature of the reaction between a thiocyanate and ferric 
chloride, FeCl 3 + 3KCNS <=± Fe(CNS) 3 + 3KCI. The equi- 
librium of this reaction is so easily disturbed by the addition of ferric 
chloride, intensifying the color, or the addition of other salts, dimin- 
ishing this color, that it is difficult to adjust conditions so as to obtain 
constant results. Changes of temperature also have a marked 
influence on the density of the color. 

In recent years several papers have been published on the forma- 
tion of Prussian blue from cyanides and the colorimetric estimation 
of the cyanide by comparison with a standard suspension of Prussian 
blue. The most careful attempts to arrive at a quantitative method 
seem to have been made by Berl and Delpy and by Lander and 
Walden. 

Berl and Delpy 5 make the solution to be tested alkaline with 
potassium hydroxide, add a solution of ferrous sulphate, allow the 
mixture to stand at room temperature for at least ten minutes, shak- 
ing frequently, and finally boil for two to fifteen minutes. The 
resulting mixture is cooled and then acidified with hydrochloric acid. 
In the case of very dilute solutions of hydrocyanic acid, Berl and 
Delpy shake out the acidified solution with ether eight to ten times, 



°Ber., 43, 1430 (1910). 



Arn 'ji°n7'i9i h 5 arm '} Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid. 263 

and shake out the ether with a small quantity of potassium hydroxide 
solution, thus obtaining the hydrocyanic acid in a more concentrated 
form. 

The method of Berl and Delpy has been improved by Lander 
and .Walden. 6 These workers concentrate dilute alkaline solutions of 
hydrocyanic acid by boiling^ the final concentrating being carried 
out in a test-tube almost to dryness. The small quantity of liquid 
left is then cooled and ferrous sulphate solution added. The mixture 
is allowed to stand ten minutes, with frequent shaking, then acidified 
with hydrochloric acid and warmed gently. 

Vorlander 7 investigated the formation of Prussian blue from 
cyanides. He adds a solution of ferrous sulphate to the alkaline 
solution of the cyanide and boils for one to two minutes. He then 
filters and acidifies the filtrate with hydrochloric acid, after which 
he adds a cold, freshly-prepared, saturated solution of ferrous 
sulphate. He allows the mixture to stand until the maximum color 
is obtained. 

Knight 8 adds to the alkaline distillate containing hydrocyanic 
acid, solid ferrous sulphate, then a solution of ferric chloride, and 
boils for one minute. Hydrochloric acid in excess is then added to 
the hot solution. The precipitate of Prussian blue is filtered, washed 
with alcohol, and dissolved in a sufficient quantity of sodium hydrox- 
ide solution. This solution is acidified with acetic and hydrochloric 
acids, ferric chloride is then added, and any brown color is removed 
by adding more hydrochloric acid. The mixture is concentrated to 
about one-half the original volume and the precipitate of Prussian 
blue, after filtration, is determined by weighing. 

In a method involving the quantitative estimation of a substance 
by means of colorimetry, it is obvious that a given quantity of the 
substance should always produce a given density of color in a given 
volume of solution. It is also necessary that the shade of color 
should always be the same. For instance, a blue solution cannot 
be compared accurately with a blue-green solution. Our aim in this 
work has been to obtain a constant shade as well as density of color. 
We have studied the following conditions which influence the for- 
mation of Prussian blue and the shade of the suspension. 



6 The Analyst, 36, 266 (1911). 

'Ber., 46, 181 (1913). 

8 7. hid. Eng. Chem., 6, 909 (1914). 



264 Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid, j 



Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
June, 1915. 



Influence of Concentration on the Formation of Prussian 

Blue. 

Bed and Delpy found that they obtained less Prussian blue 
from given quantities of hydrocyanic acid in a dilute than in a con- 
centrated solution. These authors, therefore, concentrated dilute 
solutions of hydrocyanic acid by shaking out with ether as previously 
mentioned. They state that in this manner nearly all of the hydro- 
cyanic acid can be obtained. In our attempts to concentrate the 
hydrocyanic acid by means of ether, we found that we could not 
obtain nearly quantitative results. These low results are due partly 
to the loss of hydrocyanic acid which will occur by evaporation of 
the ether. This evaporation cannot be prevented at room tempera- 
ture, since the acid solution has to be shaken out eight to ten times 
with ether. Moreover, the volume of alkali needed to extract the 
hydrocyanic acid from the ether will be so great that the maximum 
quantity of Prussian blue can scarcely be expected, as shown below. 

Lander and Walden, finding also less precipitate of Prussian 
blue in dilute than in concentrated solutions of hydrocyanic acid, 
boiled the alkaline solution down almost to dryness. They state that 
this could be done without the loss of hydrocyanic acid. 

The influence of concentration is indeed a very important factor. 
We made a series of experiments, using 1 mg. of potassium cyanide in 
each case and concentrations ranging from less than 1 Cc. to 10 Cc. 
In a dilution of 10 Cc. less than one-half as much Prussian blue was 
obtained as when the volume was only 1 Cc. We found that the 
maximum color was obtained only when the volume of solution to 
be tested was not greater than 1.5 Cc, while in greater volumes the 
density of the color decreased with the increasing volume. Where 
the quantity of potassium cyanide was more than 1 mg. the volume of 
the solution to be tested could be somewhat increased without loss. 

Hence, working with the methods of Berl and Delpy or Knight, 
where larger volumes than those mentioned above are used, the maxi- 
mum quantity of Prussian blue would not be obtained. 

To test the method of concentrating used by Lander and Walden, 
we evaporated 25 Cc. of an alkaline solution of a cyanide to 1 Cc. 
in a distilling flask and lost almost one-third of the cyanide. When 
the final evaporation was performed in a test-tube the loss was less, 
but still considerable. Hence it appears that the method of Lander 
and Walden also cannot give the maximum quantity of Prussian blue, 



Am jJne r 'i9i5 arm " } Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid. 265 

since these authors evaporate over a free flame. It may be men- 
tioned in this connection that evaporation in an open dish on a steam 
bath resulted in still greater losses than those mentioned above. 

After numerous failures we found that alkaline solutions of 
hydrocyanic acid can be concentrated without appreciable loss by 
distilling under diminished pressure, as described below. 

Influence of Salts on the Formation and Precipitation of 

Prussian Blue. 

Vorlander states that the presence of salts delays or prevents 
the formation of Prussian blue. We tried the addition of salts, 
because in our early experiments we often obtained what seemed to 
be a colloidal form of Prussian blue. Since salts are known to pre- 
cipitate colloids we tried the effect of adding sodium chloride and 
found that a clearer blue color was obtained than without the addi- 
tion of this salt. We also tried the effect of several other halogen 
salts. Finally, we found that the presence of potassium fluoride 
had a remarkable effect on the formation and color of the Prussian 
blue. On acidifying in the final stage of the test the color appears 
at once and is very brilliant. The absence of a green shade makes it 
particularly suitable for comparison with a standard. If the acid 
is added very gradually the iron hydroxides dissolve and a colorless 
liquid with a white precipitate is obtained. On the addition of more 
acid the blue color appears. This is explained by the fact that ferric 
salts produce a complex salt with potassium fluoride, 9 K.,FeF 6 . 
When an excess of acid is added this complex salt is decomposed and 
the ferric ions needed for the formation of Prussian blue are fur- 
nished. Contrary to the statement of Vorlander, our experiments 
show that certain salts, such as sodium chloride and particularly 
potassium fluoride, hasten the formation of Prussian blue. 

Influence of Acids on the Formation of Prussian Blue and 
on the Color of the Suspension. 

Previous workers all seem to have used hydrochloric acid in the 
final stage of the test for a cyanide to precipitate the Prussian blue. 
We found that an excess of this acid tends to make the color of the 
suspension green, owing to the formation of ferric chloride. The 
mixture of the yellow ferric chloride solution with the Prussian 

9 Greef , Ber., 46, 251 1 (1913). 



266 Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid, j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



blue produces the green shade. To avoid the formation of the green 
shade we tried the effect of acids other than hydrochloric acid. We 
obtained good results with sulphuric and nitric acids in different 
concentrations. Hence these acids are recommended instead of 
hydrochloric acid. 

Vorlander and Knight both filter off the iron hydroxides from the 
alkaline solution of sodium ferrocyanide and then acidify before 
adding the iron salt. This procedure may lead to a loss of hydro- 
cyanic acid, since ferrocyanic acid oxidizes rapidly according to the 
following equation : 

/HiFe ( CN ) e + 2 = 24H CN + Fe, [ Fe ( CN ) a ] 3 + 2FLO 

Influence of Ferric Iron on the Formation of Prussian Blue 
and on the Color of the Suspension. 

It is to be noticed that Berl and Delpy, Lander and Walden, as 
well as Vorlander, used only ferrous sulphate for the formation of 
small quantities of Prussian blue. In the ordinary laboratory test 
for a cyanide, ferric chloride is also added, which changes the color 
to a greenish shade and makes accurate colorimetric determinations 
impossible. The addition of a ferric salt is not necessary, since 
enough of the ferrous salt is oxidized during the operation to 
furnish the ferric ions needed. According to our experience it is 
very important that there should not be a large excess of ferric salts 
present. Therefore, to prevent the oxidation of too much of the 
ferrous hydroxide to ferric, we remove most of the air from the 
solutions of the cyanide by means of a water vacuum pump. 

In this connection we may quote Vorlander's statement. 10 

" Die Meinung ist verbreitet, dass zum Zustandekommen des Berlinerblaus 
aus Ferrocyankalium die Gegenwart von Ferro- und Ferrisalz niitzlich sei. 
Ich habe hierfiir nicht das geringste Zeichen finden konnen." 

Here one might obtain the misleading impression that Prussian 
blue is formed in the utter absence of a ferric salt. Vorlander prob- 
ably means to say that the addition of ferric salt is unnecessary, as 
enough of the ferrous salt is oxidized by the action of atmospheric 
oxygen to furnish the ferric ions needed. 

Influence of Heat on the Formation of Prussian Blue. 
It is interesting to note that other workers apply heat in the 
test for a cyanide. Sometimes the alkaline mixture is heated, and 

"Ber., 46, 188 (1913)- 



Am 'ji ne!'i9i5 arm ' } Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid. 267 

sometimes heat is applied after adding the acid. Others recom- 
mended that the mixture be heated, both before and after the addi- 
tion of acid. In testing by our method heat is not necessary if 
potassium fluoride is used. In using sodium chloride instead of 
potassium fluoride, or in the absence of these salts, gentle heat 
hastens the formation of Prussian blue. 

Description of the Method. 

As a result of our various experiments, we recommend the 
following procedure : Before concentrating the hydrocyanic acid 
solution, as in the case of a distillate, the portion to be tested should 
contain a slight excess of free sodium hydroxide. We used 0.02 to 
0.1 g. This solution is then concentrated in a round bottom flask 
of 200 Cc. capacity by using a vacuum pump and condenser. The 
heat is supplied by immersing the flask in a water-bath kept below 
70 . To avoid any loss by spattering, the flask is fitted to the con- 
denser by means of an adapter such as is used in the Kjeldahl method 
for the determination of nitrogen. We concentrate until less than 
1 Cc. of liquid remains in the flask. Two-tenths to one-half cubic 
centimetre of 3 per cent, freshly-prepared ferrous sulphate solution 
and about 0.05 g. of potassium fluoride are then added. The flask 
is exhausted at once by means of a water vacuum pump. The con- 
tents are mixed by rotating the flask. After five to ten minutes the 
flask is detached from the pump and the mixture acidified with 30 per 
cent, nitric acid. The blue color appears at once. Where only traces 
of hydrocyanic acid are present it is sometimes necessary to warm 
to about 50 in a water-bath before the color appears. The suspen- 
sion is then diluted to a volume that would give a color density con- 
venient to compare with a suspension of Prussian blue made from 
a known weight of potassium cyanide. As a standard we used a sus- 
pension of Prussian blue made from 1 mg. of potassium cyanide. 
Such a suspension diluted to 25 Cc. gave a color of convenient 
density. For comparison we used a Duboscq colorimeter. 

If the cyanide solution to be tested was sufficiently concen- 
trated so that further evaporation was unnecessary, the test could 
be made in a test-tube. We kept the air out by means of a stopper 
and rotated the tube only enough to mix the reagents, allowing the 
mixture to stand five to ten minutes before acidifying. Much shaking 
must be avoided to prevent excessive oxidation of the ferrous 
hydroxide. 



268 Determination of Hydrocyanic Acid. { Am 'j J x °^\l^ rm - 

We ascertained the accuracy of our method by diluting i Cc. of 
a standard solution of potassium cyanide to 25 Cc. and evaporating 
under the diminished pressure to 1 Cc. When the residue was 
tested as described above we obtained the same quantity of Prussian 
blue as that formed by applying the test to 1 Cc. of the undiluted 
standard solution. 

The quantities of reagents mentioned are suitable for 1 to 2 mg. 
of potassium cyanide. If less than 1 mg. of potassium cyanide is 
present, the quantities of the reagents should be reduced accordingly. 
A large excess of reagents must be avoided in order to obtain the 
maximum density of color. When the analysis is carried out as 
described the maximum error should not exceed more than 1 part 
in 20. Thus in a plant giving 20 mg. of potassium cyanide per 
100 g. of plant the results might vary by 0.001 per cent, if 100 g. 
of material are used for analysis. 

Application as a Qualitative Test. 

This method also proved to be a very delicate qualitative test for 
the presence of a cyanide. Owing to the possibility of obtaining 
a pure blue color we were able to detect with certainty 0.00002 g. 
of potassium cyanide, which represents less than 0.00001 g. of hydro- 
cyanic acid. 

Application to Microchemical Analysis. 

The test for hydrocyanic acid was applied microchemically to 
sections of cherry bark and bitter almond with marked success. 
Sections or small parts of the material were treated with the reagents 
in a test-tube according to our method. 11 

Conclusions. 

1. Dilute alkaline solutions of a cyanide can be concentrated 
under diminished pressure without appreciable loss of cyanide. 

2. The maximum quantity of Prussian blue can be obtained from 
a cyanide only when the volume of the solution to be tested is 
sufficiently small, as has been indicated by Berl and Delpy and by 
Lander and Walden. 

3. In the test for a cyanide it is better to acidify with nitric 



11 Further work is in progress on the application of this method to micro- 
chemical analysis. 



Am jour Pharm. | Commercial Glucose and its Uses. 269 

June, lylo. j 

or sulphuric acid than with hydrochloric, since an excess of the latter 
tends to produce a green color. 

4. Any considerable excess of ferric salts should be avoided in 
testing for a cyanide. 

5. Application of heat is not necessary in testing for a cyanide by 
the method described. 

6. The presence of certain salts, particularly potassium chloride, 
in the liquid to be tested, has proved to be of great advantage. 

7. The method furnishes a very delicate qualitative test for the 
presence of a cyanide. 

8. The method is suitable for the estimation of very small quanti- 
ties of a cyanide in distillates. 

9. The test as described herein can be applied microchemically to 
sections of cyanogenetic plants. 

Bureau of Chemistry, 
Washington, D. C. 



COMMERCIAL GLUCOSE AND ITS USES. 1 

By George W. Rolfe. 

A Much Misunderstood and Maligned Product — Necessary for 
Certain Food Staples and a Good Substitute for 
More Expensive Ingredients. 

Most well-informed people know that in the early part of the last 
century KirchofT was the first to describe a sugar made by boiling 
starch with dilute sulphuric acid, and that this sweet, subsequently 
found to be other than cane-sugar, was called " glucose " or " grape- 
sugar." Later it was termed " dextrose " when in the progress of 
science it became necessary to distinguish the individual from a 
whole family of " glucoses " which had been discovered. 

Nowadays, most of us have heard of " glucose " as a commercial 
product of doubtful reputation. People look askance when glucose 
is mentioned. Confectioners and grocers make haste to deny that 
glucose ever appears in their products. Glucose is classed with 
harmful food adulterants, and has been called by pure food experts 
the " champion adulterant "of all. It has been depicted in cartoons as 
a devil with hoofs and horns. Glucose has also been called " mu- 



* Reprinted from Science Conspectus, vol. 5, No. 1. 



27o Commercial Glucose and its Uses. f Am. jour pharm. 

' (_ June, 1915. 

cilage," the implication being that it is only fit for postage-stamps 
and not for human stomachs. This may be why many associate 
glucose with glue. The names sound alike and both are sticky, but 
the reasoning is like assuming that all gentlemen are gentiles. Glucose 
makes a rather poor adhesive, but one who is hard put for mucilage 
might so use it with indifferent success just as it is possible to use 
tapioca pudding, molasses or other sticky foods. 

Turning to the advertising literature of the glucose manufac- 
turers, we note that many eminent authorities laud glucose as most 
wholesome, that it is the principal sweet of fruits and one of the in- 
termediate products of the digestion of starch in the human organism, 
is found in the blood — and similar statements, all of which, like the 
damning ones of some pure food experts, are " important if true." 

Notwithstanding that annually between thirty and forty million 
bushels of Indian corn are made into glucose, comparatively few 
except those engaged in the numerous industries in which glucose 
enters ever see the product. The idea of the general public, profes- 
sional as well as the laity, seems to be that glucose is mostly com- 
posed of grape-sugar, which is made according to the Kirchoff 
method by boiling starch and oil of vitriol and neutralizing the mix- 
ture with chalk. Many supposedly up-to-date cyclopaedias make such 
statements. 

Much of the ignorance concerning this important food product 
is due to the following facts : Pure commercial glucose is practically 
unknown in household cookery, and so is not sold in a package con- 
venient for household use. While it is in multifarious food products 
found on the grocers' shelves, it is rarely seen there in its original 
state. This is equally true of raw sugar. Years ago, raw open- 
kettle sugars were familiar to all New England housewives and were 
used by them in cooking. Raw sugars made by modern processes 
are used to some extent now in England and European countries, 
but nowadays few of the citizens of this country, outside of the sugar 
producing districts, ever see raw sugars, which are sent directly to 
the refineries in packages weighing several hundred pounds, each and 
in a condition not fit for domestic use. Glucose, like refined sugar, 
is manufactured in comparatively few factories, and these of large 
capacity, for the manufacture of glucose requires a large outlay of 
capital and consequently large output. The cheapness of the prod- 
uct makes its manufacture profitable only on a large scale. This 
is equally true of sugar. 



Am 'ji ne r 'i9i h 5 arm ' } Commercial Glucose and its Uses. 271 

What is commercial glucose ? In general appearance it is a trans- 
parent, very viscous syrup, often practically colorless, but usually 
of a light straw color, sweet, but with little if any other flavor. For 
this reason, glucose, like sugar, has been termed a " neutral sweet " 
— not neutral in the chemical sense — although such products are al- 
ways chemically neutral within practical limits of testing — but so 
called because when pure they have no characteristic flavor other 
than sweet and will take any added flavor unchanged. 

Glucose is not made by use of oil of vitriol and chalk, nor is 
glucose, in the ordinarily accepted sense of dextrose, its characteristic 
ingredient. The trade name " glucose," while well established by 
custom of years, is no more suited to the present product than is 
" chloride of lime " to bleaching powder or " hyposulphite of soda " 
to the commercial salt sold under that name. It is true that the basic 
process by which glucose is made from starch is on the lines of Kir- 
choff's original experiments, but the methods are quite different. The 
" starch milk," a suspension of the granules in water, is pumped into 
large pressure boilers of gun metal, and is cooked for about ten 
minutes with a few tenths of a per cent, of hydrochloric acid (com- 
mercial muriatic acid) under a pressure of about 50 pounds of 
steam. The starch is not treated long enough by this process to con- 
vert it entirely into "grape-sugar (true glucose), only about 20 per 
cent, being produced. There is, in fact, less of the glucose sugars, 
properly so called, in commercial glucose than occur as natural in- 
gredients of cane-sugar molasses, and far less than in honey, which 
is composed almost entirely of glucose sugars, nearly half of which is 
dextrose (grape-sugar), this being the sugar which separates out 
when the honey granulates. 

Commercial glucose as now made contains less than 20 per cent, 
of true glucose sugars, the rest being a mixture of malt-sugar (mal- 
tose) and dextrins, more or less in chemical combination in the ap- 
proximate proportion of nine parts of maltose to seven of dextrin. 
In percentages, of total sugars and dextrins, there are, in round 
numbers : maltose, 45 per cent., dextrose, 20 per cent., dextrin, 35 
per cent., the proportions varying somewhat in different lots. 

These three carbohydrates, dextrose, which is a true glucose 
sugar, maltose, belonging to the cane-sugar family, and making 
up nearly half of the total, and dextrin, a gummy (" colloidal ") sub- 
stance closely related to starch paste, compose over 99 per cent, of 
the solid matter of refined commercial glucose. This composition 



272 Commercial Glucose and its Uses. {^'j^'m^' 

has been found to be the most desirable for imparting to the prod- 
uct the properties most suited for a syrup which can be refined 
readily, and at the same time contain enough colloidal material to 
prevent its crystallizing at any concentration. This colloidal matter 
also renders the syrup capable of dissolving considerable amounts 
of cane-sugar without crystallization. Such a product is peculiarly 
valuable in the preparation of syrups, candies, preserves, and jellies, 
quite apart from its use as a sweet. It also contains nearly the 
maximum amount of malt sugar that can be produced by such a 
process. 

The rest of the dissolved substance of commercial glucose con- 
sists of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent, of mineral matter, mostly composed of 
sodium chloride from the neutralization with soda of the hydro- 
chloric acid used in the manufacture, sulphites which are added at 
various stages, phosphates and other salts from the natural mineral 
matters present in minute quantities in the starch or coming in 
part from the bone-black used in the refining process. There is also 
about 0.08 per cent, of nitrogen, corresponding to five or six times 
its weight of organic substances from the gluten left in the starch. 
Much of this nitrogenous matter is not gluten, but simpler organic 
compounds resulting from the action of the acid (used to convert 
the starch) /on the gluten. These nitrogenous matters have much to 
do with the quality of the glucose, and it is on this account that 
they are of peculiar importance, although present in minute amounts. 
The impurities from the gluten which are less acted upon by the 
acid, the " albumoses," give trouble to the candy manufacturer by 
causing foaming in his kettles, while this property is the joy of the 
brewer. Those gluten substances which are changed further by the 
acid, the " amino bodies," tend to make the glucose darker and also 
impart a flavor which, though barely perceptible, is disagreeable- 
bitter or fishy. Manufacturers used to correct the objectionable 
effects of these impurities by the addition of sulphites to the glucose, 
but this was but a temporary expedient and undesirable in a food 
product. Glucose ' has been much improved in recent years by 
practically eliminating the effect of these impurities by more effi- 
cient purification of the starch used in its manufacture. 

The glucose process does not end with the acid treatment of the 
starch and the neutralizing, as at this stage the dilute syrup is far 
from pure, containing oily matters from the corn, some undecom- 
posed gluten and other impurities, mostly in suspension. This 



Am .Jour phaim. i Commercial Glucose and its Uses. 273 

June, 1915. j ' w 

liquor before it is concentrated to a syrup of about 80 per cent, 
solids undergoes a refining with bone-black closely resembling that 
of cane-sugar, the apparatus being practically identical — filtering 
through bags and bone-black filters — but in the case of glucose all 
impurities affecting the quality of the syrup have to be removed or 
destroyed, as there is no purification by crystallization. 

Hence glucose, like granulated sugar, is one of the purest food 
products in use, however pernicious the properties that may be 
ascribed to it. 

Space does not allow a detailed description of glucose manufac- 
ture, which is of great interest, owing to the numerous by-products 
which are made, and also because, while glucose is the chief in output, 
its manufacture is only one of many starch products carried on at 
the same time. 

The following table, taken from an advertising circular of a 
manufacturer, sljows in a concise way how the different parts of the 
corn kernel are utilized : 

Parts of corn kernel Composition Products 

1- Germ Oil and oil - cake { ^ corn oii ' Cake > C ° m 

2- Endosperm (body of J Starch f D V starches >. dextrins, and, 

+u ^ \ i ' ] by conversion, corn syrups 

me cornj ^ Gluten j I [glucose] and sugars. 

3 — Hull Bran j. Gluten feed. 

4 — Water added for steep- N Soluble sub- 

ing . ^ stances of corn j 

The oil is used principally for soap and for making vulcanized 
products used for rubber substitute. The oil-cake and meal from 
the cake are used as cattle feed. The gluten and bran from the 
starch, mixed with the soluble matters extracted by the water used 
to soften (" steep ") the grain before grinding, is made into " gluten 
feed," also for cattle. All these are valuable by-products for which 
there is a good market. The starch in a moist state, known as " mill 
starch," is the raw material for making the various goods which 
are sold under the names of " glucose " (" corn syrup ") : " corn- 
sugar " (" grape-sugar "), the latter a hard product which is largely 
composed of dextrose, but never known in trade as " commercial 
glucose " and little used as a food product ; " dextrins," true ad- 
hesives which are usually made by roasting starch and entirely dif- 
ferent in characteristics from the dextrin ingredient of commercial 



274 Commercial Glucose and its Uses. { Am junT lin?™' 

glucose ; besides numerous " dry starches " used by laundries, confec- 
tioners, and in many other industries, as well as for household 
purposes. 

At present prices, commercial glucose, a syrup containing about 
80 per cent, of the pure carbohydrates in solution, sells at about 234 
cents per pound (26 to 28 cents per gallon), or at about 2.7 cents per 
pound of actual dissolved substance. Is its sole use that of an adul- 
terant of better food materials, as some food reformers claim? Is 
glucose used to adulterate our ordinary grocery sugars ? 

It is well known in the history of the industry that some thirty 
years ago a Chicago concern spent some millions of dollars and much 
valuable time in trying to ■ adulterate fine-grained white sugars with 
solid grape-sugar of high quality, made from starch, but the attempt 
failed miserably, simply because the stuff would not stay mixed 
and the grains " set " in a solid mass after a short time. In years 
gone by, glucose was also much used to mix with cheap, poor-grade 
molasses, making a brighter, more attractive product which, so im- 
proved, could be sold at the price of higher grade molasses. This 
form of adulteration is so easily detected that it is rarely resorted to 
in these days of pure food legislation. The last case which came 
to the writer's notice was one of a New York molasses dealer who 
was heavily fined for having a few per cent, of commercial glucose 
in his molasses, although his defence was a plausible one — that the 
glucose was some accidentally left in the barrel, old glucose barrels 
being much used for tropical molasses shipments. 

Glucose is now used in a legitimate manner to mix with cane- 
sugar syrup in the proportion of 85 per cent, of glucose to 15 per 
cent, of syrup, a little salt and sometimes vanillin being added to 
improve the flavor. The cane-sugar syrup is usually refinery mo- 
lasses (" barrel syrup "), which imparts the principal flavor. These 
mixed syrups are sold openly as glucose or " corn syrups," and as 
their flavor is superior to the original molasses there seems to be 
no reason why they are not wholesome food products for legitimate 
trade, even though some people there are who prefer the" flavor of 
the syrups made from the natural cane juices and are willing to pay 
the higher price for such. Certainly, such glucose syrups are prefer- 
able to the average grocery molasses, either from the standpoint of 
the epicure or the sanitarian. 

Commercial glucose is used in large quantities in the manufac- 
ture of cheap jams and preserves. Apple cores and skins from fruit 



Am jun^ST 111 ' } Commercial Glucose and its Uses. 275 

in its preparation for evaporation or preserving are the basis for 
most cheap jellies ; the pectin substance and juice being extracted by 
the usual processes of jell)' making and mixed with glucose and sugar 
forms a jelly material to which other fruit juices are added. The law 
requires such jellies to be plainly described on the label so that the 
consumer is informed that he is using a jelly made of apple and 
glucose with a fruit flavoring, and is at perfect liberty to buy the pure, 
glucose-free fruit product if he so prefers. What interests the public 
is: Are these cheap jellies unwholesome, or is there other reason 
why the man with the slim pocketbook should not buy them? This 
question is quite apart from whether they contain glucose or not, but 
deals with the soundness and wholesomeness of the ingredients used 
and the cleanliness of their preparation. 

By far the largest amount of glucose is consumed in the manu- 
facture of candy, the peculiar properties of this syrup making it 
especially valuable in this industry, as has been explained. The 
requisite for most candy is that it should not " grain " (crystallize), 
and glucose, owing to its colloidal nature, is the most effective and 
wholesome substance to prevent this. The popular impression that 
glucose is used in candy-making because it is a cheap substitute 
for sugar and that its sole function is to give sweetness is only ap- 
proximately correct. 

How sweet is glucose relative to cane-sugar? Determinations of 
the sweetness of a saccharine product are very unsatisfactory, owing 
to personal equation and also to the influence of the other mixed in- 
gredients and even the physical condition of the substance tested. 

Granulated sugar tastes sweet. Powder it in a mortar and it will 
taste less sweet. Owing to this fact it is hard to convince some people 
that powdered sugar is not adulterated, although this practice, easily 
detected, is practically unknown at present. A quarter of a grain of 
quinine mixed into a pound of granulated sugar is said to make it 
taste sweeter. Common salt in small quantities will improve the 
sweetness of cake and other sweet foods, as all cooks know. Raw 
sugars, even when they contain negligible quantities of the sweeter 
mother-syrups, taste distinctly sweeter than granulated sugar, al- 
though their actual sugar content is less. This is due to the salts 
and extractive matters in the raw product, and it is why many cooks 
sigh for the old-fashioned, open-kettle sugar, and even prefer the 
refiners' imitation goods to granulated in making their apple pies. 

Relative tests of the sweetness of cane-sugar and glucose (dex- 



276 Commercial Glucose and its Uses. { Am j^e r 'i9i5 arm ' 

trose) have been made by dilution experiments on the pure sugars, 
but, so far as the writer knows, no relative tests of the sweetness of 
commercial glucose as now made have been published. Taking 
this vaiue to be 0.5 for the solids in glucose, sugar at 5 cents is cheaper 
as a sweetener than glucose. 

As a matter of fact, very little candy is made with glucose as the 
only sweet. Usually, candy contains 60 per cent, or more of cane- 
sugar, the sweetening of the glucose being of much less importance 
than the other properties it imparts to the mixture. 

It seems reasonable to infer that commercial glucose, rather 
than being a serious competitor of cane-sugar, has really increased 
the consumption of the latter, especially in candies. Because of the 
great advantages from the use of glucose in candy-making, the indus- 
try has had an impetus which has greatly increased sugar con- 
sumption. 

The relative wholesomeness of candies made from glucose and 
those made from cane-sugar has never been decided, and may never 
be. The dextrins of " glucose " as now manufactured are in great part 
in combination with the malt-sugar and seem in every way identical 
with the malto-dextrins obtained by the action of malt on starch, and 
are digested more in the intestines than in the stomach as compared 
with pure sugar candies. Whether this is an advantage or not, the 
physiologists must decide. 

Glucose is extensively used in industries not making food prod- 
ucts. It is used in cheap soaps, for " filling " leather and tanning 
extracts, and, as many of its uses in such industries are apparently 
for adulteration, such practices have no doubt added to its reputation 
as the " champion adulterant." As was pointed out in an article in 
a previous number of this magazine, 2 on the industrial uses of sugar, 
the highly respectable beet-sugar of 99 per cent, purity is used in 
Europe for precisely the same purposes, the choice between sugar 
and glucose as a " filler " being merely a matter of price. Cane-sugar 
has also been used extensively to " fill " coal-tar dyes and adulterate 
chocolate without having its respectability seriously impugned. 

In view of the undoubted commercial importance of glucose as a 
food product it would seem as if its value in dietetics and food 
economics, as well as its relative wholesomeness, ought to be studied 
in the light of a proper knowledge of its special characteristics. To 



2 Science Conspectus, No. 2, 1913. 



Am, ji°ne r 'i£5 arm '} Effect u P on Acidity of Tomato Fruits. 277 

call glucose " mucilage/' or to ascribe to it properties of a dextrose 
solution, is either ignorant or dishonest. So far as the use of glucose 
as an adulterant is concerned, it is the function of the pure food 
laws to protect the public from these practices, and such obviously 
are quite apart from the legitimate and open use of glucose, sugar, 
or any other cheap and wholesome food product as a satisfactory 
substitute for more expensive ingredients, and the propriety of such 
a substitute always will be its suitability for the purpose and its cost. 

If legislation is appropriate for forbidding the extravagant claims 
of manufacturers and dealers as to the superiority of their food 
products, why not legislation to prevent irresponsible statements of 
"pure food " authorities which are condemnatory? Certainly, the 
one is as important for the public interest as the other. 

THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN CONDITIONS UPON THE 
ACIDITY OF TOMATO FRUITS* 
By B. M. Duggar and M. C. Merrill. 

In a recent communication the senior author 4 has referred to 
the possibility that the total acid content of tomato fruits ripened 
at a temperature of 30 C, or above, may be related in some way 
to the failure of lycopersicin development at that temperature. It 
was determined that the " total acidity for green, ripening, and ripe 
fruits, grown under the same conditions, is unexpectedly uniform, 
amounting to 0.57 to 0.58 per cent, citric acid." The fruits just 
referred to were of the same variety picked at the same time. The 
tests of acid content of incubated fruits were made later in the 
season, and these indicated a lower acidity than that of normally 
green or ripe fruits. At that time the requisite material was ob- 
tained from the Department of Horticulture, Cornell University. 

During the past summer several varieties of tomatoes were grown 
in the Missouri Botanical Garden in order to furnish material for 
further pigment studies, and incidentally this material has enabled us 
to determine with greater care the acid content of tomato fruits, espe- 
cially of different varieties, and likewise the comparative acidity of 
fruits direct from the field and of those of the same picking incubated 
for various, intervals. The tests included below were made by pulp- 
ing thoroughly a weighed quantity of the tissue (15 Gms.), diluting 



Reprinted from Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, May, 1914. 



278 Effect upon Acidity of Tomato Fruits. \ Am -^-^ vm - 

with 150 Cc. distilled water, employing for each titration 25 Cc. of 
this solution diluted with distilled water to 50 Cc., and titrating with 
n/10 NaOH, using phenolphthalein as indicator. Not less than 
two titrations were made in any case, and these were from one or 
more samples of tissue. The accompanying table indicates the 
variety and condition of the fruit, quantities of n/10 NaOH required 
to neutralize, and the per cent, of acidity in terms of citric acid. 



TABLE SHOWING ACID CONTENT OF TOMATO FRUITS 



Variety- 


Condition 


Average 
number of 
Cc. of n/10 
NaOH, to 
neutralize 


Total per 
cent, of 
acid as 
citric 


When 
picked 


Interval 
or incubation 


When 
titrated * 


Dwarf Stone 

Dwarf Stone 


Ripe 
Half grown 
Half grown 
Half grown 
Half grown 





Incub. 32 C. 10 days 

Lab. 24 days 
Incub. 32 C. 10 days 


Red 
Green 
Artif. yellow 

Red 
Green 


1.695 

1.82 

2.135 

1-375 

1.485 


• 52 

• 56 
.66 
.42 
.46 


Sparks's Earliana. . 
Sparks's Earliana. . 


Ripe 
Half grown 






Red 
Green 


1.695 
1.87 


• 52 

• 58 


Truckers' Favorite. 
Truckers' Favorite. 


Half grown 
Half grown 


Incub. 32 C. 22 days 
Lab. 24 days 


Artif. yellow 
Red 


2.56 
1.66 


.79 
.51 




Half grown 
Half grown 


Incub. 32°C.22days 
Lab. 24 days 


Artif. yellow 
Red 


2. 115 
1-675 


.65 
• 52 


Yellow Peach 


Half grown 
Half grown 


Incub. 3 2 C. 2 2 days 
Lab. 24 days 


Artif. yellow 
Yellow 


2.47 
2.065 


.76 
.64 


Yellow Plum 

Yellow Plum 


Ripe 
Half grown 






Yellow 
Green 


2.12 
1.92 


.65 
• 59 




Half grown 
Half grown 


Incub.32°C.20days 
Lab. 24 days 


Artif. yellow 
Yellow 


1.60 
1.395 


.49 
•43 



* All fruits designated "red," "yellow," and "artificial yellow" were, at the same time, ripe. 



The results above reported may not yet be as extensive as might 
be desired in order to follow closely the changes in acidity under 
different conditions, but they consistently point out certain relations 
of interest, which may be briefly enumerated as follows: (1) A 
comparison of the acid content of green and normally ripened fruits 
was made, using Dwarf Stone, Sparks's Earliana, and Yellow Plum, 
all direct from the field. There were no marked differences between 
the green and ripe stages within the variety ; yet the acidity of the 
green fruits of the red varieties in these tests is somewhat higher, 
while the acid content of the green fruits of the one yellow variety 
tested is somewhat lower. (2) Fruits of Dwarf Stone, Truckers' 
Favorite, Red Peach, Yellow Peach, and Yellow Pear which were 
picked green and ripened in the incubator at 32-33 C. (10-22 days) 
exhibit a higher acid content than either those ripened on the vines 



Am jJne?i9i5 arm '} E ff ect u P on Acidity of Tomato Fruits. 279 

or those ripened at the temperature of the laboratory. (3) There 
are considerable differences in the acidity of varieties, but, judging 
from the results of these tests, the normally ripened fruits of yellow 
varieties commonly contain as much acid as those of red varieties. 

The several facts brought out by these tests render it obvious that 
there is now not sufficient evidence to justify relating pigmentation 
to total acidity. The acidity changes are, however, interesting in 
themselves, in these as well as in other fruits. No attempt was made 
to follow progressively any changes in acidity induced by condi- 
tions ; but in titrating on one occasion, after an interval of two days, 
new samples of both red and yellow fruits which had been ripened 
in the laboratory, it was found that the acidity had noticeably de- 
clined since the previous titrations from the same lots of fruits. 

We have reckoned the acidity of the tomato in terms of citric 
acid, as is customary. It should be noted, however, that, while 
Bowman 3 and others report citric as the chief acid of the tomato, 
Albahary, 1 on the contrary, gives 0.48 per cent, as the malic acid 
content and 0.09 per cent, as that of citric acid in the fresh fruits. 
The author last mentioned gives no indications respecting the variety 
or condition of the fruit employed. In a later contribution 2 he re- 
ports the results of analyzing tomato fruits in different stages of 
maturation, as follows: "i° le fruit vert avant l'apparition de la 
graine dans la pulpe; 2° le fruit vert au moment ou la graine est 
completement formee; 3 le fruit rouge arrive a sa pleine matura- 
tion." In the second stage, corresponding to practically full-grown, 
green, he finds 0.58, and in the ripe fruits 0.42 per cent., of organic 
acids. This is in complete agreement with our findings. In the 
earliest stage of fruit development Albahary finds an acid content 
of only 0.1 16 per cent. Wehmer, 5 after quoting Albahary 1 as to the 
percentage of the various acids in the fruit, remarks, " Die Aciditat 
wechselt stark je nach dem Reifestadium (von 0.06-0.697 per cent, 
des Saftes auf Citronensaure berechnet)." He does not indicate 
the source of these data, and certainly the smaller percentage given 
can refer only to the youngest stages of fruit development. 
Graduate Laboratory, Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Literature Consulted. 
1 Albahary, J. M. : Analyse complete du fruit du Lycopersicum esculentum ou 

Tomate. Compt. rend. acad. Paris 145 : 131-133. 1907. 
2 , Etude chimique de la maturation du Lycopersicum esculentum 

(Tomate). Compt. rend. acad. Paris 147: 146-147. 1908. 



28o 



Modern Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



3 Bowman, W. : Tomatoes : chemical examination of fruits. Va. Agr. Exp. 

Sta. Bui. 9 : 16-18. 1891. 

4 Duggar, B. M. : Lycopersicin, the red pigment of the tomato, and the effects 

of conditions upon its development. Washington Univ. Studies 1 : 22-45. 
1913. 

6 Wehmer, C: Die Pflanzenstoffe 685-686. 191 1. 



MODERN MEDICINE AND ITS SOCIAL 
RESPONSIBILITIES. 1 

By Frederick R. Green, A.M., M.D., 

Secretary, Council on Health and Public Instruction of the American 
Medical Association. 

(Concluded from p. 235.) 

Another error into which we have fallen as a profession is the 
tendency to regard the medical profession as a divinely authorized 
class, whose sacred and distinctive function is the protection of the 
people, either with or without their consent. It is difficult to under- 
stand on what rational basis such a belief can rest in a scientific 
profession like ours. The medical profession is recruited from the 
same class as that which furnishes the lawyers, judges, ministers, 
teachers and business men of our country. The men who go into 
medicine are neither wiser, more unselfish, more upright, nor more in- 
fallible in their judgment than those who make up any other class 
of professional men. Why should we regard ourselves as of superior 
mould, or why expect our opinions or views to be accepted on any 
different basis from those of other men of equal intelligence, except 
in so far as we are able to justify our judgment? Yet too often 
medical organizations, as well as individual physicians, have taken 
the position that they were the courts of last resort ; that it was their 
special function to dictate the terms of public health legislation, and 
that it was the duty of the public to accept their decisions and ac- 
quiesce in their judgment. Now the average American, while willing 
to do anything that he knows to be for his own benefit, is impatient 
of restriction, and especially of restriction which he cannot under- 
stand. He resents paternalism and dictation, and objects to having 

1 Read before the Utah State M'edical Association, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
September 30, 1914, and reprinted from North West Medicine, December, 1914, 
and January, 1915. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



Modem Medicine. 



281 



any class or sect try to force him to do anything for his own good 
unless he is convinced that it is necessary and desirable. Even then 
he wants to be shown that the inconvenience of conforming to the 
restriction will bring him benefit greater than the inconvenience 
brought about by not conforming to it. If you have any doubt as 
to the universality of this feeling, or think that it is held only by lay- 
men, wait until some bill is introduced into your legislature that im- 
poses some kind of restrictions on physicians themselves and then 
notice the result. You will generally hear a roar of protest that can 
be heard throughout the State. Yet the average layman has just as 
much objection to being regulated as the physician has. The gen- 
eral conclusions to be drawn from this situation are that all proposed 
public health legislation should be plainly necessary and justifiable; 
that interference with personal liberty should be the least possible 
amount necessary to produce the desired result, and that in every 
case where such interference is necessary it should be done in the 
least disagreeable way possible, and the reasons for the necessary 
restrictions should be carefully and clearly explained to the public 
before their enactment in the form of legislation is sought. Any 
subject which cannot be explained to the satisfaction of the average 
citizen had generally best be left out of legislative plans. Science is 
simply systematized knowledge. If we know a thing we can convince 
any reasonable person of the truth of our proposition. 

The use of so-called " practical political methods " to secure the 
passage of public health measures has already been mentioned. The 
last twenty-five years has been a period of special privileges and of 
many legislative abuses. Instead of legislation being determined by 
considerations of public interest, it has been too often a matter of 
barter and sale or of cooperation between representatives of special 
interests. A legislator representing one interest has voted for 
measures on condition that the friends of these measures would in 
turn vote for his measures. Log-rolling, wire-pulling and ring-rule 
have, at times at least, characterized many of our State legislative 
bodies. The appeal to physicians, sometimes from our own ranks, 
has been the enticing one to be " practical politicians and play the 
game." The statement has been made repeatedly in medical or- 
ganizations that the only way to secure desired legislation was to 
follow the tactics used by all so-called " successful " politicians and 
exercise such influence as could be exerted, regardless of the manner 
in which it was secured. This argument has been particularly attrac- 



282 



Modem Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



tive and seductive because the promoters of public health legislation 
knew that their plans were for the public good. Too often they have 
reasoned: " What harm will befall if we do use objectionable 
methods, so long as the object is the public good and the protection 
of the people? " The argument that the end justifies the means has 
too often been used to advance public health legislation. Yet the 
absurdity of such a method is evident. When measures for the pub- 
lic good are proposed, the people themselves are often indifferent. 
They do not understand the importance of such legislation. Now 
instead of making the people understand it so that they will demand 
and secure sufficient protection for themselves, it is sometimes 
seriously proposed to secure the passage of a law without attempting 
to arouse public support, but by the use of political influences. There 
is undoubtedly a legitimate field for legislation, and even for com- 
pulsory legislation, in bringing pressure on the indifferent, ignorant 
or unruly minority in enforcing police measures which the majority 
of the people have decided are necessary for the public safety. But 
the folly of expecting any permanent good to result from the adoption 
of legislation placing restrictions on the public for its own good when 
the majority of the public are not only unconvinced of the necessity 
of such restrictions, but even unaware of their purpose or object, 
needs only to be stated to be appreciated. 

Let it be clearly understood that any criticisms of so-called 
practical political methods should not be regarded for a moment as 
questioning the right and the duty of the physician as a citizen to 
take part in and participate in public matters and legislative bodies 
to the extent of his ability. The physician to-day, as a rule, is 
much better qualified than the average citizen to sit as a member of 
legislative and deliberative bodies. His special knowledge is of 
particular value to the State or the municipality. His participation 
in political and legislative affairs along proper lines can result only in 
good to society. There is a wide field for the physician to occupy as 
a citizen and a man of affairs, but it does not lie in the realm of 
machine politics. Neither is there any good reason why the physician 
as a citizen should not do everything in his power to secure and to 
support good candidates for any position, legislative or administra- 
tive. What I am contending is that political methods cannot be 
made a substitute for public education on scientific subjects. 

Probably the weightiest criticism which can be brought against 
the medical profession in its public relations during the last forty 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
June, 1915 



Modem Medicine. 



283 



years, however, is its failure to adopt any definite, permanent and 
constructive program in its efforts to secure adequate public health 
legislation. We have asked the public to accept us as scientific 
authorities, and we have not been scientific ourselves in handling 
this problem. There has been little effort made to separate the 
essential and fundamental from the non-essential and incidental, to 
secure first the passage of those measures which would lay the 
foundation for an efficient health organization which is closely re- 
lated to the rest of the State government, and to develop the powers, 
functions and activities of such a department. Closely related to this 
is the occasional advocacy by individuals or organizations of laws 
on fads or sensational topics. Enthusiastic members of State legis- 
lative committees, especially interested in subjects interesting, but of 
comparatively little relative importance, push their claims for con- 
sideration, and these subjects, because they are sensational, are taken 
up by the newspapers to the exclusion of far more important ques- 
tions. Abundant illustrations of this tendency can be found in the 
history of the last forty years. Such legislation is often commend- 
able, if the State and the public are ready for it, and if it does not 
crowd out more important subjects ; but as scientific men we should 
not allow ourselves to be unduly influenced, either by enthusiasts or 
by temporary public interest. 

If any doubt remains in the minds of any of you as to the differ- 
ence in point of view of the physician and the layman, it is only 
necessary to instance the wild and unwarranted charges and loose 
statements regarding the purposes and aims of our medical organiza- 
tions that have appeared in the editorial columns of some of our 
leading newspapers during the last six years. The facts are plain to 
any one who will go to the trouble to investigate, yet the unfounded 
and unprovable statements made have seriously reflected on the 
motives of physicians. The medical profession is not " a medical 
trust," neither is it a highly-organized, centrally-controlled, powerful 
organization with sinister plans and motives against the liberties and 
habits of the public. It is, on the contrary, as every one conversant 
with the facts knows, a more or less discordant body of 140,000 men 
of average ability and personal qualities. The principal national 
organization of physicians, the American Medical Association, is a 
loose union of fifty-two State and territorial associations, comprising 
2000 county societies and approximately 70,000 members, or about 
one-half of the profession. Careful study of its records and proceed- 



284 



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Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



ings will show that it is not and never has been dominated either by 
a single individual or by a group of individuals ; that it does not 
control legislation in the State or the nation, and could not if it 
would ; that it has never had any definite legislative or political 
policy, either selfish or otherwise, and that it has none to-day; that 
it has no definite program, and that whatever legislative activities 
the medical profession, either organized or unorganized, may have 
undertaken have been largely due to the personal energy of in- 
dividuals in different States, each of whom has acted on his own 
initiative, without any common plan of action or any common policy, 
and certainly without any amount of cooperation worth mentioning. 
The charges and suspicions of some of those who differ from us are 
entirely unsupported by the facts, and can be attributed only to 
ignorance or prejudice. In some ways it would be a most fortunate 
thing for the public if the American Medical Association were the 
highly-organized, efficient, nation-wide machine which its critics 
claim it is, and if we had a definite program which was being steadily 
and persistently followed. It is highly probable that the very respon- 
sibility of such a position would force upon us the adoption of a 
program which should be broad, charitable, conservative, practical 
and, above all, permanent. But even if all these things were so, the 
power of the association could be exercised only as is the influence 
of any other body of men ; namely, through its individual members, 
so that the influence of the organized medical profession on legisla- 
tion cannot in the end be anything more than the influence of its 
individual members as citizens. 

What now should be the attitude of physicians, either individually 
or collectively, toward society and the State? It should be that of a 
profession, the members of which are drawn from the body of the 
people, and which partakes in every way of the virtues and weak- 
nesses of the general public, but which, through professional training 
and experience, possesses technical, scientific knowledge in a certain 
field, which knowledge, on account of its very nature, is directly 
inaccessible to the general public, and must, therefore, be. translated 
and presented to them in terms which they can understand. Govern- 
ment by classes is antagonistic to our principles of government. 
Government by the will of the majority is the only recognized force 
in this country. Even if it were possible for the entire medical 
profession to unite in a solid body, to expect or desire that 140,000 
men should dictate to and control 100,000,000 people, even within a 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



M odern Medicine. 



285 



limited field, is utterly inconceivable. Still less would it be possible 
for the 70,000 members of our medical organizations to control 
100,000,000 people against their will. Since the relation of physicians 
to the public cannot be that of dictators or rulers, and since the 
power for restriction and regulation must always lie in the will of 
the majority, there remains only a single relation which physicians 
as a class can maintain toward the general public; namely, that of 
teachers. It is our function as a profession to take the finding of 
scientific men the world over, in so far as they are confirmed by 
wide experience and observation and in so far as they apply to 
public health conditions, to generalize them and put them in popular 
language, so that they will be intelligible to the average citizen, and 
to place these facts before him with a clear statement of what can 
be done through public cooperation to protect him and his from 
unnecessary disease. Insistence on the passage of laws for which 
the public is not yet prepared, or which they do not understand, the 
use of conventional political methods or personal influence to secure 
the enactment of laws for which public sentiment is not ready, cannot 
fail and has not failed in the past to react and to produce, in the long 
run, more harm than good. 

Before discussing the methods by which the education of the 
public should be carried on, it is interesting to note that the develop- 
ment of our knowledge regarding preventable diseases has unavoid- 
ably produced a marked change in the ethical attitude of the physician 
toward publicity methods. In former generations, as we have seen, 
the sole duty of the physician was to his patient. As the knowledge 
which he acquired regarding his patients and their affairs related 
entirely to the personal interests of the patient, physicians have 
recognized for centuries the moral obligation to remain silent re- 
garding all professional matters. But to-day, as we have seen, cer- 
tain diseases are matters not only of personal, but also, to a very, 
large degree, of public concern. On all subjects therefore on which 
the public may properly look to the medical profession for guidance 
and advice, it is to-day just as much our duty to speak as it was in 
former years the duty of our professional forefathers to remain 
silent. 

The proper function of a scientific organization being education, 
the next question is " Through what channels and by what mediums 
is such a process of education to be carried on?" All existing 
agencies and organizations through which public opinion can be 



286 



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Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



reached and guided should be made a part of such an educational 
campaign. Newspapers, magazines, books, pamphlets, women's 
clubs, business men's organizations, universities, colleges, normal 
schools, public schools, ministers, churches, civic and philanthropic 
organizations can all be utilized. In planning an educational cam- 
paign for a State, it is first advisable to make a general survey of 
the field and to ascertain exactly what means for education exist, 
what funds or material are available for the purpose and how the 
available material can be utilized. 

The secret of success is to unite all the available organizations 
and influences and to avoid the mistake of making such a campaign 
a medical movement. Physicians should lead, but not monopolize. 
In such a campaign the press is the most valuable ally. In Utah 
there are 105 periodicals published, including six daily, three tri- 
weekly, six semi-weekly and seventy-eight weekly newspapers, three 
semi-monthly and nine monthly magazines. These are published in 
fifty-seven towns, of which twenty-three are county seats. The 
Council on Health and Public Instruction has issued for three years 
a Press Bulletin, which is sent each week to approximately five thou- 
sand newspapers, including six dailies and nineteen weeklies pub- 
lished in Utah. The total cost including postage, printing and all 
labor for sending fifty-two weekly bulletins to any newspaper in the 
United States amounts to 80 cents per paper per year. The cost of a 
bulletin for a single State would probably be a little more, but at an 
annual expense of $100 or $150 it would be possible to send to every 
newspaper in Utah a weekly press bulletin containing short, popular 
articles on health topics suitable for use in the average paper. Mem- 
bers of local societies can secure the cooperation of the editors of 
local papers, explaining just what is intended and why this matter 
is being sent out. As a rule, when properly presented, editors are 
glad to use this material. There has probably never been a time when 
newspapers were as much interested in public health as to-day. The 
success or failure of such a bulletin will depend on the ability, tact 
and good judgment of the man in charge of it. Everything that 
could possibly be interpreted as for the selfish interest of physicians 
either as individuals or as a class should be eliminated. All sectarian 
discussions or bitterness should be omitted. Nothing should appear 
that is theoretical, indefinite or unproved. Only positively demon- 
strated facts which have been accepted by the general profession and 
which are part of our common knowledge should be admitted. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
June, 1915. J 



Modern Medicine. 



287 



Newspaper bulletins are not the place for the discussion of theories 
or for the exhibition of hobbies. 

Longer articles of an educational nature may be offered to some 
of the larger newspapers or to the magazines. Short, special articles 
in the form of pamphlets are often useful, but are, comparatively 
speaking, expensive, both for preparation and distribution. For the 
present, it would probably be better for the majority of the State 
associations to rely on the Bureau of Literature of the Council of 
the American Medical Association for such pamphlets rather than 
to attempt to prepare them themselves. The material which we have 
on hand for distribution is already large and is rapidly growing. Lists 
and samples of pamphlets on hand can be secured on application. 

Women's clubs offer a most promising field for educational 
cooperation. Composed of the leading and most influential women 
in each community, they are in many cases really desirous of taking 
up some definite and practical line of activity. The last directory of 
women's clubs for the United States shows that there are forty 
women's clubs in Utah, located in sixteen towns, with a total mem- 
bership of 1400. Each State federation has a committee on educa- 
tion, a committee on health and a committee on legislation and the 
interest arid cooperation of these organizations can be readily secured 
on such topics as registration of births and deaths, increase of 
functions of the State board of health, establishment of county and 
municipal departments of health, medical inspection of schools and 
rural school hygiene, conservation of vision, especially among chil- 
dren, and similar topics. 

Labor unions are of great value in public health work, provided 
the matter is placed before them in the proper light. The average 
labor organization, for instance, is not especially interested in birth 
registration, because the members do not understand its importance. 
When they realize that no child labor law is of the slightest value 
unless it is accompanied by provisions for birth registration, that 
proper registration of deaths would make it possible to determine 
the number of fatalities from industrial diseases, mine accidents, etc., 
and that a laboring man's health is his only capital, he at once be- 
comes interested. The churches and their pastors are, in all cases 
where health matters are properly presented, among our strongest 
allies. The success of our plans at St. Paul and Minneapolis last 
year, and at Philadelphia this year in placing speakers on public 
health in the pulpits, shows conclusively that our churches to-day 



288 



Modern Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1915. 



offer a most important educational opportunity. Business men's 
organizations are also important. In bringing the matter to their 
attention, it is necessary to emphasize the commercial value of good 
health both to the individual and the community, and the fact that 
good health and a low death-rate is a valuable commercial asset for 
any town. The proper utilization of all of these methods necessarily 
involves a careful study of the local field. Plans which are effective 
in one State must be modified in another. No hard-and-fast program 
can be followed blindly. 

Personally, I have long been of the opinion that the most effective 
method for the improvement of public health conditions which could 
be adopted would be the organization, in each State, of a public 
health league, composed not only of physicians, but of men and 
women interested in improving the health conditions of their town, 
county and State and working through all of the local organizations 
in the State. Such a plan is by no means visionary. It has already 
been put into operation in Minnesota, where the State Association 
for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis and other local special 
organizations were merged into a general public health league with 
an executive working in close cooperation with the State board of 
health, the State medical society, the State university, the general 
federation of women's clubs, the local business men's organizations 
and all of the other mediums for reaching and educating the public. 
Such a combination of the many independent existing organizations 
can eventually be formed in each State. A lay organization will 
command the support and arouse the local pride and enthusiasm of 
the people in a way that no professional organization could hope to 
do. The organization of these State public health leagues will, I trust, 
go on until it will be possible to combine them in a national public 
health league, which will exercise an influence far greater than could 
be brought to bear by any single profession or class. 

If you ask me what are Utah's needs, I must respectfully decline 
to make a diagnosis or prescribe a remedy. Nothing is farther from 
my intentions or desires than to pose as a legislative specialist or to 
attempt to dictate a uniform and stereotyped program for each State. 
There is only one power that can save the people of Utah from un- 
necessary disease and death, and that is the people of Utah them- 
selves. They are perfectly justified in looking to the organized 
medical profession of Utah, as represented by this State association, 
for guidance and expert knowledge and advice, but State public 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1915. 



M o d em M edicin e . 



289 



health legislation or administration will never rise higher than the 
average of knowledge on this subject throughout the State. Public 
opinion, let it be emphasized once more, is the source and fountain 
of legislation and administration. No State association, no matter 
how active, and no public health officials, no matter how efficient, 
can possibly give to a State any better public health control than the 
mass of the people themselves desire. What are the specific advances 
which are needed in your State and in what order or manner these 
shall be taken up, is for you to determine. The responsibility for 
proper decisions on these points rests on you. Careful consideration 
should be given to your present situation and needs. The plans which 
you evolve should be such as will commend themselves to every 
intelligent, broad-minded, fair-thinking man and woman in your 
State. Personal jealousies or animosities, political ambitions, sec- 
tarian prejudices and scientific hobbies should have no place on 
such a program. Subjects should be taken up in the order of their 
relative importance with a view not only to securing legislation of 
value to-day, but also to laying a foundation for a permanent and 
effective health organization which will be a part of your State 
government for years to come. What form this will take, it is for 
you to determine. Whether a single commissioner, as in New York 
and Pennsylvania, whether a board composed of certain State officers 
ex officio and professional men appointed by the governor, as in 
Iowa, or whether a body like the Illinois State Board of Health, in 
which the law simply provides that the governor shall nominate and 
appoint seven persons, is a matter for careful study and consideration. 

The determination of these and similar questions requires a 
knowledge and comparison of the laws in different States and of the 
experience of each State in administration. Such a task is too great 
for each State association to undertake. It can only be done by a 
central body. We have recently established, under the Council on 
Health and Public Instruction, a medico-legal bureau which will 
collect laws, ordinances, bills and reports on all public health subjects 
for the guidance and assistance of States desiring information. The 
present plans include, as a tentative list, the following : 

1. State board of health law. 

2. Vital statistic law. 

3. Law authorizing a sanitary survey of the State and making an 
appropriation for it. 



290 



Modern Medicine. 



Am. Jour. Phann. 
June, 1915. 



4. Medical practice act including the regulation of midwives and 
all sects treating the sick for compensation. 

5. Law authorizing city and county health organizations with 
definite relations to each other and to the State board. 

6. Food and drugs act. 

7. Law regulating water supply, sewage and waste disposal. 

8. Milk and dairy law. 

9. Law providing for sanitary and health inspection of schools. 

10. Industrial disease law. 

Such a bureau is not intended in any sense as compulsory or 
dictatorial, but rather for the guidance and advice of those State 
associations, committees or persons who may desire assistance. On 
each subject, all the available material will be secured and carefully 
studied and a model bill drafted which will be widely circulated for 
criticisms and suggestions so that the resulting measure when com- 
pleted will contain the combined wisdom and experience of all those 
interested. 

But such a central bureau can only be advisory. Under our form 
of government, the greater part of the public health legislation and 
administration must come under the jurisdiction of the State gov- 
ernment. However desirable and valuable may be a national depart- 
ment of health, it can never take the place of properly organized 
and administered State regulation of health matters. To the people 
of each State, then, the injunction must be to " work out your own 
salvation," for salvation from disease can come only through the 
education and the cooperation of the people. To you as physicians, 
and to your State association as your organized body, belongs the 
responsibility, as the possessors of scientific knowledge and as the 
representatives of the medical profession, of giving to your people 
the truth and of guiding them in the right direction in order that the 
results which they may reach may be the best possible results. This 
cannot be done through the use of political methods or machine 
tactics, by die use of personal influence or the exercise of despotic 
power, but can become possible only through you, as individuals and 
as an organization, embracing every possible opportunity to place by 
every available method the truth before your people in order that 
they, like the people in all ages, may know the truth and the truth 
may make them free. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June. 1915. J 



Book Reviezvs. 



291 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Annual Report of the Investigations of the Therapeutic Re- 
search Committee of the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry of the American Medical Association, volume hi, 19 14. 

This report consists of eight papers which exhibit on every page 
evidence that careful and painstaking work has been undertaken 
to place the drugs studied in their proper niche. 

We know of no better way to speak of these papers than to give 
the titles of the various subjects mentioned so that they may speak 
for themselves. By this we mean that a glimpse of these titles may 
awaken sufficient interest on the part of some pharmacists to become 
acquainted with the report as a whole. The work done by this 
Research Committee is of inestimable value to both the medical and 
pharmaceutical professions, and is bound to result in a more rational 
therapy. The titles are: "The Liberation of Formaldehyde from 
Hexamethylenamin in Pathologic Fluids." " The Mutual Action 
of Certain Digestive Ferments." " Studies in Cardiac Stimulants. 
I. Strychnine and Caff em Group." " Therapy of Cardiovascular 
Disturbances." " A Comparison of Methods for the Determination of 
the Proteolytic Activity of Pancreas Preparations." " The Present 
Status of Organic Iodin Preparations." " Clinical Studies in Caf- 
fein." "The Salicylates: A Historical and Critical Review of the 
Literature." This last paper is a particularly instructive and inter- 
esting resume of what has been written on this drug. 

John K. Thum. 

•New and Non-official Remedies, 1915: Containing Descrip- 
tions of the Articles Which Have Been Accepted by the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American 
Medical Association Prior to January i, 191 5. 
Next to the Pharmacopoeia itself, we know of no book that we 
refer to with more frequency, in the course of our work, than this 
useful little volume. The usefulness of this volume is further 
enhanced by the fact that it is revised every year and placed in the 
hands of the medical profession before the first quarter of the year 
has passed. Pharmacists can certainly appreciate this ; we have 
never been treated to such celerity in the revision of our pharmaco- 
poeia. Would not the United States Pharmacopoeia, and all pharma- 



292 



Current Literature. 



[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
L June, 1915. 



copceias, for that matter, be regarded with more favor by physicians 
if it was revised in like manner? Five years have passed since the 
last pharmacopceial convention, and the forthcoming pharmacopoeia 
has not yet come forth. 

A method of grouping remedies and substances of more or less 
similarity has been elaborated upon in the present revision and is 
a distinct advantage. This method enables one to see at a glance the 
comparative value and usefulness of the various therapeutic agents of 
which this book consists. J. K. T. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

Agricultural Alcohol. 

Edward Kremers, in Bulletin of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture No. 182, presents a report of his studies on the manu- 
facture of agricultural alcohol in Germany. In this study all phases 
of the subject have been studied by the author, including the taxa- 
tion question, the distribution of the finished product, and, lastly, 
the basic question, which was to determine the most profitable article 
for the production of agricultural alcohol. The potato has been 
found to be the most profitable for several reasons : i.e., that all the 
ingredients taken from the soil by the potato are returned to the soil; 
the product left after the starch has been converted into alcohol is 
valuable as a food for cattle ; other crops can be introduced into the 
rotation, and, lastly, it gives the farmer a chance to convert the 
unstable potato crop into a stable article, thereby avoiding an uneces- 
sary loss. The reports of the personal visits to several agricultural 
distilleries, which occupy about one-half of the pamphlet, are of 
very great importance and interest because the author has made a 
very careful study of the work as carried on at the various distilleries, 
bringing forth many facts which will be of importance to the 
investigators on this subject. A. H. 



THE AMERICAN ^ 

JOURNAL OF PHABftl6Y\ 

7? ^ d 

WHAT IS RICE POWDk^j^]^^ 
By Charles H. LaWall. 

If the average purchaser of the toilet powder commonly known 
as "Rice powder," often labelled " Poudre de.Riz" or " Fleur de 
Riz," were to be asked the question, What is rice powder?, the 
answer in the majority of cases would be, " Why, rice powder is a 
powder made from rice." 

Not one of the users of the product knows or realizes that for 
years the greater proportion of brands of toilet powder either labelled 
directly as rice powder or in a manner implying the presence of rice 
as a preponderating constituent contain but a small proportion of 
rice, and many of them contain none at all. 

What, then, are the other constituents used in place of rice? 
Are they harmful ? * Why tins deception in an article which costs so 
little to put up? 

To answer the last question first, I have found no reason for 
the deception except that it is a matter of custom. The constituents 
used in place of rice are not harmful ; some are cheaper and some 
are dearer than rice would be ; they are chalk, talc, zinc oxide, bis- 
muth subnitrate, and corn starch. 

Chalk is a well-known natural mineral substance sold and used 
in the purified form for various toilet purposes under its own name. 

Talc is also a well-known natural mineral substance sold in the 
purified and perfumed condition under the name talcum or talcum 
powder. 

Zinc oxide is a compound of zinc made by burning the metal and 
collecting the resulting white powder, which is the oxide. It is used 
largely in painting and is known as zinc white. It is used in medicine 
and also sometimes as a cosmetic under its name zinc oxide. 



1 Read at the Meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
June, 1915. 

(293) 



294 



What is Rice Powder? 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



Bismuth subnitrate is a chemical compound of a rather uncom- 
mon metal known as bismuth. It is frequently used in medicine, and 
was formerly largely used as a cosmetic under the name of pearl 
white, but its use for cosmetic purposes has practically disappeared, 
because it turns black in the presence of sulphur compounds. 

Corn starch is the well-known household article of that name. 

Rice powder or rice starch is really rice flour made by grinding 
rice very fine and sifting it through bolting cloth. All of these sub- 
stances are not always present; some manufacturers use one for- 
mula and some another, but I have found, out of sixteen samples 
examined, all claiming to be rice powder, but two which consisted 
entirely of the genuine article. 

But why does not the Government or the State take cognizance 
of this condition of affairs under one of the many laws which pro- 
hibit adulteration? Because there are no laws prohibiting adultera- 
tion except in foods and in drugs. Rice powder sold for cosmetic 
purposes is not a food, and unless some specific claims of remedial 
properties are made upon the label it is not legally a drug — therefore 
it does not fall within scope of the enforcement of any of the " Food 
and Drug Acts," and, as a matter of fact, neither do most of the 
toilet soaps and cosmetic preparations, which is the reason for more 
deception being practised in this line of articles than in any other 
at the present time. 

My attention was first directed to the rice powder frauds — for 
frauds they undoubtedly are — a few years ago, when one of Phila- 
delphia's most eminent physicians encountered some difficulty in 
connection with a diagnosis he was making, and in which he felt 
that the difficulty was due to the use of a face powder containing 
something other than the rice flour of which the user said it con- 
sisted. Examination showed the presence of zinc oxide, talc, and 
corn starch, no rice being present at all, and further tests showed 
the disturbing factor in the diagnosis to have been the zinc oxide. 

While none of the constituents mentioned are ordinarily harmful, 
the above instance affords an example of the disadvantages some- 
times arising from using a product which is deceptively labelled, as 
this one was. 

Some time ago I read the following paragraph in the Literary 
Digest, which had been copied from School Science and Mathe- 
matics (Chicago, October) : 

" For several years occasional cases have come under the obser- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



What is Rice Powder? 



295 



vation of oculists in which the patients, invariably women, complain 
of vision being blurred, inability to use the eyes for any length of 
time, and severe itching of the lids. The slightest rubbing of the lids 
produces a marked redness of the eyes and only aggravates the itch- 
ing. In severe cases the lids are frequently swollen from constant 
rubbing. There is a sticky, elastic secretion which, when being 
removed, pulls out in long strings. Microscopic examination of the 
secretion reveals masses of what appear to be crystals. Until recently 
no satisfactory explanation of the presence of these crystals in the 
eye has been given. Secretion taken from the eyes of two sisters 
suffering from this peculiar complaint were submitted to the pro- 
fessor of pathology of one of the university medical schools, who 
found that the crystals came from rice face powder. Seven other 
patients in whom the same symptoms and microscopic conditions 
were found all used the same make of a face powder. When the 
powder is applied to the face with a puff a portion of the fine dust is 
driven upward and lodges on the moist eyeball. The rice powder 
in the presence of the tears then becomes mucilaginous in character 
and is not washed from under the eyelids. The powder produces 
the irritation, which is aggravated by rubbing. Those who use a 
chamois-skin in applying the powder are less liable to cause the 
fine dust to arise, which probably accounts for the condition not 
being found in every woman using face powder. The condition is 
quickly relieved by flushing the eye with boric-acid solution. The 
irritation rapidly disappears when the eyes are kept washed out with 
a soothing eye,- wash." 

Although no further explanation is given of the identity of the 
crystals in the so-called rice powder, I have no hesitation in saying 
that from my own experience the crystals were undoubtedly those of 
talc, which is used almost universally in rice powders and in which 
a microscopic examination usually shows the material to be in the 
form of broken crystalline fragments, very sharp angled and alto- 
gether capable of producing such symptoms as those described. 

In consequence of the foregoing experience with the so-called rice 
powder submitted by the Philadelphia physician I made an investi- 
gation of the composition of a number of the different kinds of rice 
powder sold in Philadelphia. Several of the samples were of purely 
local origin, many, however, being of national reputation and dis- 
tribution. It may safely be assumed that the conditions found in 
Philadelphia could be duplicated anywhere "in the United States. 



296 



What is Rice Powder? 



Am. Jour. Pbarro. 
July, 1915. 



The following is a statement of the results of the examination, 
together with information concerning the place of purchase, price, 
and manner of labelling of each, and in some instances the results 
of correspondence with the seller whose attention had been called 
to the fraudulent character of the product. The names of brands 
are purposely withheld as being of no particular benefit, practically all 
of the samples standing upon the same level in the evident dishonesty 
attending their labelling and sale. It would seem, from a study of 
the labels of the products, that a French label is a practical guarantee 
of adulteration, the only pure samples encountered being labelled 
simply " Rice powder," with no affectation or frills. " Poudre de 
Riz" is French for rice powder, and " Fleur de Riz" is French for 
the choicest rice, fleur, which means flower, being used in a symbolic 
manner. Indeed, the attitude of manufacturers in general with 
reference to the adulteration of rice powder is like the grin of the 
Cheshire cat in " Alice in Wonderland," in which it will be remem- 
bered that when Alice expresses surprise that a cat could grin the 
Red Queen replied, " All of them can and most of them do." 

No. 1. — Labelled " Fleur de Riz — much fresher and consequently 
much superior to the imported." Price, 20 cents for package contain- 
ing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a large drug store. 
Analysis showed it to consist entirely of corn starch. Attention of 
the proprietor of the store was called to the dishonesty of the practice, 
and an immediate reply was received, stating that the product would 
be changed. That this was done was subsequently verified. 

No. 2. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Surfine " ; claimed to be im- 
ported. Price, 20 cents for package containing 4 ounces. This sam- 
ple was purchased at the same store as No. 1. The same brand was 
also found for sale at the same price in various other drug and depart- 
ment stores. Analysis showed this sample to consist of rice flour 
50 per cent., zinc oxide 10 per cent., and talc 40 per cent. 

No. 3. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Rice Powder." Price, 20 
cents for a package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased 
in a department store. It purported to be manufactured in New 
York. The composition of this sample was corn starch 17 per cent., 
chalk 13 per cent., talc 70 per cent. A letter addressed to the firm 
selling the product was shortly after replied to by the manufacturers, 
who stated that the package in question had probably been put up by 
mistake, and that if I returned it they would send me a package of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
July, 1915. J 



What is Rice Powder? 



297 



rice powder. Six months later the same brand, adulterated in the 
same manner, was still on sale in the same store. 

No. 4. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Extra Fine.'' Price, 20 cents 
for a package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a 
department store. It bore the label of a manufacturing company, 
but gave no address of place of manufacture. Analysis showed it to 
consist of corn starch 50 per cent., chalk 25 per cent., talc 25 per cent. 
A letter addressed to the firm selling this product, calling attention 
to its character, was replied to in a few days with the information 
that the matter would be immediately taken up and investigated. Six 
months later the same brand was still on sale with the same composi- 
tion. 

No. 5. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Extra Fine."' Price, 20 cents 
for a package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a 
department store and was claimed to be their own make. The com- 
position was corn starch 7 per cent., talc 93 per cent. A letter 
addressed to this store was replied to by a request that I call upon 
the head of the particular department selling this product concerning 
the complaint. LTpon my suggesting that I would prefer having the 
head of the department call upon me, nothing further was heard. A 
few weeks later the packages on sale were noticed to have had the 
word " compound " added in small letters below the title. Upon 
asking the demonstrator whether the powder was pure rice powdei 
she -said " yes," and upon calling her attention to the word " com- 
pound " and asking what it meant she said it didn't mean anything 
in particular, but had to be put on on account of the law. 

No. 6. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Extra Fine — compound " 
(the latter word in very small letters) . Price, 15 cents for a package 
containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a department 
store and claimed to be from a manufacturer who made it especially 
for them. It bore a floral name. Analysis showed it to contain rice 
starch 25 per cent., zinc oxide 15 per cent., talc 60 per cent. Two 
separate letters calling this firm's attention to the character of the 
product brought no reply. Six months later the same brand was 
still upon sale of the same composition. 

No. 7. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Comp." Price, 10 cents for 
a package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a 
10-cent store. It bore the name of a French 'manufacturer. The 
analysis showed rice 18' per cent., chalk 12 per cent., talc 70 per cent. 

No. 8. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz — Comp." Price, 25 cents for 



298 



What is Rice Powder? 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



a package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a 
drug store. It bore the name of a Cincinnati manufacturer. The 
composition was 75 per cent, talc, 25 per cent, zinc oxide. 

No. 9. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz, Fine." Price, 25 cents for a 
package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a drug 
store. It bore the name of a French manufacturer. The composition 
was talc 7 per cent., zinc oxide 2 per cent., bismuth subnitrate 1 per 
cent., corn starch 90 per cent. 

No. 10. — This was another package of the same brand as sample 
No. 9, put up in a different shape and style. It showed essentially 
the same composition as No. 9. 

No. 11. — Labelled " Fleur de Riz." Price, 25 cents for a package 
containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a drug store. 
It bore the name of a French manufacturer. The composition was 
talc 27 per cent., corn starch 73 per cent. 

No. 12. — This was another package of the same brand as sample 
No. 11, put up in a package of a different shape and style. It showed 
the following composition : talc 38 per cent., corn starch 62 per cent. 

No. 13. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz de ." Price, 35 cents for 

a package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a drug 
store. It bore the name of a French manufacturer. It has been 

extensively advertised under the name of " Rice Powder." The 

composition was talc 67 per cent., zinc oxide 33 per cent. No reply 
was received from the manufacturers to whom a letter was written 
concerning the deception. Subsequent analysis some months later, 
showed essentially the same composition, i.e., no rice flour or any 
other starch, and about 75 per cent, talc and 25 per cent, zinc oxide. 

No. 14. — Labelled " Rice Powder." Price, 20 cents for a package 
containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a drug store. It 
bore the name of a Philadelphia perfume specialty company. It 
consisted entirely of rice flour. 

No. 15. — Labelled " Rice Powder." Price, 25 cents, for a package 
containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased by mail from a 
Western advertising specialty house. It consisted entirely of rice 
flour. 

No. 16. — Labelled " Poudre de Riz." Price, 25 cents for a 
package containing 4 ounces. This sample was purchased in a drug 
store and bore the label of a Philadelphia manufacturer. It con- 
sisted of rice flour 50 per cent., zinc oxide 25 per cent., talc 25 per 
cent. A request from the manufacturer for an explanation brought 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1915. / 



What is Rice Powder? 



a reply in which it was stated that " Poudre de Riz " or " Rice 
powder " simply was a trade name for a powder containing rice as 
one of its ingredients. Some of the manufacturers may believe this, 
but the salespeople at the cosmetic counters have never been in- 
formed that such is the case, for always upon inquiry the informa- 
tion is forthcoming, " Yes, this rice powder is perfectly pure." 

To summarize the results, it will be found that of the sixteen 
samples examined but two were genuine and only six contained 
rice starch at all. In eight of the samples corn starch was used in 
place of the more expensive rice starch, and in two samples no starch 
of any kind was present, the constituents being wholly of a mineral 
origin. Talc was present in thirteen out of the sixteen samples. 

. The wholesale prices of the foregoing materials are approxi- 
mately as follows : 

Rice flour 6 cents a pound 

Corn starch 3 T / 2 cents a pound 

Talc 6 cents a pound 

Zinc oxide 2 cents a pound 

Chalk 5 cents a pound 

* Bismuth subnitrate $2. 75 a pound 

* This may be disregarded, as only two samples contained this ingredient, and this only in 
an amount of 1 per cent. 

It will be seen that there is no great difference in the cost of 
any of the ingredients used, and that, inasmuch as the style of the 
package is in every case of an inexpensive character, there is no 
warrant for charging at the rate of from 40 cents to $1 a pound for 
the mixing and perfuming, which are the only other items of expense. 

It is also clearly apparent that there is no justification for the 
substitution of other ingredients for rice flour when the label gives 
no clue to their presence. 

From the wholesale manner in which toilet powders seem to be 
used in these days, noses often being so thickly powdered as to 
resemble marshmallows, it would seem from the consumer's stand- 
point to be economy to purchase rice flour in a grocery, where, being 
sold under the provisions of the food law, it is certain to be pure, 
and to use it in the unperfumed and unadulterated condition. It 
would commend itself also as tending to reduce the high cost of 
living. 



300 Utilisation of Our Own Resources. { Am ju?y r 'i9i h 5 arm 



• THE UTILIZATION OF OUR OWN RESOURCES IN PRO- 
DUCING DYESTUFFS AND DRUGS. 1 

By JoseI^i Jacobs, Atlanta, Georgia. 

In a paper read at the Baltimore meeting of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association I endeavored to show how the Southern people 
supplied the drug necessities to their armies and their non-combatants 
during the four years of war between the States, while importations 
were hindered by blockades and home manufactures demoralized by 
war. 

The lessons of self-dependence that were learned and practised 
by our Southern people during that time in utilizing the many and 
varied drug resources of our own country, in the absence of the 
accustomed foreign supplies, apply with similar force now to our 
whole reunited country, while the world's peaceful trade and inter- 
course are shattered by the new strife of the European nations.' 

Owing to our friendly patronage of foreign manufacturers in 
buying from them many drug products that we could have made for 
ourselves and many that we could have dispensed with by the use 
of easily-obtained substitutes, we have found ourselves, after less 
than a year of their strifes and disputes, distressed to afford the 
usual supplies of medicinals at reasonable cost to our consumers. 
It is timely, therefore, it might seem, to learn the cause of these 
conditions and call attention to the remedies for it which present 
and pending circumstances seem to indicate. 

Our Patent Laws. 

If our patent laws had not operated to give unfair advantages to 
foreign manufacturers of chemicals and dyestuffs over our own 
we should now be in condition to make on American soil all kinds 
and quantities of chemical products needed at home and much to sell 
at a profit abroad. Other nations have required of those desiring 
patents or trade-marks that factories for the production of the 
articles involved should be erected on their domains. We have 
allowed their proprietaries under our patents and trade-marks to 
produce the articles of their manufacture in their own country with- 
out any requirements of their manufacture here. Now, that our for- 

1 From the Constitution, Atlanta, Georgia, May 23, 1915. 



Lm 'jfiir r m5 arm " } Utilisation of Our Own Resources. 301 



eign trade is cut off and demoralized by the European war it becomes 
more and more difficult to supply the usual needs of our people in 
the drug lines at fair and customary prices, and, as " time grows 
long," unless wars cease, these conditions will grow worse. 

To illustrate present conditions by one of many hundreds of 
drug articles, a short time ago phenacetine was selling at wholesale 
in Germany at 20 cents an ounce, in England 24 cents, in Canada 26 
cents, and in the United States $1 an ounce. You could buy this 
article in Canada and bring it to the United States, and under our law 
it was necessary to pay the difference between 26 cents and $1 to the 
American representative of the manufacturer. That applied at that 
time and to-day to such well-known articles as creosotal, aspirin, and 
many others. German chemists claim superiority for their products, 
which I do not grant. I believe the firm of Powers-Weightman- 
Rosengarten Company, of Philadelphia, is in position to manufacture 
as good chemicals as, if not better than, are made anywhere on earth. 
A great deal of criticism has been made of American chemists because 
they have not manufactured dyestuffs. It is granted that coal-tar 
chemistry has been a special study in Germany, and in that country 
they excel in this line. At one time we manufactured largely car- 
bolic acid and other preparations now produced nearly exclusively in 
Germany, but the prices of the foreign article were reduced to such 
an extent that American chemists could not compete. Their chemists 
will probably work for 400 marks per month, equivalent to $100 in 
our money, while our chemists get from two to five times that 
amount. In underselling American producers it seems to have been 
their policy to lose money, if necessary; and after that our manufac- 
turers decided to give up, and to use the machinery for something 
else then to restore prices. 

The present war has certainly taught us a few very bitter lessons 
and would seem to indicate that we should demand of aliens who 
wish to patent an article or register a trade-mark in this country that 
they must establish a factory for its production here. 



Lesson May Be Profitable. 

But, looking beyond the effects of our past unwisdom in failing 
to establish manufactures of every article of consumption needed 
by our own people, we may make a virtue out of our present necessi- 
ties if we will properly use the vast drug resources of our own vales 



302 Utilisation of Our Own Resources. { Am -ju?y, r i9 P i5 arm ' 

and forests and which exist so largely in our own soils. A few 
years ago, on a visit to Mr. Sidney Phelan, at Roberta, Ga., I noticed 
an enormous amount of peaches going to waste, and wrote an article 
for the Constitution that at a small cost a crusher could be used to 
utilize the seeds and extract the peach oil. At that time the firm of 
Jacobs's Pharmacy was importing peach oil from abroad and paying 
from 25 to 30 cents a pound. The Constitution followed this article 
up with an editorial, but it ended then and there. 

The early American practitioners were forced to depend upon 
native drugs, because of scarcity of foreign supplies. The later 
generations have been accustomed to receive drugs bearing foreign 
stamp of approval in use. As facilities for communication with 
foreign countries are now more highly developed, we have come, 
unconsciously, to depend upon foreign sources for a large proportion 
of articles of our materia medica. At the time of this writing sup- 
plies are not available to any great extent, and this seems to be a 
moment when we should turn to our own resources and see what a 
country with such a wide variation in climatic and soil conditions as 
the United States can produce. We cannot entirely replace foreign 
drugs, but we can replace many of them by native drugs, which, 
for lack of notice, have fallen into disuse. We have reached a point 
where it is more difficult every dayx to buy goods, and each day we 
see evidences of articles that have simply become non-procurable, 
and, with goods shut off entirely from Germany, this will grow from 
day to day. Domestic chemicals, too, have become scarce from 
the unprecedented demand from the other side, and manufacturers 
in many cases have withdrawn entirely from the market. 



A List of Substitutes. 

I here append a list of substitutes that were used by druggists and 
physicians during the war in large quantities, in most of the instances 
being the only medicines of the kind to be had : 

For Columbo, yellow root; for Spanish flies, potato bugs, pow- 
dered leaves of butternut; for jalap, wild jalap, wild potato vine, 
fever root; for aloes, wild jalap, mulberry bark, butternut, dock, wild 
potato vine, Amer. Colombo; for quinine and Peruvian bark, tulip 
tree bark, dogwood, cotton-seed tea, chestnut root and bark, chin- 
quapin root and bark, thoroughwort, Spanish oak bark, knob grass, 
willow bark ; for digitalis, blood- root, wild cherry, pipsissewa, bugle 



Am jiiy r "i9i h 5 arm '} Utilization of Our Own Resources. 303 

weed, yellow jasmine ; for conium, American hemlock ; for opium, 
American hemlock, motherwort ; for sarsaparilla, wild sarsaparilla, 
soapwort, yellow parilla, China briar, queen's delight ; for chamomile, 
dogwood ; for flaxseed, watermelon seed ; for gum arabic, low mal- 
lows, apple, pear and quince gum, balm, watermelon seed ; for ergot, 
cotton root ; for guaiacum, boxwood, poke, prickly ash ; for ipecac, 
wild jalap, Carolina hipps ; for mezereon, prickly ash ; for Kino and 
catechu, cranesbill ; for senna, wild senna ; for colocynth, alum root ; 
for tannin, smooth sumac ; for olive oil, peanut oil, beechnut oil, 
cotton-seed oil ; for laudanum, hops, motherwort ; for acacia, slippery 
elm bark, sassafras pith; for bougies, slippery elm bark; for corks, 
blackgum roots, tupelo wood, corncobs ; for allspice, spice bush ; for 
assafoetida, wild chamomile ; for calomel, dandelion pleurisy root, 
butterfly weed ; for belladonna and hyoscyamus, Jamestown weed ; for 
valerian, lady's slipper; for colchicum, Indian poke. 

From various physicians, intelligent ladies and from old Con- 
federate magazines and books and newspapers I have gathered the 
following data in reference to peculiar and unusual uses of articles 
that are incident to our trade, that seemed to be of more or less 
general employment in the South by physicians, druggists and in 
Confederate households ; 

Wood anemone was employed as a vesicatory in removing corns 
from the feet. Powdered mayapple mixed with resin was used as a 
caustic in treating horses, the farriers using it for escharotic pur- 
poses. On farms the juice of the pulp of the maypop juice was 
made into a summer drink in place of lemonade. Powdered blood- 
root, snuffed up the nose, made a powerful sternutatory and was 
applied as an escharotic to fungous flesh. Pond lily poultice was 
extensively applied to ulcers. Button snakeroot, or globe flower, 
was used largely as an expectorant and diuretic. Toothache bark 
(Aralia spinosa) was used to allay pain caused by carious teeth, 
and in South Carolina the negroes relied on it almost exclusively 
for rattlesnake bite. Side saddle or flycatcher was used in the 
various forms of dyspepsia. Ink was made from the rind of the 
pomegranate fruit, ink balls and copperas, and from poke-berries. 
Where, during convalescence, an astringent tonic was indicated, dog- 
wood supplied the need. This, with the blackberry and gentians and 
pipsissewa as tonics and diuretics, and sweetgum and sassafras for 
mucilaginous and aromatic properties, and wild jalap as a cathartic, 



304 Utilisation of Our Own Resources. { Am ' J J ^y T 'i^5 Tm ' 

supplied the surgeon in camp with easily procurable medicinal plants, 
which proved sufficient in many times of need. 

The bark of the swamp willow was mixed with tobacco for smok- 
ing. Watermelon juice was made into a syrup and the rind into 
preserves. The seed of the watermelon and those of the gourd 
were used as a diuretic. Gourd rind was used as mould for buttons. 
The ladies of St. John's Parish, South Carolina, used prickly pear 
for hardening tallow in candle-making, one pound to four pounds 
of tallow, taking the place of wax. The hand-leaved violet formed an 
emollient application. Red maple made an astringent wash. 

In Process of Dyeing. 

In the process of dyeing it was found that maple and sweetgum 
barks, with copperas, made purple ; maple, red oak, and copperas, 
dove color; maple and walnut, brown ; sweetgum and copperas, nearly 
black ; peach-tree leaves and alum gave yellow ; the artichoke and 
black oak bark also gave yellow ; sassafras root with copperas, a drab ; 
smooth sumac root and bark and berries gave black ; black oak bark 
with a basis of alum gave a bright yellow ; with oxide of tin, tints 
from pale yellow to bright orange; with oxide of iron, a drab; black 
oak galls in a solution of vitriol made purple, which, as it grows 
stronger, passed into a black ; alum and alder, yellow ; hickory bark 
and copperas, olive; hickory bark and alum, green; white oak and 
alum, brown; walnut-root and leaves, alone, black; blacksmith's 
dust was frequently used in place of copperas. 

Buckeye lotion was used for gangrenous ulcers, and by some 
for the toothache. 

Among the substitutes for coffee, at home and in camp, the 
following were a part : Rye, parched okra seeds, cotton seed, parched 
sweet potatoes, parched corn hominy, peanuts. 

Cotton-seed decoction was used for inflammation in mucous 
passages. The roots of the cotton plant were employed in asthma, 
and by the negroes as an abortant. Soap was made from cotton seed 
by treating them direct with lye. 

Among the substitutes for tea were Ceanothns americanus, known 
as red root, or New Jersey tea, and holly leaves and blackberry 
and raspberry leaves and rose leaves. 

The Amelia Azedamch (Chinaberry) furnished some valuable 
uses. The ripe berries were employed in making whiskey ; the bark of 



Am * jfi?y r "i9i5 arm " } Utilization of Our Own Resources. 305 

the root used as an anthelmintic. The leaves were said to prevent 
" botts " in horses, and were used to pack with dried fruits to 
preserve them from ravages of insects. A soap was made from the 
berries, called " poor man's soap." 

The ox-eyed daisy was used in place of Persian insect powder — 
an insecticide used as far back as 1857. ^ n the country, fresh elder- 
berry leaves were laid near the head of a bed-ridden person to keep 
away flies. 

Some Common Remedies. 

It was quite an industry, I was told by an Atlanta lady, Mrs. 
Marcus A. Bell, for the country people to raise castor oil beans. The 
crushed beans were boiled and the oil skimmed off. She said that 
the grandmothers of those days revived the traditions of colonial 
times. They made their own dyes and coloring matters from the 
roots and barks of native woods. Dogwood, sumac, and the roots 
of pine trees were largely used, and indigo was cultivated in the 
gardens. Instead of paregoric, fennel-seed tea was given to babies. 
For rash they used red-oak bark and alum. Goose grease and 
sorghum, or honey, was a standard remedy for croup, backed up 
with turpentine and brown sugar. Sassafras tea was given in the 
spring and fall as a blood medicine. Adults' colds were doctored 
with horsemint tea and tea from the roots of broom-sedge. For 
eruptions and impure blood, spice-wood tea was given. Wine was 
made from the berries of the elder bush. For diarrhoea, roots of 
blackberry and blackberry cordial ; and so, also, was a tea made 
from the leaves of the rose geranium. Mutton suet, sweetgum, and 
the buds of the balm of Gilead were a standard salve for all cuts 
and sores. Balsam cucumber was widely used as a tonic, and was 
considered a specific remedy in burns. Catnip, elecampane, and com- 
frey root and pennyroyal were in every good housewife's pantry, in 
which, also, was the indispensable string of red peppers, a bag of 
sage leaves and of " balm."' Calamus root for colic in babies was 
a common dose. The best known standard Georgia tonic was dog- 
wood, poplar, and wild-cherry barks, equal proportions, chipped fine 
and put in whiskey and taken a wineglass ful at meal times ; it is 
still used in large quantities from " Yamacraw to Nickajack." In 
hemorrhages, black haw root was commonly used. All the white 
mustard they had was raised in their gardens. 

Interviewing one of our old Confederate surgeons, he said : 



306 Utilization of Our Own Resources. { Am ju^ r, 1 S h 5 arm - 

" During the early part of the war I was placed in charge of a railroad 
hospital in a small town where it was difficult to obtain medicine at 
almost any cost, and as I had my little hospital crowded nearly all 
the time, both with employees of the road, and wounded and sick 
soldiers, afflicted with various diseases and all kinds of wounds and 
injuries, and being also engaged in general practice, it naturally 
followed that my mind was severely taxed in order to supply remedies 
and substitutes to meet the demands of such varied practice. I 
perused my dispensary and called into requisition an old botanic 
practice that had been handed down as a relic of the past, but from 
which I confess to have received valuable aid and very many useful 
hints in regard to the medical virtues of our native plants. I give 
you the following facts from a record I kept of the patients treated, 
and the remedies I used, and the principal substances I resorted to : 
" Of that large class of medicines, so useful in surgery and so 
much in demand in war times, called antiseptics, most of them, I 
may say, have been discovered and appropriated to surgical use since 
our war. In fact, I had but little else at my command except the 
cold-water dressing for wounds. From experiment I learned to 
improve on the plain old method, as I think, by employing a decoction 
of red oak bark added to the water, which acted as a disinfectant, 
and by its stimulating and astringent properties promoted the healing 
process. I also used a weak solution of bicarbonate of soda, which I 
found beneficial in the suppurative stages. When emollients were 
indicated, I used slippery elm bark and wahoo-root bark, and solution 
of common salt often helped. In case of great pain I employed 
poppy heads, nightshade, and stramonium (Jimson weed). 

For Intermittent Fever. 

" I had a number of cases of intermittent fever. I would give 
strong boneset tea, warm, and until free vomiting was produced, and 
as a substitute for quinine, I used, during the intermissions, butterfly 
root or pleurisy root tea, which would nearly always cut short the 
febrile state. 

" Remittent or bilious fevers were treated much the same way, 
except that I invariably gave good doses of mandrake tea in the 
beginning. White ash root or prickly ash root were often given in 
these fevers to advantage, using always the butterfly root tea in the 
febrile stage. Virginia snake root, yellow root, or Sampson's snake 



Am 'jSj Ur 'i9i h 5 arm ' } Utilisation of Our Own Resources. 307 

root, acted nearly as well, but I preferred the other. If I could 
have obtained blue mass or calomel I would have begun treatment 
with a dose or two of that, but none was to be had. 

" Mayapple root or peach-tree leaves made into a strong tea and 
drunk warm would act on the bowels as certainly as senna, but with 
children, where too much tea is not desirable, I often gave beef's feet 
oil, hog's feet oil, or even lard heated with syrup. 

" In cases of pneumonia, pleurisy, catarrhal fevers, etc., I made 
local applications of mustard seed or leaves, stramonium leaves, 
hickory leaves, pepper, etc., warm, and gave alternately butterfly root 
and sanguinaria, and continued to slightly nauseating, from day to 
day (no need of anything else). The two last remedies took the 
place of Dover's powder, quinine, and all other diaphoretics, febri- 
fuges, and arterial sedatives. 

" Phytolacca or poke was another favorite remedy, the tincture, 
when alcohol or whiskey could be obtained ; otherwise, tea of root 
or berries. I used it in all cases of chronic rheumatism or neuralgia, 
enlarged glands, scrofula, syphilis, and all cases requiring alteratives, 
often combining with American sarsaparilla root, sassafras, alder, 
and prickly ash. 

" Female complaints gave me some trouble, but I soon learned 
the use of black haw, squaw weed, partridge berry, etc. I had been 
taught in the old text-books that opiates in large doses would control 
some cases of threatened abortion, when the patient had not lost 
too much from hemorrhage. I found that the black haw root tea 
would absolutely stop this tendency, not only in cases where there 
was but little hemorrhage, but where large quantities had passed, 
and would relieve the most severe cases of dysmenorrhea, especially 
when combined with squaw weed, partridge berry, or red shank. 



Substitutes for Opiates and Astringents. 

" In stomach and bowel diseases I found but little difficulty in 
obtaining plenty of substitutes for opiates, astringents, and the like; 
in fact, I believe that an All-wise Providence has especially provided 
the best antidotes in creation on the hills and dales and by the vales 
and streams of our own Southland. In ordinary looseness of bowels 
or diarrhoea I gave an infusion of raspberry leaves or whortleberry 
leaves (both of which act well on the kidneys and bladder). Where 
there was a nausea or sick stomach, a handful of peach-tree leaves 



308 Utilisation of Our Own Resources. { Am ji™ ^J 1 ™ 1, 

steeped in water and drunk will settle it, or, what is perhaps better, 
the kernels of two or three seeds cracked and cold water drunk off 
them. If stronger astringent is needed, the inner bark of red oak, 
blackberry or dewberry root tea, or red shank root, are sure remedies. 

" Agrimony tea, and, as a last resort, the nut gall or inkball made 
into what, from its color, I called black wash (made by squeezing 
the juice out and adding a little copperas). This black wash is not 
only a splendid ink, but is a destroyer of venereal sores, warts, corns, 
ringworm and old ulcers, and excrescences of nearly every kind, 
much superior to lime water and calomel. Weakened properly, it is 
good in obstinate bowel diseases and can be used as an injection in 
gonorrhoea, gleet, etc. Silk weed root, put in whiskey and drunk, 
giving at the same time pills of rosin from the pine tree, with very 
small pieces of blue vitriol, will cure obstinate cases of bladder 
troubles, and is a substitute for copaiba, cubebs, etc. 

" I raised lobelia from the seed, and found it to be a reliable 
emetic, useful in cough medicines, croup, and asthma. I have 
relieved asthma with lobelia and by smoking stramonium leaves. We, 
of course, used turpentine as an adjunct in all cases where indicated, 
which is the case in very many diseases, and in many a positive 
curative agent. 

" Onions and garlic were useful as poultices in nearly all glandular 
enlargement, as are also poke-root, celery, pepper, parsley, sage, 
thyme, rue and other garden products. Many of the latter were 
used for diseases of women and children. 

" White sumac, red elm, prickly ash and poke will, in connection 
with my black wash, cure recent cases of syphilis. It will also cure 
many cases of chronic rheumatism. Peach-tree leaves and Sampson's 
snake root will cure most cases of incipient dyspepsia. Gargle made 
of sage and honey will cure most cases of sore throat, tonsillitis. 

" For infants, calamus, catnip and soot teas are better than 
soothing syrup with opiates." 

Nearly every old practitioner in the South to-day is full of such 
reminiscences as the foregoing. 

Our American people have every resource of material and intelli- 
gence to supply their own needs in drugs and every other kind of 
manufacture, and need only to " look around " them with the spirit 
and pride of their own independence to sustain every requirement 
of good health, and plenty, in peace — or war. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1915. X 



The Estimation of Fat. 



309 



THE ESTIMATION OF FAT. 1 

By Helman Rosenthal and P. F. Trowbridge, 

From the Department of Agricultural Chemistry of the University of 
Missouri,' Columbia. 

In the course of the nutrition investigations in this laboratory we 
have occasion to make a great many estimations of fat in samples of 
portions of animals and in feeding stuffs. The usual Soxhlet extrac- 
tion of the thoroughly-dried sample with ether is the method that 
has been employed. It is understood that this method gives a deter- 
mination of the crude fat or total ether-soluble material. By the 
Soxhlet extraction of dried blood we have been unable to find any 
ether-soluble substances. It has been very difficult to obtain con- 
cordant results with such material as brain, liver, and bran, and it 
has been found that sixteen hours' extraction of these substances 
would not remove all the ether-soluble material. A reextraction 
frequently adds a very appreciable amount of crude fat. It is 
because of these difficulties that we have investigated the methods 
proposed for accurate fat estimation in the hope that we could find 
a method that would give a true determination of the fat present, and 
at the same time permit application in a laboratory where a great 
many determinations must be made. 

Kumagawa and Suto 2 have made a study of the general methods 
of fat estimation. The methods proposed by Rosenfeld, by Dor- 
meyer, and by Glickin are also extraction methods, and therefore 
are no more accurate than the regular Soxhlet method. Kumagawa 
and Suto saponify the fat with 5N sodium hydroxide solution. They 
transfer the soap to a separatory funnel and acidify with a mineral 
acid. The fatty acids are shaken out with ether, the ethereal solution 
is evaporated to dryness, taken up with ether, and filtered through 
asbestos. The filtrate, after being dried, is taken up with petroleum 
ether and again filtered. The filtrate is evaporated and dried to 
constant weight. The residue is taken up with petroleum ether and 
treated with alcoholic potash. The petroleum ether is removed and 
the alcoholic solution is again shaken with petroleum ether. These 
combined ether extracts are evaporated and taken up with a little 
alcoholic sodium hydroxide. The solution is evaporated, dried, 

1 Reprinted from Journal of Biological Chemistry. 

2 M. Kumagawa and K. Suto : Biochem Ztschr., iii, pp. 212-437, 1908. 



The Estimation of Fat. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1915. 



extracted with petroleum ether, and filtered. The nitrate is evapo- 
rated and dried to constant weight. The weight of unsaponifiable 
material will give by subtraction the true amount of fatty acids 
which is reported as fat by multiplying by the factor 1.046. This 
method has been shown to give very satisfactory results on many 
substances, but has not worked satisfactorily with blood. 

Shimidzu 3 has modified the above method for work with blood. 
He first extracts the blood with 95 per cent, alcohol and filters through 
a cloth filter. The residue is again extracted with boiling alcohol. 
The combined alcoholic filtrates are saponified with 5N sodium 
hydroxide, and the determination is continued as directed by Kuma- 
gawa-Suto. Following these directions we made several deter- 
minations of fat in cow's blood with the following results: 



Table I. 
Blood. 



Weight of 
sample 


Weight of 
fatty acids 
and unsaponi- 
fiable sub- 
stances 


Weight of 
unsaponifiable 
substances 


Weight of 
fatty acids 


Weight of 
neutral fat 


Neutral 
fat 


Time on 
fvater- 
bath 


Grammes 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Per cent. 


Hours 


20 


0.1775 


O.0813 


O.0942 


O.O985 


0-493 


X 


20 


O.I785 


0.0935 


O.085O 


O.0889 


0.445 




20 


0.1523 


O.0967 


O.0556 


O.O582 


0.291 


6 


10 


O.O782 


O.O471 


0.03 1 1 


O.O325 


0.325 


3 


9.5 


O.O757 


0.0353 


O.O404 


O.O423 


O.444 


4 



Average of five determinations, 0.3996 per cent. 
Greatest variation from average, 28 per cent. 
Least variation from average, 11 per cent. 



As can be seen from the above table, the results are far from satis- 
factory. The great difference in the results may be due to several 
causes. The large number of filterings may cause a considerable loss. 
The great amount of cholesterol and other unsaponifiable substances 
in the blood may cause a difficulty in separating them from the fatty 
acids. Furthermore, it seems almost impossible to get rid of all the 
coloring matter. Even after six hours' drying we were unable to 
obtain a colorless filtrate. Another probable source of error is the 
long drying on the water-bath, which may cause some of the fatty 
acids to become insoluble in petroleum ether. 4 

3 Y. Shimidzu: Ibid., xxviii, pp. 237-273, 1910. 

4 P. Hartley: lour. Physiol., xxxvi, p. 17, 1909; xxxviii, p. 353, 1909. It 
may be mentioned here that Bloor recently published a new nephelometric 
method for small amounts of fat in blood. This Journal, xvii, p. 377, 1914. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



The Estimation of Fat. 



In order to determine whether the large amount of cholesterol 
and other unsaponifiable substances in the blood soluble in petroleum 
ether has really a great deal to do with the fluctuation of results, 
we determined the amount of fat in the liver of the same cow from 
which the blood was obtained, since it is stated by Paton 5 that the 
liver contains only about 0.3 to 0.05 per cent, of cholesterol. 

One hundred grammes of liver were saponified and made up to 
volume, 1000 Cc, with water; 100 Cc. aliquots representing 10 
grammes of sample were then taken and analyzed. 



Table II. 
Liver. 



Weight of 
sample 


Weight of 
fatty acids 
and unsaponi- 
fiable sub- 
stances 


Weight of 
unsaponifiable 
substances 


Weight of 
fatty acids 


Weight of 
neutral fat 


Neutrai fat 
• 


Grammes 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Per cent. 


10 


O.2125 


O.OI94 


O.I931 


0.2020 


2.020 


IO 


0.2205 


O.O273 


0.1934 


0.2023 


2.023 



It is interesting to note how closely these two results agree, 
within 0.003 P er cent. The amount of unsaponifiable substances 
in the liver soluble in petroleum ether is over 10 per cent, of the 
total amount. This close agreement, it seems to us, would indicate 
that the less the amount of unsaponifiable substances, the less the 
errors introduced, regardless of the other errors enumerated above. 



Table III. 
Clear Back Fat of Pork. 



Weight of 
sample 


Weight of 
fatty acids 
and unsaponi- 
fiable sub- 
stances 


Weight of 
unsaponifiable 
substances 


Weight of 
fatty acids 


Weight of 
neutral fat 


Neutral fat 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Per cent. 


O.2826 


O.2404 


0.0010 


O.2394 


O.2504 


88.62 


O.2826 


O.2356 


O.OOO9 


O.2347 


0.2455 


86.87 



We next determine the fat in a sample of fresh, clear back fat of 
pork. We weighed out 2.8262 grammes and added 50 Cc. of 95 per 
cent, alcohol, and saponified it for three hours under a reflux con- 



5 D. N. Paton: Jo urn. Physiol, xix, p. 191, 1895-96. 



312 The Estimation of Fat. { Am, j5™'i9*5 arm " 

denser. There was thorough saponification. The alcohol was boiled 
off as completely as possible. The solution was then made up to a 
litre of solution with water, and 100 Cc. aliquots were taken. The 
petroleum ether extract was perfectly colorless. 

Comparison of Results by Soxhlet Extraction. 

As mentioned before, no ether-soluble material was obtained by 
extraction of the dried blood. Twice extraction of the liver (after 
drying in vacuo) gave 2.723 per cent, of ether-soluble material. 
The fresh sample of clear back fat of pork was analyzed, giving 
moisture 7.68 per cent, and fat (ether-soluble) 90.13 per cent. It 
will be noted that the results obtained by the Soxhlet extraction 
method and the Kumagawa-Suto method do not agree. 

Lieberman and Szekely 6 have proposed a metkod which consists 
in saponification of the fat, acidifying the soap with sulphuric acid. 
The acidified solution, in a specially-graduated flask, is shaken with 
petroleum ether and the flask filled to the mark with a saturated 
sodium chloride solution. After thorough mixing, an aliquot of the 
petroleum ether layer is taken, mixed with neutral alcohol, and 
titrated with standard alcoholic potash. Phenolphthalein is used as 
an indicator. The soap formed is evaporated to dryness, weighed, 
and the results are calculated to neutral glycerides. 

In studying this method in comparison with the other methods, 
we tried some modifications which seemed to be advantageous, and 
propose the following method : 

Description of Proposed Method. — The sample is heated for two 
hours with 30 Cc. of a 20 per cent, sodium hydroxide solution. 
Place the beaker in the water-bath and cover with a funnel having 
the stem cut oft". During this saponification the mixture is stirred 
a few times. 

The solution, while still warm, is transferred to a glass-stoppered 
separatory funnel of about 300 Cc. capacity. The beaker is washed 
out two or three times with warm water. The solution is then acidified 
with 35 Cc. of a 20 per cent, hydrochloric acid solution, (specific 
gravity 1.1). After thorough cooling the contents of the separatory 
funnel are shaken out with ether. The combined portions of the 
ether solution are filtered and evaporated to dryness on the water- 
bath. The residue is next taken up with about 25 Cc. of fat-free 



6 L. V. Lieberman and S. Szekely: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., lxxii, p. 360, 
1898. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July, 1915. J 



The Estimation of Fat. 



313 



petroleum ether (boiling-point 30 to 50 C), and about 10 or 
15 Cc. of 95 per cent, alcohol are added. This is titrated with N/20 
alkali, using about two drops of a 1 per cent, solution of phenol- 
phthalein as indicator. The end-point is sharp and distinct. 

With a sample of blood an alcohol extraction should first be made 
as recommended by Shimidzu. 7 

With a safnple rich in fat we recommend that saponification be 
brought about in the presence of alcohol, using a reflux condenser 
to prevent loss of alcohol during boiling; after saponification the 
alcohol can be driven off by boiling. 

The following tables give the determination of the fat in blood, 
liver, and clear back fat of pork by the proposed method : 



Table IV. 
Blood. 



Weight of 
sample 


No. of Cc. of 
0.0400/ N 
NaOH 


Weight of 
NaOH 


Weight of 
fatty acids 


Weight of 
neutral fat 


Fat 


Grammes 




Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Per cent. 


20 


3.60 


O.OO72 


O.O498 


O.052I 


O.260 


20 


3-50 


O.OO70 


O.0484 


O.0506 


0.253 


10 


1.85 


O.OO37 


O.0256 


0.0268 


O.268 


9-5 


I.78 


O.OO36 


O.0246 


O.O258 


O.272 



Average per cent., 0.263. 

Greatest variation from average, 3.7 per cent. 
Least variation from average, 0.95 per cent. 



This fat determination shows very concordant results, and, 
although it differs from the average of five determinations of the 
same sample by the Shimidzu modification of the Kumagawa-Suto 
method, it will be noted that the greatest variation from the average 
is only 3.7 per cent., compared with a corresponding variation of 
28 per cent, in the results from the Kumagawa-Suto method. 



Table V. 
Liver. 



Weight of 
sample 


No. of Cc. of 
0.0409/N 
NaOH 


Vv' eight of 
NaOH 


Weight of 
fatty acids 


Weight of 
neutral fat 


Fat 


Grammes 




Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Per cent. 


IO 


1345 


0,0265 


O.1834 


O.I918 


I.918 


10 


13-50 


O.0270 


O.1842 


O.I927 


I.927 


10 


14.50 


O.O290 


0.2005 


0.2097 


2.097 



Average per cent., 1.981. 



7 Shimidzu : Loc. cit. 



3H 



The Estimation of Fat. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



Table VI. 
Clear Back Fat of Pork. 



Weight of 
sample 


No. of Cc. of 
0.0409/N 
NaOH 


Weight of 
NaOH 


Weight of 
fatty acids 


Weight of 
neutral fat 


Fat 


Grammes 




Gramme 


Gramme 


Gramme 


Per cent. 


O.2825 


17.62 


O.0352 


O.2437 


O.2549 


90.18 


0.2826 


17.60 


O.O35I 


O.2434 


O.2546 


90.08 



Average per cent., 90.13. 



Table VII. 
Comparison of Three Methods. 



Substance 



Blood 

Blood 

Blood 

Liver 

Liver 

Liver 

Back fat of pork 
Back fat of pork 
Back fat of pork 



Method 



Soxhlet 

Kumagawa-Suto . 
Proposed method 

Soxhlet 

Kumagawa-Suto . 
Proposed method 

Soxhlet 

Kumagawa-Suto . 
Proposed method 



Fat 



0.000 
0.400 
0.263 
2.722 
2.021 
1.981 
90.13 
87.74 
90.13 



As can be seen from Table VII, the Soxhlet method does not 
compare at all favorably except when working with almost pure fat. 
With the blood the ether did not extract anything, while with the 
liver it extracted 35 per cent, of substances other than fat. This 
agrees with Paton (1895), who claimed that lecithin is a constant 
constituent of ether extract of liver. The Kumagawa-Suto method 
has many possibilities of error, as has been pointed out previously, 
and is time-consuming. The proposed method, on the other hand, 
is very short and by no means complicated. In titrating, a molecular 
weight has to be assumed. Kumagawa and Suto, in working with 
fats of different animal organs, claim that in the main they consist 
of 70 per cent, oleic acid, 20 per cent, palmitic acid, and 10 per cent, 
stearic acid. This proportion would give an average molecular 
weight of 277. The use of an arbitrary acid molecular weight of 
277 cannot account for the difference in the fat in the blood from 
that found by the Kumagawa-Suto method, as the use of an oleic 
acid molecular weight of 282 would raise the average per cent, of 
fat in the blood to only 0.270. Similarly, in converting the acid into 



Am. Jour. Fharm. ) 
July, 1915. J 



Disinfection. 



315 



neutral fat the use of the factor 1.046 can introduce no appreciable 
variation, as palmitic acid has a factor of 1.049, stearic a factor of 
1.044, an d oleic a factor of 1.045. 

Summary. 

The estimation of "fat by the use of solvent alone gives all sub- 
stances soluble in the menstruum employed. Simple extraction, there- 
fore, gives approximately true results for fat only when that is the 
only soluble substance present. In the back fat of the hog this is the 
case, and we obtained very concordant results with the Soxhlet 
method ; but with blood and liver the results were not reliable. The 
Kumagawa-Suto method is difficult of manipulation, and there seem 
to be many possibilities of error in the separation of the unsaponifi 7 
able substances. With the method proposed this preparation is 
avoided. The use of the arbitrary factor does not introduce an 
appreciable error. 

DISINFECTION. 

What Disinfectant is the Most Genebl\lly Applicable for 
Clinical, Surgical and Sanitary Purposes ? 1 

By Herbert C. Hamilton, Detroit, Mich. 

Phenol, discovered in 1834, was at first thought to be identical with 
wood creosote, which at that time was regarded very highly as a dis- 
infectant. This was proved, however, to be incorrect, and, while there 
were points of resemblance, there were also several properties not 
common to both. Beechwood creosote is less poisonous and more 
germicidal than phenol proper, but it is only very slightly soluble, 
coagulates albumins more completely, and for various other reasons 
is almost discredited except for a few special purposes. 

The discovery by Lister (1871) that suppuration of wounds could 
in almost every case be prevented by use of carbolic acid gave a great 
impetus to its use as a germicide and antiseptic. This work was the 
basis of the whole modern theory and practice relating to microorgan- 
isms, not only as they apply to Lister's special field of surgery but to 
that of sanitation as well. 

Probably no discovery in biology has been more revolutionary and 



Reprinted from Therapeutic Gazette, 1914, p. 311. 



3i6 



Disinfection. 



Am. Jour Pharni. 
July, 1915. 



far-reaching than his, since he shares with Pasteur the honor of dem- 
onstrating the connection between microorganisms and processes of 
infection. Lister found carbolic acid to be exceedingly efficient, and 
recommended it highly because of its ready adaptability to the proc- 
esses of aseptic surgery. While it is fatal in three to five per cent, 
solution to the vegetative forms of microbial life, it is not always 
effective against spores in any dilution or even in pure form except at 
high temperatures. However, because of retaining its effectiveness 
in the presence of salts, acids, alkalies, and even protein, it ranks above 
mercuric chloride for some purposes, although under ideal conditions 
the latter is many times as efficient. 

That portion of coal-tar oil which remains after phenol is removed 
was first recognized as having antiseptic value when it was used for 
pickling timber, a process patented in 1836 in England. It is still an 
open question what constituent of the heavy coal-tar oils is most valu- 
able as a preservative, but its use for this purpose served to direct 
attention to the strongly germicidal character of certain of its con^ 
stituents. A part of the oil, later known as creosote oil because of 
its similarity to wood creosote, was prepared as a disinfectant as 
early as 1874. The first preparation of importance was that known as 
creolin, prepared in 1887. It was analyzed, and its composition made 
known to the scientific world in 1889. Since that time the number of 
such preparations has increased enormously, and at the present time 
there are hundreds of the coal-tar disinfectants composed of creosote 
oil and soap and containing various proportions of phenols. The 
germicidal values of these range from that with a coefficient of 1, or 
about equal to pure phenol, to those of exceptional value with coeffi- 
cients of 10 or more, depending on the amount and character of the 
phenols present. 

The phenol coefficient is a term used to designate the value of a 
germicide. Since carbolic acid or phenol is well known as an efficient 
disinfectant, its value is taken as unity, and the value of any other 
substance similarly used can be expressed by a number called its co- 
efficient, which indicates how many times more, or in some cases less, 
the disinfectant can be diluted than phenol and retain an equal germi- 
cidal value. Because of the infinite variety of combinations in coal 
tar, a chemical assay will not give a very accurate indication of the 
efficiency of an oil. Its real value can be ascertained only by actual 
comparison with phenol, using B. typhosus as the test organism, and 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 
July, 1915. j" 



Disinfection. 



317 



finding the dilutions of the sample which are as efficient as certain 
dilutions of phenol. 

These phenols are so called from their resemblance to carbolic 
acid or phenol proper, and are more or less closely allied to it both in 
composition and in properties. They differ, however, in several im- 
portant characteristics. With few exceptions they are liquid and will 
not crystallize as carbolic acid does ; they are very slightly soluble in 
water, and require a solvent of some character to bring them into a 
condition in which their activity can be measured and applied ; they 
are much less poisonous and corrosive than phenol, and are more 
strongly germicidal. Chemically the phenols of ordinary coal tar 
differ from carbolic acid in having one or more organic radicals at- 
tached to the benzol ring. The graphic formula for benzol is theo- 
retically considered to be a hexagon, familiarly known as the benzol 
ring. Each angle of the hexagon is occupied by a CH group, and on 
this simple form thousands of organic compounds are built up by 
additions or substitution. 

Phenol and cresol or cresylic acid are shown below in their 
generally accepted formulae: 

CH coh coh * 



CH 1 ] CH CH ( \ CH CH I I CH 

chI Jc chL Jch chI Jc-ch 3 



CH CH CH 

Benzol. Phenol. Cresol. 

It is possible by synthesis to prepare derivatives still more strongly 
germicidal than those occurring naturally in the coal tar. 

The insoluble character of the phenols and of the creosote oil con- 
taining them requires the use of an agent to be incorporated with 
these oils which will allow the formation of a homogeneous solution 
or emulsion when the product is mixed with water. 

Because of the different kinds of oils used and the necessarily 
different treatments to prepare a substance .miscible with or soluble 
in water, the coal-tar disinfectants differ among themselves. These 
differences are unimportant except from the viewpoint of efficiency, 
and on this basis the disinfectants may be classified into three groups : 

Group 1, those with a phenol coefficient of about 2 which are 
soluble in soft water, to make a clear solution. Compound Solution 
of Cresols U. S. P. is an example of this group. 

Group 2, the ordinary type of coal-tar disinfectants with coeffi- 
cient of 2 to 6 which emulsify when mixed with warm, soft water. 



3i8 



Disinfection. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. . 



Group 3, the high coefficient disinfectants which also emulsify 
when mixed with water, but which are efficient when much more 
highly diluted. 

There are certain advantages in using these coal-tar derivatives 
which make them far superior to most other disinfectants. These 
may be summarized as follows: 

Convenience. — Compared with dissolving carbolic acid crystals to 
make a three to five per cent, solution it is much easier to dissolve 
any member of these groups. Some can be dissolved in water in 
any proportion ; any one, if properly made, can be dissolved readily 
to make a stronger solution than is possible to obtain with carbolic 
acid crystals. 

Efficiency. — The members of Group I will dissolve readily to make 
a solution of any desired strength, from that of pure carbolic acid 
down to one that is merely antiseptic. 

The members of Group 2 are more efficient — a one or two per 
cent, solution usually far exceeding the efficiency of the strongest 
solution of phenol. 

The members of Group 3 are still more efficient, as their phenol 
coefficients indicate. 

Safety. — The coal-tar disinfectants are practically neither toxic 
nor corrosive when diluted for use on the basis of their efficiencies. 

Character of Solution. — The formula for almost all the coal-tar 
disinfectants is such that the solution is alkaline and soapy, which 
aids its penetration. There is very little if any coagulation of protein 
to hinder penetration and lower the efficiency. 

It is evident from the above comparisons that the proper use of 
the coal-tar disinfectants represents a distinct advance over that of 
carbolic acid. Even the one factor of safety alone is sufficient reason 
to exclude the latter from general use. 

Comparing the coal-tar disinfectants with those of the metallic 
salts and gaseous disinfectants, the most important point to be con- 
sidered is: 

Adaptability. — Sulphites and sulphurous acid and ferrous salts 
are strictly limited in their usefulness to such conditions where the 
abstraction of oxygen or water is detrimental or destructive to the 
life and development of bacteria, etc. Calcium hypochlorite and 
potassium permanganate are valuable where bacterial life is endan- 
gered by the action of oxygen, these substances being oxidizing agents 
either directly or indirectly. It is evident, therefore, that such sub- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



Disinfection. 



319 



stances are not generally applicable as disinfectants. For purifying 
water or sewage where oxidation of organic matter is as important as 
germicidal action the oxidizing agents are especially adapted. 

Mercuric chloride, while being highly efficient under exceptional 
conditions, is so readily destroyed or so lowered in efficiency under 
ordinary conditions that it is not a dependable disinfectant. It is 
precipitated by protein, soap, and sulphur compounds ; it is limited 
in its penetrating properties because of the coagulating action on 
albumin ; it inhibits the growth and does not kill organisms after short 
exposures ; it is exceedingly poisonous and irritating. 

Formaldehyde is limited in its usefulness to its application as a 
gaseous disinfectant. In this field no preparation can replace it; 
but a solution of the gas in water applied as a liquid disinfectant 
is far inferior to phenol. 

The comparisons made above indicate that even the ordinary 
coal-tar disinfectants when properly prepared are superior to phenol 
under all conditions, and surpass all other disinfectants aside from 
the purposes for which the latter are peculiarly adapted. 

Recently coal-tar disinfectants of much higher efficiency have 
been prepared. The coefficients of some of these in fact are so high 
that the correctness of such statements is seriously questioned. The 
origin and chemical character of the oils from which these are pre- 
pared are more or less indefinite. Whether the character of the coal 
or the method of distillation by which the oils are produced is respon- 
sible for the high germicidal value is not generally known. That it 
is not produced in America might indicate that the character of the 
coal is at least partly responsible for the difference. The methods 
used in producing gases from coal for use in the steel and iron indus- 
tries differ in England from those followed in America. It is a well- 
known fact that the temperature maintained and the presence or 
absence of air, during the destructive distillation, very markedly 
influence the character of the resulting products. In one case the 
benzols appear to oxidize to phenols, in another they appear to polym- 
erize to naphthaline, anthracene, etc. This being true, it may be that 
still another series of compounds results from a slight difference in 
the conditions obtaining during this destructive process. The chemi- 
cal composition has been claimed by Worrall (Rideal's " Disinfection 
and Disinfectants ") to be such as to place them among the organic 
compounds that are entirely different from the phenols of coal tar. 



320 



Disinfection. 



Am. Jour. Pliarrti. 
July, 1915. 



Another writer attempts to throw a veil of mystery over them by 
assigning them to the class of diphenyls. 

For the purpose of this article the composition and structure of 
those high coefficient oils are unimportant. The sanitarian is more 
concerned with the efficiency of the disinfectant prepared from them. 
Is there real value in it in proportion to the claimed efficiency? Can 
confidence be placed in the statement of its value when this so far 
exceeds that of phenol and similar disinfectants? The question may 
also suggest itself, How is it possible that a product less toxic and 
less corrosive than carbolic acid, practically harmless when diluted 
as it can and should be before using, is so exceptionally active that 
bacteria are killed in dilutions fifteen to twenty times as great as can 
be safely recommended for phenol? 

The average user of a disinfectant rarely knows from results 
whether it is efficient or not, because he has neither the facilities nor 
the skill to test it, and because incomplete disinfection or entire ab- 
sence of it may not be followed by any infection directly traceable to 
such a failure. Even the chemist, however familiar he may be with 
disinfectant oils, cannot determine with certainty the efficiency of any 
product entirely by its chemical properties. Bacteriological rather 
than chemical control is, therefore, a very essential requirement for 
disinfectants. Hygienic measures are too vitally important to be open 
to suspicion regarding the substances used. The methods of applying 
them are so often open to question that the substances must be in 
the highest degree efficient. 

The ideal disinfectant has been described in great detail by differ- 
ent authors. But the ideal disinfectant for every kind of disinfection 
is probably unattainable and its desirability questionable. 

Formaldehyde, mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, phenol, and the 
coal-tar derivatives each has its sphere of usefulness, and each is more 
or less ideal in that sphere. Where a coal-tar derivative is applicable, 
however, there are certain properties possessed by this class of high 
coefficient disinfectants which very closely approach the ideal for 
general disinfection. 

The average coal-tar disinfectant of Group 2 is used in a solution 
of one per cent., in which dilution it is about as efficient as a three 
to five per cent, solution of phenol. One of the disinfectants of 
Group 3, with a phenol coefficient of 20 when diluted to a one per 
cent, solution, is four times as efficient as a five per cent, solution of 
carbolic acid crystals. The accompanying chart is a graphic repre- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1915. I 



Disinfection. 



321 



sentation of the comparative efficiencies and toxicities of representa- 
tives of the three groups. The '* 1 Vol." square is shown in the lower 
right-hand corner, while the four larger squares show the volumes to 
which this one volume of phenol and of each of the three groups can 
be diluted, all of the dilutions having the same germicidal efficiency — 
a phenol coefficient of 0.04. 



Hj Toxicity 33% 














Group 3 - Sigh Coefficient Disinfectants 








Dilution 1 


Vol. to 500 










Coefficient of Dilution 
0.04 












■ 


Toxicity 2Z% 














Group 2 


- Coal Tar Disinfectant 
Ordinary type 


s 










Dilution 1 Vol. tol60 










Coefficient of Dilution 
0.04 








■ 


Toxicity 4=5% Group 1 








Cresylic Acid Scan Solution 
Dilution 1 Vol", to 50 








Coeff. 
of 


gj Toxicity 100$ 








Dil. 
0.04 


PHS1I0L 
1 Vol. to 


£5 












Coeff. of Dilution 
0.04 














1 

Vol 



The toxicities are shown graphically by the square in the upper 
left-hand corners of the four squares representing the dilutions. 
Phenol, being used as a standard, is entirely black, while the others 
are blackened in proportion to their toxicities, expressed in per cent, 
of that of phenol. The ratio of the black " toxicity " square is a 
graphic representation of the non-toxic character of these dilutions 
compared to that of phenol. For example, Group 3 with a toxicity 
of thirty-three per cent, has a black square one-third as large as that 



322 



Disinfection. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



for phenol ; a comparison of the two toxicities with their correspond- 
ing dilutions shows that a solution of phenol is sixty times as toxic 
as a member of Group 3 diluted to an equal efficiency. 

The coagulative action and the caustic and corrosive properties 
of the three groups can be only roughly measured ; these seem, how- 
ever, to be very closely associated with toxicity. So the practically 
harmless nature of Groups 2 and 3 — particularly the latter — is evident 
from the chart. 

Instruments are not corroded, nor is there any irritation to the 
healthy skin, when immersed in such a solution. The mucous mem- 
brane, however, being more sensitive will tingle and smart from 
application of this solution because of its alkaline and penetrating 
character. 

Coal-tar disinfectants in general are, like phenol, unaffected by 
alkalies. While their values are diminished by organic matter more 
than is phenol, this is apparently a slower action rather than actual 
lowered efficiency, since there is almost no coagulation of the organic 
matter. In this case the fact that the disinfectant is in emulsified 
form explains its slow action, because necessarily the minute globules 
of oil composing the emulsion require a more prolonged period to 
penetrate moist organic matter, which tends to retard penetration. 

Acids do not destroy but do materially impair the value of emulsi- 
fied disinfectants in which the vehicle is soap. The same is true of 
hard or salty water. It is easier, however, to correct these waters 
or replace them with soft water with which to dilute a disinfectant 
than to replace soap by any other emulsifier of equal efficiency. Soap 
has several valuable properties in addition to that of being an efficient 
emulsifier of coal-tar oils. It is cleansing and tends to dissolve the 
natural, protective, greasy coating on the skin and other surfaces. 
It is not devoid of germicidal action in itself. 

As a deodorant a coal-tar disinfectant has an action tending to 
absorb, remove, and replace bad odors. Its real value, however, is 
to destroy the putrefactive bacteria producing the odors — the only 
property which makes a deodorant of real value. 

An emulsified disinfectant has been proved to exceed a soluble 
disinfectant even if the same constituents and the same proportion 
were present in each. This is shown to be due to a concentration of 
the minute globules of oily emulsion around the bacteria, the results 
being equivalent to those from a considerably stronger solution in 



Am. Jour, Pharm. | 
July, 1915. J 



Book Reviews. 



3 2 3 



which no minute globules of oil are present, but all is in uniform 
solution. 

To summarize, a high coefficient disinfectant of the third group 
is less likely to be destroyed or inhibited in its action and is more 
generally applicable than the gaseous disinfectants, the oxidizing and 
reducing agents, or the toxic and protein-coagulating agents. 

When diluted to make a solution equivalent to a three or five per 
cent, solution of phenol, it is 

Non-toxic, 

Non-corrosive to metals, 

Non-coagulative to tissues, 

Not caustic to the skin, 

Not affected by alkalies, 

Not destroyed by acids, 

Not oxidized nor reduced by organic matter. 

An efficient germicide. 

At minimum cost per unit of efficiency. 

It is not merely a substitute for carbolic acid ; it is a new material 
possessing not only all the advantages of this valuable substance, but 
many others in addition. Why should the physician or the surgeon 
continue to use carbolic acid ? 

Research Laboratory, 
Parke, Davis & Co. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Erstes Mikroskopisches Praktikum. Eine Einfuhrung in den 
Gebrauch des Mikroskopes und in die Anatomie- der hoheren 
Pflanzen. Von Dr. Arthur Meyer, Universitat Marburg. Jena : 
Gustav Fischer, 191 5. 
This is the third edition of '.Meyer's " Praktikum," which has come 
to be recognized as of fundamental importance to the student in the 
study of the anatomy of higher plants. There is very apt to be a 
somewhat superficial consideration given in most courses in botany 
on the basic principles concerning the use of the microscope. In this 
particular Meyer's work is unique, and at the outset gives the student 
many illustrations, so that he becomes thoroughly grounded in the 
correct interpretation of the objects which he is viewing under the 
microscope. Likewise in the use of reagents, the microtome, and 
staining technique there is considerable detail which is of value to the 



324 Book Reviews. { Am "jJ?"i9i5 arm " 

student. The consideration of the material is in systematic manner, 
beginning with simple materials as pollen grains, filamentous algae, 
starch grains, leading up finally to the more intricate work in cytology. 
This is as it should be, and, really, before the student is prepared to 
study in detail the nucleus he should have a pretty thorough train- 
ing in the more apparent products of the cell as well as the structure 
of tissues. Meyer's book is without question among the best for the 
beginner in scientific biology. Its value is increased by the compre- 
hensive citation to the literature. 

Allegemeine Bakteriologie und Sterilisationslehre fur Arzte 
und Pharmazeuten. Yon Dr. K. Laubenheimer y Universitat 
Heidelberg. Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1915. 
A most excellent book on the methods of study of the morphology 
and biology of the lower microorganisms. It is succinct, yet very 
comprehensive, and well illustrated with five plates in colors. W hile 
written for the uses of physicians and pharmacists, it will be found 
useful in any course of bacteriology. The work is divided into three 
parts. In Part I there is a general treatment of the morphology and 
biology of bacteria, yeasts, and moulds and the general consideration 
of their chemistry and physiology, together with the discussion of 
toxins, infection, immunity, and natural resistance. Here also are 
discussed the methods of serum diagnosis, and there is an excellent 
presentation of Ehrlich's side-chain theory. In Part II are considered 
the mechanical and optical principles of the microscope and its use in 
the examination of bacteria and the individual study of them. Part 
III is devoted to the study of the methods of sterilization and their 
application to practice. Every phase of bacteriological work is con- 
sidered, and we have not seen any work which presents the subject in 
such a clear and readable manner and at the same time in such a 
broad and scientific spirit. 

Annales du Musee Colonial de Marseille fondees en 1893 par 
Dr. Edouard Heckel, et publiees sous sa direction. Yingt- 
deuxieme annee. 3 e serie, 2 e volume (1914). Marseille Musee 
Colonial 5, Rue Noailles, 5, 1914. 
This volume contains three excellent monographs: 1, on "The 
Genus Terminalia," by P. Megenc; 2, on a '' New Contribution to 
the Study of the Crassulaceae," by Raymond-Hamet and Perrier; 3, 
" A Biological Study of the Asclepiadacese of Madagascar," by Pierre 
Choux. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1915. j* 



Book Reviezvs. 



3 2 5 



These contributions are of the same high order that we are accus- 
tomed to see in these volumes, and are highly appreciated by sys- 
tematic botanists and students of morphological botany. Each mono- 
graph is beautifully illustrated and contains a rather comprehensive 
bibliographical index. 

E. Merck's Annual Report of Recent Advances in Pharma- 
ceutical Chemistry and Therapeutics. 1913 : volume xxvii. 
E. Merck, Chemical Works, Darmstadt, 1914. 

This volume continues to be a veritable vade mecum of informa- 
tion concerning medicinal substances. In the present volume, follow- 
ing the precedent already established, there are 2 extended mono- 
graphs, the one on nuclein and nucleinic acid, and the other on prep- 
arations used for radiographic examination. There are nearly 500 
pages devoted to the consideration of preparations and drugs, which 
are greatly enhanced by the addition of a General Index, Index of 
Diseases, Symptoms and Indications for Treatment, Index of 
Authors, and a Bibliographical Index. 

Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Anniversary Pro- 
ceedings. St. Louis, Mo., 191 5. 

This volume contains an historical account of the Missouri Botani- 
cal Gardens and an appreciation of the founder, Henry A. Shaw. It 
also contains the complete papers which were read by eminent bot- 
anists who attended the celebration on October 15 and 16, 1914. 
The papers are of an unusually high order of merit and of very great 
interest. They include " The Vegetation of Mona Island," by N. L. 
Britton; " The Flora of Norway and its Immigration," by N. Wille ; 
" The Phylogenetic Taxonomy of Flowering Plants," by C. E. Bessey ; 
"The Botanical Garden of Oaxaca," by C. Conzatti; "The Origin 
of Monocotyledony," by J. M. Coulter; " The History and Functions 
of Botanic Gardens," by A. W. Hill ; " Recent Investigations on the 
Protoplasm of Plant Cells and its Colloidal Properties," by F. 
Czapek ; " The Experimental Modification of Germ-plasm," by D. T. 
MacDougal; "The Relations between Scientific Botany and Phyto- 
pathology," by O. Appel ; " The Law of Temperature Connected with 
the Distribution of the Marine Algae," by W. A. Setchell; " Phyto- 
pathology in the Tropics," by Johanna Westerdijk; " Phylogeny and 
Relationships in the Ascomycetes," by G. F. Atkinson, and " A 
Conspectus of Bacterial Diseases of Plants," by E. F. Smith. 



326 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
July, 1915. 



Perfumes and Cosmetics, their Preparation and Manufacture. A 
complete and practical treatise, containing complete directions 
and formulas for making handkerchief perfumes, smelling salts, 
sachets, fumigating pastils, cosmetics, hair dyes, and all toilet 
preparations. By George William Askinson. Translated from 
the German. Revised with additions by W. L. Dudley and a 
corps of experts. Illustrated by thirty-two engravings. Fourth 
edition. New York : The Norman W. Henley Publishing Com- 
pany, 132 Nassau Street, 1915. Price, $5. 
The object of this book is to furnish the reader with data neces- 
sary for carrying out reasonably reliable processes for preparing the 
most generally approved simple and compound perfumes, and give 
him such accurate information concerning the origin and properties 
of the various ingredients as will be needed for his purposes, together 
with practical hints to enable him to detect adulterations and frauds. 

The book is interesting and will no doubt be of value to those 
who are especially interested in the study of perfumes and the 
manufacture of their preparations. 

The Spatula Soda Water Guide and for Soda Water Dispensers. 

By E. F. White. Fourth Edition. Boston, Mass.-: Spatula 

Publishing Company. Price, $1. 
This work may be considered to be a complete compilation of 
valuable formulas and information for the manufacture of carbon- 
ated waters, fountain supplies, and ice cream, together with instruc- 
tions for the dispensing of all kinds of carbonated drinks and 
sundaes, the compounding of syrups and ice-cream dressings, etc., giv- 
ing accurate instructions for the serving of all the leading drinks and 
sundaes in the best and most attractive manner known, and for the 
management of the luncheonette. This is probably the best book on 
the subject published, and will be found useful to the pharmacist in 
connection with his soda fountain. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
Advanced Instruction in Pharmacy. 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has established a two-year 
course in pharmacy, leading to the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy 
(Ph.G.), to begin September 20, 191 5. Each year will extend over 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July, 1915. J 



Correspondence. 



327 



thirty-one weeks and cover at least 1500 hours of instruction, which 
is 25 per cent, more than the number of hours required by the 
American Conference. The entrance requirement is the completion 
of at least one year of high-school instruction or its equivalent (15 
counts). 

The three-year course will be continued, leading to the degree of 
Doctor of Pharmacy (Phar.D.J. Thirty-one weeks of instruction 
will be given each year. The entrance requirements for this course 
will be four years of completed high-school work or its equivalent 
(60 counts). This course will embrace both laboratory work and 
didactic instruction of an advanced, character, with the laboratory 
work predominating. 

In the two-year course, commercial pharmacy will be treated 
more extensively than heretofore. This College has conducted a 
compulsory course in this branch for fifteen years, and many new 
features have been added to meet the demand from all parts of the 
country for a pharmacist with better business equipment. 

In the professional education the standards will not be relaxed. 

In the third year, students will be given advance instruction 
in analytical chemistry, pharmacognosy and botany, bacteriology, 
food analysis, manufacturing pharmacy, biological assays, jurispru- 
dence, etc. 

A course in chemistry and pharmacy, leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Chemistry and Pharmacy (B.Sc), will extend 
over four years of thirty-one weeks each. The entrance require- 
ments for this course are the same as for the degree of Doctor of 
Pharmacy, and it includes advanced work in chemistry, technical 
microscopy, and bacteriology, and is designed especially for the 
education of analysts and food and drug chemists. 

Joseph P. Remington, 

Dean. 

The Determination of Small Quantities of Hydrocyanic Acid. 

June 11, 1915. 

To the Editor: 

In the article " On the Determination of Small Quantities of 
Hydrocyanic Acid," printed in the June issue of The American 
Journal of Pharmacy, there is a misprint in the conclusions 
wherein it is stated that the presence of potassium chloride in the 
liquid to be tested has proved to be of great advantage. The salt 



328 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1915. 



mentioned in our original paper is potassium fluoride, which salt 
we found to have a remarkable effect on the formation and color 
of the Prussian blue. Potassium chloride, however, prevents the 
formation of a pure blue color and renders the test less delicate. 
We would, therefore, appreciate very much if you would make a 
correction in an early issue. 

A. VlEHOEVER, 

C. O. Johns. 

Drug Plants Not Usually Profitable. 

Although a large amount of money is spent annually for the im- 
portations of crude drugs, and the extermination of a number of 
valuable native drug plants is threatened, government specialists do 
not believe that the growing of drug plants offers any unusual oppor- 
tunities for profit to the American farmer. Drug plants are subject 
to the same diseases and risks as other crops, and, in addition, 
knowledge of the best methods of cultivation and handling is less 
general than in the case of other and better known crops. In 
issuing a new bulletin, Farmers' Bulletin 663, " Drug Plants Under 
Cultivation," the Department of Agriculture, therefore, warns farm- 
ers that in order to have the cultivation of drug plants financially 
successful in this country the introduction of improved methods 
and the extensive use of machinery is probably necessary. Under 
these circumstances the natural tendency will be to increase the 
production in the interest of economy. The demand for many drug 
plants, however, is so limited that if large areas are brought under 
cultivation there is considerable danger of overproduction. Pros- 
pective growers are urged, therefore, to acquaint themselves with 
market conditions before investing any considerable sum of money 
in this way. 

On the other hand, the number of drug plants which may be 
grown in the United States is large. Many native medicinal plants 
which are found in their wild state in a few sections have been 
successfully cultivated in situations far beyond their natural range. 
In suitable soil and under favorable weather conditions the following 
plants have done well under cultivation in numerous places in the 
Central and Eastern States, and, if the difference in climatic con- 
ditions is not too great, will probably be suitable in other regions : 

Anise, belladonna, burdock, caraway, catnip, camomile, conium, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
July, 1915. J 



Correspondence. 



329 



coriander, digitalis, dill, echinacea, elecampane, fennel, henbane, 
horehound, pennyroyal, sage, stramonium, tansy, thyme. 

The bulletin already mentioned contains specific instructions for 
the cultivation of each of these plants and of a number of others. 
In general, it may be said that many wild medicinal plants are 
much more difficult to propagate from seeds than species commonly 
grown in gardens. Moreover, in growing medicinal plants from 
seed it is much better to start the plants in a green-house or hot-bed 
than to sow the seed directly in the field. Under any circumstances, 
the preparation of the soil is of prime importance. A seed bed pre- 
pared by thoroughly mixing equal parts of garden soil, leaf mould, 
well-rotted manure, and clean sand will be suitable for the ger- 
mination of most seed. The heavier the soil the greater the quantity 
of seed should be. 

Drug plants grown for their roots are usually harvested in the 
fall or early in the spring while the plant is still dormant. Roots 
collected during the growing season often shrink excessively in 
drying, which in all cases must be thoroughly done. Large roots are 
usually split or sliced, spread in thin layers on clean floors, and 
stirred or turned frequently. The process of drying may take 
several weeks, although the time can be reduced by the use of 
artificial heat. Good ventilation is an essential in order that the 
moisture driven off from the roots may be allowed to escape. 

Leaves and herbs are usually harvested when the plants are in 
flower. Picking by hand in the field is a slow process, and the entire 
plant is, therefore, often cut and the leaves stripped after the plants 
have been brought in. Flowers may be gathered either by hand, 
which is a laborious method, or by devices similar to a cranberry 
scoop or a seed stripper. 

In addition to the care and knowledge needed for the produc- 
tion of these medicinal plants, the grower must be familiar with 
market conditions. In many cases there is no local market for the 
product, and the grower should then send samples to dealers in 
crude drugs or the manufacturers of medicinal preparations in 
order to obtain a price for his crop. Some gowers who have been 
careful to maintain a very high quality in their product have suc- 
ceeded in building up a trade at a price a little above the prevailing 
market quotations. It is also possible to secure a contract for the 
sale of the entire crop in advance, thus insuring a definite market. 



330 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am j^iS?™' 

In general, the bulletin says, the growing of drug plants in this 
country seems to be more suitable to well-equipped cultivators who 
devote themselves entirely to it than to the general farmer who 
looks upon it only as a minor source of income. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

NINETY-FOURTH ANNUAL COMMENCEMENT. 

The exercises in connection with Commencement week of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy were inaugurated with Bacca- 
laureate services at the Church of St. Luke and the Epiphany on 
Sunday, June 6. The services were especially arranged and con- 
ducted by Rev. Dr. David M. Steele, who delivered the sermon. On 
Monday, June 7, the Faculty gave a supper in the College Auditorium 
to the members of the graduating class. Tuesday and Wednesday 
were devoted to Alumni functions, which were concluded with an 
Alumni banquet given at the Hotel Walton, and which was attended 
by over two hundred members. 

The Commencement exercises were held on Thursday evening, 
June 10, at the American Academy of Music, when the diplomas and 
prizes were awarded to the members of the graduating class. The 
opening prayer was made by Rev. Floyd W. Tomkins, and an address 
was delivered by Col. Henry C. Demming. The degrees were con- 
ferred by President Howard B. French upon the following: 

DEGREE OF MASTER IN PHARMACY (HONORIS CAUSA). 

William L. Cliffe, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Eugene G. Eberle, Dallas, Texas. 
Caswell A. Mayo, New York. 
Henry M. Whelpley, St. Louis, Mo. 
William Mittelbach, St. Louis, Mo. 

The following are the names of those receiving the degree of 
Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.), together with the subjects of their 
graduating theses : 

Name Thesis 

Abrahamson, Aaron Moses. .. .Citric Acid Pennsylvania 

Aguiar, Carlos Maria Powdered Extracts of Belladonna 

and Stramonium Porto Rico 

Aguizy, Ahmed Mahmound El. Ancient and Modern Pharmacy 

and Medicine in Egypt Egypt 



Am 'ju h r 'i9i5 arm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 331 

Name Thesis 

Alacan, Miss Silvia Clotilde. . .Histology and Microscopical 

Study of Coffee and Distribu- 
tion of Caffeine Cuba 

Avis, Clinton Fisk The Manufacture and Use of Silk 

Boltijig Cloth New Jersey 

Biddleman, Harold Romayne. .Anthracite Coal Pennsylvania 

Bright, Jay William Spiritus iEtheris Nitrosi Pennsylvania 

Briner, Earl Raymond Modern Pharmacy Pennsylvania 

Brown, Bernice Berry, Ph. G... Syrup of Krameria Texas 

Brozeitis, Miss Estella Eliza- 
beth, Ph.G i\bsorbent Cotton Pennsylvania 

Burton, Edward Thomas, Jr. . .Sulphur and Its Uses Virginia 

Carmody, Martin Francis The Recovery of Material from 

Pharmaceutical Preparations. . .New York 

Clark, Earl Daniel Pepsin and Its Preparations Pennsylvania 

Close, Paul Magnesia Magma Pennsylvania 

Conrow, Charles Mervin Terpin Hydrate New Jersey 

Costello, Miss Catherine Eliza- 
beth Strophanthus Pennsylvania 

Creep, Parker Bare Bacterin, Serobacterin and Serum 

Therapy Pennsylvania 

Deaver, Ralph Bernard Sperm Oil New Jersey 

Decker, Henry Bristol Bouillon Titration New Jersey 

Eaton, Lewis Hayden Ichthyol — Its Substitutes and UsesNew York 

Elward, Joseph Francis, P. C. .. Extemporaneous Emulsions Pennsylvania 

Everlockner, Charles Brewin. .Industrial Alcohol New Jersey 

Ferry, Miss Fanny, P.C The Size of Globules in Various 

Emulsions Pennsylvania 

Fox, Elmer Delmire A Palatable Emulsion of Cod 

Liver Oil Pennsylvania 

Fox, Joseph Salicylic Acid and Its Uses Pennsylvania 

Fredericks, Lewis Armstrong. .Why Home Culture of Drugs 

Should be Advocated Pennsylvania 

Fuss, Ivan Ralph Emulsion of Olive Oil Michigan 

Gable, Walter Emanuel Modern Pharmacy Pennsylvania 

Gershenfeld, Louis Ergot Pennsylvania 

Gibney, Raymond George Deterioration of Official Syrups .. Pennsylvania 

Greenberg, Leonard Edward.. Milk Adulteration Pennsylvania 

Grube, Ralph Petrolatum Liquidum Pennsylvania 

Haase, William Frederick, Jr..Diatomaceous Earth Pennsylvania 

Harer, Charles Raymond Glue Pennsylvania 

Henry, Clarence Augustine 

Adams Mistura Glycyrrhizse Compos- 

ita Pennsylvania 

Heymann William John Hydrastis Canadensis Pennsylvania 

Hite, Earle Milton Theories of Immunity and of Bac- 
terin Therapy Pennsylvania 



332 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -j^ r - 1 9 1 h 5 arm - 

Name Thesis 

Hodgkins, James Henry Arrangement and Preservation of 

Stock Pennsylvania 

Hoffman, Miss Eleanor Grace. Digitalis Pennsylvania 

Hoffman, John Henry Pyro-analysis of Crude Drugs. . .Pennsylvania 

Huber, Arnold Hoffman Sapo Mollis Pennsylvania 

Israel, Joshua Microphotography Pennsylvania 

Jackson, Charles Edwin Economy as a Fine Art to the 

Student Pennsylvania 

Jones, Elwyn . . ' Pharmacy as a Lost Art Pennsylvania 

Kephart, James Watson Tinctura Iodi .Pennsylvania 

King, Frank Martin White Portland Cement ......... .Pennsylvania 

Kitzmiller, Dixon George, Jr.. .The Suspension and Use of Min- 
eral Oils Pennsylvania 

Klucher, Paul Edgar Cascara Sagrada Pennsylvania 

Kohnle, William Charles The Utilization of the Cotton 

Stalk in the Manufacture of 

Paper Pulp Pennsylvania 

Koller, William Sides Microscopical Characteristics of 

Hyoscyamus Pennsylvania 

LaDow, Claude Spencer Ichthyol Pennsylvania 

Lander, Mehnert Mel Pennsylvania 

Latta, Eugene Stanton Leather .. .New York 

Lenhart, Clarence Milton, P. C. Liquid Soaps Pennsylvania 

Loehle, Frank Aloysius Fertilizers Pennsylvania 

Lulie, George Philadelphia Sewerage Disposal 

Plant Pennsylvania 

McCloskey, Sharon Tyndale. . .Modified Gutzeit's Test for Ar- 
senic Pennsylvania 

Magowan, James Harry The Manufacture of Glass Pennsylvania 

Miceli, Leonardo Antonio Alcohol and Its Uses Pennsylvania 

Moyer, Charles Franklin Hairs of Rhus Glabra and Rhus 

Typhina Pennsylvania 

Myer, Edward Vincent Potassium Hydroxide Pennsylvania 

Myers, Robert Lester Prescription Precipitation Pennsylvania 

Nelson, William Edgar Oleomargarine Pennsylvania 

Pennock, Charles Adrian Salesmanship Pennsylvania 

Pepper, Charles William Sterilization Pennsylvania 

Phillips, Earle Charles Ampoules.... Maine 

Potterfield, Garland Blair The Relation Between Phenol 

Content and Germicidal Power. West Va. 

Reddon, Frank Jerome The Behavior of Starch Toward 

Certain Reagents Pennsylvania 

Rupert, Vaughn Ross Pasteurization of Milk Pennsylvania 

Samsel, George Woodward.. . .The Tanning Industry Pennsylvania 

Samuels, Bernard Coloration of Suprarenin Solu- 
tions Pennsylvania 

Saylor, Wesley Melvin The Standardization of Drugs by 

the Use of Plants Indiana 



Am ju°y r 'i9i5 arm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 333 

Name Thesis 

Scheffey, Lewis Cass Pollen Grains in Relation to Hay 

Fever Pennsylvania 

Schofield, Miss H. Edith M Greaseless Cold Creams Pennsylvania 

Schollenberger, William WattsI.egislation Versus Habit-forming 

Drugs .Pennsylvania 

Siegel, Philip, P.C. , Precipitates in Alkaloidal Tinc- 
tures Colorado 

Smith, Harry Lanich Petrolatum Liquidum Pennsylvania 

Soyles, James Samuel Sodium Chloride Maryland 

Spangler, Chester Arthur Drug Store Efficiency Pennsylvania 

Spargo, Stephen Treverton. ...Bituminous Coal Pennsylvania 

Stiles. Henry Horace Tooth Powders New Jersey 

Stewart, Robert James Bichloride of Mercury Pennsylvania 

Stouffer, Harvey E Disinfectants as a Profitable Side 

Line for the Retail Pharmacist. Pennsylvania 

Suminsby, Carroll Burrill Pathological Stains Maine 

Tenney, William Randolph. .. .Hamamelis Maryland 

Thomas, John Latex of Wahoo Pennsylvania 

Tomlin, Charles Isaac Petrolatum New Jersey 

Trethewey, Samuel Aaron Theobroma Cacao Pennsylvania 

Wagner, Harry David The Dispensing of Prescriptions. .Pennsylvania 

Weinberg, Miss Esther Rubber and Its Utility in Phar- 
macy • Pennsylvania 

Weiner, Albert Maurice Santonica as Found on the 

Market Pennsylvania 

Whitmire, Harry Randolph. .. .Tanning of Sole Leather by the 

Liquor Process Pennsylvania 

Wilder, Joseph Livingston. .. .Vanilla Extract Pennsylvania 

Witman, David Boyer Santonica Pennsylvania 

Wolfe, Gaile Edgar Hydrastis Canadensis ....Ohio 

The following are the names of those graduates who received the 
degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist (P.C), together with the subject 
of their theses : 

Name Thesis 

Elmer, Walter .The Assay of Milk of Magnesia. .New Jersey 

Hawk, Asher Miller Magma Bismuthi ...Pennsylvania 

Jordan, Herbert Victor Sugar Pennsylvania 

Knauss, Niles Amadus Soft Soap from Cotton Seed Oil. .Pennsylvania 

Levy, Robert Allen The Venereal Diseases and Their 

Relation to Public Health Pennsylvania 

Ligan, Robert Franklin The Steel Industry Pennsylvania 

Merner, Paul Marcus Pfeiffer. Liquor Potassii Arsenitis Iowa 

Miller, Thomas Gilbert Serpentaria Pennsylvania 

Rigg, Mark Cotton Culture New Jersey 

Ruddy, Gerald John The Cultivation of American Gin- 
seng Pennsylvania 



334 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { ^'/^iST™' 

Name Thesis 

Scher, Walter Raymond Compound Elixir of Glycerophos- 
phates Pennsylvania 

Silva, Charles Romey Essential Oils from a Practical 

Point of View Pennsylvania 

Snyder, William Henry Production of Industrial Alcohol . Pennsylvania 

Werkheiser, Harold Edwin. . . .Paraffin . . . Pennsylvania 

Certificates of Proficiency in Chemistry were awarded the follow- 
ing: 

Robert Truman Beardsley, John Brady Evans, Lloyd Philip Greisemer, 
P.D., Thomas Danforth Hughes, Paul S. Rodgers, Joseph Stein and Archibald 
Wolever, all of Pennsylvania. 

Certificates in Bacteriology were awarded the following : 
Norman L. Force, Jacob Edison Good, Gilbert Leon Harvey, John Harry 
Hayes, P.D., Howard Jonathan Koch, P.D., Robert Franklin Ligan, Henry 
Lischer, George Lulie, Martin Lester Messinger, P.D., Lloyd Harry Patten, 
Leroy Ludwig Pennypacker, James Walter Shaffer, Guy Warren Showers, 
Harry Lanich Smith, Jay A. Smith, Elmer Milton Weidner, Harry Randolph 
Whitmire and William Henry Woodring. 

Award of Prizes. 

The Martin Cup, awarded to the graduating class obtaining a 
higher average than the one immediately preceding it, was awarded 
to the class of 19 15. 

" The Graduate 191 3" Cup, awarded to the Freshman class for 
high general record in scholarship, was awarded to the class of 191 7, 
it having been held previously by the class of 1916. 

The grade of distinguished was obtained by William Frederick 
Hasse, Jr. The following attained the grade of meritorious : Louis 
Gershenfeld, Eleanor G. Hoffman, Wesley M. Saylor, and Lewis C. 
Scheffey. 

The Procter Prize, a gold medal and certificate, for the highest 
general average of the class with a meritorious thesis, was awarded to 
William F. Haase, Jr., the presentation being made by President 
French. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, a gold medal and certifi- 
cate, offered for the highest general average in the branches of Com- 
mittee, Operative Pharmacy and Specimens, was awarded to Lewis C. 
Scheffey, the presentation being made by Vice-president Lemberger. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : Walter Elmer, William F. Haase, Jr., James W. Kephart, 
and William R. Tenney. 



Am jui°y r i9 P i5 arm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 335 

The Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 
for knowledge of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, was awarded to 
Garland B. Potterfield, the presentation being made by Professor 
Stroup. 

The Materia Medica Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe, for the best examination in Materia Medica, and in recogni- 
tion of Materia Medica Specimens with a meritorious thesis, was 
awarded to William F. Haase, Jr. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Mehnert Lander, Paul 
M. P. Merner. 

The Microscopical Research Prize, a compound microscope, 
offered by Prof. Henry Kraemer, for the most meritorious thesis 
involving original microscopic work, was awarded to William F. 
Haase, Jr. The following graduates received honorable mention 
in connection therewith: Silvia C. Alacan, Catherine E. Costello, 
Eleanor G. Hoffman, Charles F. Mover, Frank J. Reddon, Lewis C. 
Scheffey, and Wesley M. Saylor. 

The Analytical Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Frank X. 
Moerk, for the best work in Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, 
was awarded to Wesley M. Saylor, the presentation being made by 
George M. Beringer. The following students received honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Catherine E. Costello, Louis Gers- 
henfeld, Eleanor G. Hoffman, and William R. Tenney. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in Operative Phar- 
macy, was awarded to Walter Elmer. The following graduates 
received honorable mention in connection therewith : Silvia C. Alacan, 
Charles B. Everlockner, William F. Haase, Jr., Charles R. Harer, 
Earl M. Hite, Thomas G. Miller, Charles F. Mover, Charles A. 
Pennock, Earle C. Phillips, Mark Rigg, Vaughan R. Rupert, Charles 
W. Samsel, Lewis C. Scheffey, and William Randolph Tenney. 

The Maisch Botany Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs, of Atlanta, Ga., for the best Hebarium Collection of Plants, 
was awarded to Charles F. Mover, the presentation being made by 
Dr. A. W. Miller. Silvia C. Alacan received honorable mention in 
connection with this prize. 

The Mahlon N. Kline Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner 
agate prescription balance, for the best examination in Theory and 
Practice for Pharmacy, was awarded to William F. Haase, Jr., the 
presentation being made by Mr. Clarence M. Kline. The following 



336 National Association Boards of Pharmacy. { Am j^'i^s*™ 1 * 

students received honorable mention in connection therewith : Ahmed 
M. E. Aguizy, Walter Elmer, Asher.M. Hawk, Lewis C. Scheffey, 
Harold E. Werkheiser. 

The Commercial Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington to the graduate who passed the best examina- 
tion in Commercial Pharmacy at the final examination for the degree, 
was awarded to Lewis C. Scheffey, the presentation being made by 
Mr. E. Fullerton Cook. The following students received honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Walter Elmer, Louis Gershenfeld, 
William F. Haase, Jr., Asher M. Hawk, Eleanor G. Hoffman, James 
W. Kephart, Mehnert Lander, Thomas G. Miller, Garland B. Potter- 
field and William R. Tenney. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the Instructors of the Col- 
lege, for the highest term average in the branches of Pharmacy, 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, was awarded to Louis Gershenfeld, 
the presentation being made by Dr. Alfred Heineberg. The follow- 
ing students received honorable mention in connection therewith: 
Clinton F. Avis, Lewis Eaton, Walter Elmer, Leonard E. Greenberg, 
Eleanor G. Hoffman, Frank M. King, Mehnert Lander, Robert F. 
Ligan, Paul M. P. Merner, and William R. Tenney. 

The Pharmacy Review Prize, one year's membership in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. 
La Wall, for the best term work in Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, 
was awarded to Louis Gershenfeld. The following students received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Clinton F. Avis, Lewis 
Eaton, Leonard E. Greenberg, and Charles R. Harer. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, a gold medal, offered by the Eta 
Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making the 
highest general average during the senior year at the College, was 
awarded to William F. Haase, Jr., the presentation being made by 
Prof. Kraemer. The following students received honorable mention 
in connection therewith: Louis Gershenfeld, Wesley M. Saylor, and 
William R. Tenney. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BOARDS OF PHARMACY. 

The following is a report of the joint committee meeting of 
representatives of the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy 
and the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties held with 
the Executive Committee of the N. A. B. P. in Washington, D. C, 



Am 'ju?y r i<Ti5 arm ' } National Association Boards of Pharmacy. 337 

March 16 and 17, 1915. This report also contains an outline of the 
program for the coming annual joint meeting in San Francisco 
on August 7. The holding of the annual meetings of the Conference 
of Pharmaceutical Faculties and the National Association of Boards 
of Pharmacy on dates preceding those on which the A. Ph. A. Con- 
vention is to be held, it is believed, will result in greater accomplish- 
ments for all concerned by affording members the opportunity of 
attending meetings of the different associations without conflict. 

Chairman Burton, of the Executive Committee, called the meet- 
ing to order and announced that, according to previous arrange- 
ments, this session would be held as a joint meeting of chairmen of 
committees representing the American Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, with 
the Executive Committee; this as a result of the appointing, at the 
Detroit Convention, by both the Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, of 
corresponding committees of three, known by titles as follows: Com- 
mittee on " Time and Place of Joint Meetings," Committee on " Pro- 
gram for Joint 'Meetings of Conference and Boards," Committee on 
" More Satisfactory Examination of Candidates for Graduation and 
Candidates for Board Certificates." 

Mr. Burton then stated briefly that the object of the appointment 
of these committees and the calling of this joint meeting of repre- 
sentatives of the committees was with a view of planning for more 
successful joint meetings of the Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties and the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy at 
the time of their annual conventions than had been held in the past. 

He further stated that it was hoped that this movement would 
bring about a condition between members of Boards of Pharmacy 
and members of Schools of Pharmacy Faculties which would result 
mutually beneficial, and also, as indicated by the title of one of the 
committees, result in more thorough and suitable training and exam- 
ination of the future pharmacist. 

Dr. Hynson, in a few characteristic remarks, stated that he was 
heartily happy to be present ; that a. condition such as it was hoped 
to bring about as a result of the present movement for a closer 
relationship between the faculties and the boards had been one of 
the day dreams of his life. He stated, further, that his ideas about 
this subject were, fundamentally, that Boards of Pharmacy having 



338 National Association Boards of Pharmacy. { Am j^^^*™ 1, 

legal status and the care of the public should accept the responsibility, 
and demand, with the advice and consent of the faculties, such 
teaching as will meet the requirements of the boards for public pro- 
tection. He felt satisfied that this endeavor to better conditions 
would result in great good. He also expressed himself positively that 
he believed the faculties would welcome the proposed cooperation. 

After preliminary discussion it was voted unanimously that the 
meeting proceed as a joint meeting of the whole, with such business 
as might come before it, as indicated by titles of committees. 

On motion of Dr. Hynson, seconded by Mr. Lewis, and carried, 
Professor Koch was elected chairman of the meeting. 

On motion of iMr. Miller, H. C. Christensen was chosen 
secretary. 

Chairman Koch called the meeting to order at 11.30 a.m. 

Those present representing the Conference, on committees men- 
tioned above, in the order given, were Professor Julius L. Koch, 
of the Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy; Dr. Henry P. Hynson, of 
the Department of Pharmacy, University of Maryland ; Professor 
Henry Kraemer, of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Those representing the boards on these committees were H. C. 
Christensen, of Chicago, 111. ; W. P. Porterfield, of Fargo, N. D. ; 
William S. Flint, of Worcester, Mass. 

Members of the Executive Committee of the N. A. B. P. not on 
the above-mentioned committees, but present, were Chairman J. C. 
Burton, of Stroud, O. T. ; T. A. Miller, president, of Richmond, Va. ; 
Lawrence C. Lewis, of Tuskegee, Ala. 

Chairman Koch announced that the first business to come before 
the meeting was with reference to fixing time and place for the 
annual joint meetings of the National Association of Boards of 
Pharmacy and the Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. He 
stated that as chairman of the Committee on " Time and Place of 
Meetings," representing the Conference, he might say that the sub- 
ject had only been discussed in a general way by members of his 
committee, but that it seemed the general opinion that a great deal 
of good could come from joint meetings of these bodies if properly 
carried out. He would like, therefore, to. have the subject, as to 
suitable dates for holding these meetings, thoroughly gone into, and 
invited discussion. Mr. Christensen stated that as chairman of the 
committee representing the Boards, with reference to the fixing 



Am 'j^y!\?i5 arm "} National Association Boards of Pharmacy. 339 

of dates for holding these meetings, he wished to say that the 
Executive Committee of the N. A. B. P. in a previous session had 
discussed quite thoroughly the matter of place and dates for the 
holding of the next annual meeting of the N. A. B. P. ; that it 
seemed the unanimous opinion of the committee that, for the best 
interests of the association, as well as the members attending, the- 
annual conventions of the association should be held on different 
dates from those on which the A. Ph. A. Conventions are held, either 
during the week preceding or the week following that meeting. 
Thursday and Friday, August the 5th and 6th of the week preceding 
the A. Ph. A. Convention, had been suggested, with the further 
suggestion that the joint meetings of the boards and faculties be 
held on Saturday, August 7 (the Saturday preceding the A. Ph. A. 
Convention). The Executive Committee, however, deferred defi- 
nitely deciding on these dates in order that the matter might be 
brought before this session. 

The advisability and advantages of holding these annual meet- 
ings on different dates from those on which the A. Ph. A. holds its 
meetings were thoroughly gone into. It was particularly pointed 
out that the holding of the meetings on dates separate from those 
on which the A. Ph. A. Convention is held would prove not only 
a great advantage to the N. A. B. P. and the Conference, but that 
it would also be an advantage to the A. Ph. A., in that it would 
permit members of these two bodies to attend and take part in the 
sessions of that association. 

On motion made by Mr. Porterfield, seconded by Mr. Lewis, 
and carried, the dates for holding the next annual convention of the 
N. A. B. P. were fixed for Thursday and Friday, August 5 and 6, 
191 5, in San Francisco, Cal. 

On motion of Dr. Hynson, seconded by Professor Kraemer, and 
carried, the date for the annual joint meetings of the National 
Association of Boards of Pharmacy and the American Conference 
of Pharmaceutical Faculties was set for Saturday, August 7, 191 5, 
in San Francisco, Cal. (the Saturday preceding the A. Ph. A. Con- 
vention) ; this on condition that Professor Koch should lay the 
matter before the Executive Committee of the Conference of Phar- 
maceutical Faculties for its approval, and report its decision, before 
dates should be published. 

At 1 o'clock p.m. the meeting adjourned, to meet again at 2.30. 



34° National Association Boards of Pharmacy. {^'j^Y'm*™ 1 ' 

Important -Notice. 

The above-mentioned date (Saturday, August 7) was later 
agreed on as being satisfactory to the Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties. It was so announced by Professor Julius A. Koch, chair- 
man of the Executive Committee. 

Second Session — Thursday Afternoon. 

This second session of the joint meeting of committee members 
representing the boards and faculties was called to order by Chair- 
man Koch promptly at 2.30 p.m. 

The Chairman announced that he would now be pleased to hear 
from the representatives of the Committee on " Program for Joint 
Meetings" and that the outlining of a program would be in order. 
Dr. Hynson, as chairman of the Program Committee representing 
the faculties, opened the discussion, giving his ideas with reference 
to the arrangement of a program. Mr. Porterfield, representing the 
Program Committee for the boards, added further suggestions, as 
did also Professor Kraemer and Mr. Flint, representatives for the 
faculties and boards on the Committee of " More Satisfactory Ex- 
amination." After a' general discussion by all members, suggestions 
with reference to arrangement of a program were taken up and 
voted on, with the result that a program was outlined as follows : 

PROGRAM 

For Joint Meetings of 
The National Association of Boards of Pharmacy 
and 

The American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties 
To be held Saturday morning, August 7, 191 5 
(The Saturday preceding the A. Ph. A. Convention). 
(Outline). 

First Session. 
President T. A. Miller, Presiding 
Secretaries, W. A. Teeters and H. C. Christensen*. 
Report of the Joint Committee on Time and Place of Meeting: 
Chairman of Joint Committees . . H. C. Christensen and J. A. Koch 
Report of the Joint Committee on Questions and Examinations, 

W. S. Flint and Henry Kraemer 
" Relationship of. Local Boards with Local Colleges," 

Philip Asher and Burton Cassaday 



Am.^joun Pharm. j National Association Boards of Pharmacy. 341 

Second Session. 

President F. J. Wulling, Presiding. 
Secretaries, H. C. Christensen and W. J. Teeters. 
" More Perfect and Beneficial Relationship between The Boards and 

The Faculties " C. W. Johnson and R. H. Walker 

" Prerequisite Laws: Their Benefits and Objections," 

H. H. Rusby and John Culley 
" The Relationship of the Boards and the Faculties to the American 
Pharmaceutical Association ". . . . .President Miller and President 
Wulling 

Business Referred to the Joint Session by the Boards or the Faculties 
If found necessary or advisable, sessions may be held Saturday 
night, August 7, and Monday morning, August 9. 

Professor Kraemer now stated that he would like to have some 
suggestions made with reference to the work of this committee ; that 
he thought the work it was proposed to undertake was of great im- 
portance : so much so, that he felt the necessity of having the assist- 
ance and cooperation not only of the committee appointed by the 
boards, to work jointly with his committee, but also of other mem- 
bers of the boards and of the faculties. 

Mr. Flint, chairman of the board's committee which is to work 
jointly with Professor Kraemer and his committee, stated that he 
also realized the importance of this work and the need of assistance. 
He hoped they might receive liberal aid in their work from all 
who felt able to give assistance. He called attention to the good 
work being done for the boards by the Advisory Examination Com- 
mittee in bringing about more uniformity in board examinations. 
He expressed the belief that in this new work, along similar lines, 
they should be able to receive valuable assistance from that com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Christensen, as chairman of the Advisory Examination 
Committee, thanked Mr. Flint for the favorable reference made to 
the work of his committee and gave assurance of assistance and 
cooperation. 

In accordance with Professor Kraemer's request for suggestions 
for outlining the work of the joint committees of the boards and 
faculties, represented by Mr. Flint and himself, this matter was 
now taken up and a general outline was agreed on. In accordance 
with a suggestion by Professor Kraemer, the Syllabus was gone 



342 National Association Boards of Pharmacy. \ Km \ J J ^ T \9i* rm ' 

over and checked with reference to matters contained therein suit- 
able for use as a guide in the preparation of proper questions for 
examination by boards of pharmacy. Later, in discussion, it was 
brought out that the general opinion of those present with reference 
to the usefulness of the Syllabus, in its present form, as a guide 
to the average member of boards of pharmacy, in the preparation 
of examination questions, seemed to be that it does not serve the 
purpose to the best advantage ; that in order to do so it should be 
thoroughly revised, with a view of separating or designating mate- 
rial contained therein, in such a way as to indicate or outline the 
part or parts to be followed or used as a guide, in order to obtain 
proper scope and distribution of questions. 

It was mentioned that, inasmuch as the Syllabus is an outline of 
a course of study from " a " to " z," necessarily questions on certain 
elementary portions of this outline must be eliminated in the con- 
sideration of questions suitable for use in examining a candidate 
for licentiate in pharmacy. The candidate may properly be con- 
sidered as the finished product resulting from the taking of this 
prescribed course, and therefore, should not be given direct ques- 
tions, on the elementary parts of such a course, but rather such 
questions as will, if properly answered, show his ability to apply 
the principles involved in these primary features directly to the work 
for which he is supposed to have been fitted by the study of a course 
such as is outlined in the Syllabus. 

It was also suggested that this joint committee give careful con- 
sideration to an outline showing proper distinction to be made in 
the character and scope of questions to be used in examination for 
assistant registered pharmacists and those to be used in examination 
for full registered or licentiates in pharmacy. 

An informal discussion followed with reference to future 
methods, plans, and prospects for the successful bringing about 
the proposed closer relationship and coordination between the 
Schools of Pharmacy and the Boards of Pharmacy, in which much 
interest and enthusiasm was shown by all present. There being 
no further business to come before the meeting, on motion of 
Mr. Porterfield, seconded by Professor Kraemer, the joint meeting 
of representatives of committees on conference of faculties and 
boards adjourned. H. C. Christensen, 

Secretary, National Association Boards of Pharmacy. 



THE AMEEICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHA 



THE CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PL. 



By Dr. Fred. B. Kilmer, New BrunswicTcT 



AUGUST, i pis 




Among the things that have come to us through the European 
conflict has been an increased interest in the study of geography, 
and incidentally an increased attention as to the source of the plants 
which supply our materia medica. 

In this country and abroad, we have been inclined to regard the 
supply of certain drugs as inexhaustible, because they are indigenous. 
As manufacturers, we placed our orders, and tons were piled up in 
our storehouses. Suddenly we found that a war embargo means a 
blockade of the drug supply, and our attention is rapidly turned to 
the home source. 

" America can produce anything made or grown on the face of 
the earth, and produce it better and cheaper than any other nation 
under the sun," cries the buncombe orator, and the dictum goes forth : 
" We shall grow our own plants." But while we find that a discussion 
over a "scrap of paper" can bottle up the world's supply of drugs, 
we likewise learn that drug plants will not grow on paper. Were this 
the case the numerous dissertations which have appeared upon this 
theme would overstock the market. 

For more than a generation the decreasing supply of medicinal 
plants, in our land and abroad, has been discussed from every angle — 
the field has been well furrowed. 

In the appendix to this paper some of the literature which has 
appeared in the last decade or two is noted. Out of it one can plainly 
read the injunction " I told you so," as well as find many instructive 
dissertations. While the work accomplished through these theses 
has given but little light that can be grasped by the buyer and the 

1 Read before the National Association of Manufacturers of Medicinal 
Products, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City, February 8, 191 5. 



(343) 



344 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. { A ^ u ™t* SS™' 

user of drugs, much of it is of great value in increasing our knowledge 
of the drug plants which have been studied. 

The interest in the cultivation of medicinal plants has been capi- 
talized by the " get- rich-quick " schemes which have used the maga- 
zines and public press to exploit extraordinary claims of imaginary 
profits. " Millions from weeds ! " " Plants which grow like weeds, 
are cut and cured like hay and sell for $900.00 per ton ! " have been 
used as slogans. These flamboyant frauds, coupled with irrespon- 
sible statements that have appeared in the public journals, have been 
detrimental rather than helpful. 

The United States Department of Agriculture has, for some time, 
given attention to the cultivation of medicinal plants. Its work 
has included the domestication and cultivation of native drug plants, 
supplies of which are obtainable with increasing difficulty (hydras- 
tis, senega, spigelia). 

The department has also given attention to the crude drugs 
obtained chiefly or exclusively from foreign sources, which it 
deemed could be grown profitably in this country. Under its direc- 
tion, experimental cultivations of belladonna, hydrastis, stramonium, 
aconite, opium poppy, and licorice have been made in localities 
exhibiting a variety of climatic and soil conditions. 

The fundamental work of the department is, of course, agricul- 
tural. The ever-present question is — will it pay the farmer to grow 
drug plants? The efforts of the department have been limited, but 
painstaking, and are helpful in so far as they go. But the drug market 
will not be influenced by its labors until it can convince itself and 
the agricultural interests that the cultivation of drugs can be made 
profitable. 

But little in the way of encouragement as to the profitable grow- 
ing of drugs has appeared in the department's publications. How- 
ever, a recent statement by W. W. Stockburger, of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, is to the effect that : " given the necessary favorable 
conditions a fair return may be expected from several drug crops." 

The resources of the Bureau of Plant Industry, at Washington, 
are available for the dissemination of information, and for the assist- 
ance of any institution or person interested in the subject. 

Only a few of the colleges of pharmacy have been able to give 
any serious attention to this important subject. A limited number of 
schools have established small gardens for research purposes, but 
at most the scope of such gardens can only be to supply specimens 



Am \utu u st" Srj Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 345 

of drug- plants for the classroom. Little or no attention can be given 
to any one species, nor can any investigations with economic ends be 
made. The " botanic gardens," so-called, are not likely to solve the 
problem ; their work on the present basis is to grow and study speci- 
men plants. 

Without some special stimulus we can look for but little help 
from the agricultural colleges and farms. The problem confronting 
these investigators is to improve present agricultural methods, in 
order to make the farming more profitable. What is needed is the 
establishment of industrial gardens especially designed for the growth 
of medicinal plants. This would necessitate several acres of ground 
in which cultivations of a variety of plants can be made, in a small 
way at first, extending as the work develops to cultivations under 
conditions looking towards commercial products. In a measure we 
need the methods of the agricultural farm adapted to medicinal plants. 
For information we may turn to the avenues from which our supplies 
have been obtained in the past. 

At present there are a number of successful growers of strictly 
medicinal plants on the British Islands. Familiar names are those of 
Ransome & Son, Hitchin ; Squire & Son, and Stafford, Allen & Son, 
Bedfordshire, England. In many instances the work of cultivation 
is connected with the manufacture of medicinal extracts from the 
plant. It is to be noted that some of these growers carefully pre- 
pare the leaves of digitalis, hyoscyamus, belladonna, etc., and sell 
them at high prices to American buyers. The portion of the plants 
which the American rejects, they make into extracts and other com- 
pounds for home consumption. 

In England, as well as on the continent, the industry of drug 
growing and drug gathering is being crowded more and more from 
old centres into regions where labor is cheap. Wild plants are 
gathered by a lower stratum of peasants, and the tendency to secure 
cheap labor and keep prices down militates against any improvement 
in quality. Even before the present upheaval in these countries, the 
available supply of many crude drugs was not on the increase. Re- 
gions where drugs were once gathered are now occupied either by 
villages and factories, or cultivated farms. Drug plants were exter- 
minated and the gatherers moved on. The main producer, the 
peasant gatherer, is an ignorant person who knows little and whose 
desires are small. He has only one market and is satisfied to take 
whatever price is offered him. As an exception to this, however, 



346 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. { A ^ U g™? w?™' 

we find that certain intelligent English and continental producers 
carry on the industry in a painstaking manner. It is also to be noted 
that in certain cities on the continent sewage farms have been estab- 
lished, on some of which medicinal plant growing has been under- 
taken. 

Under the conditions which obtain in England and upon the 
continent, the primary object seems to be to maintain a certain color ; 
in other words, the standard is appearance rather than quality. The 
shrewd producer of drugs has learned that at certain stages of 
growth, the root and the leaf yield the desired color and texture, 
and this is the point which he strives to attain. 

Some enlightenment as to the condition and quality of the drugs 
which we manufacture may be gathered from the following obser- 
vations : 

Many drugs, especially roots, when received by the buyer from 
the growing district, are not marketable. They may not have been 
well washed and they may not have been well dried, and when 
looked at in heaps present a motley array of colors, sizes and shapes. 
It is the province of the dealer to put them into a marketable con- 
dition, and this he is able to do by a series of washings, splitting, 
cutting and drying, and a general dressing up, until the whole lot is 
brought to a uniform outward appearance. In such an establishment, 
when one sees a heap of light-colored root which ought to be dark, 
and a heap of dark-colored root which ought to be light, and in 
proximity thereto an array of mixtures and solutions of various 
dyes and the like, he can imagine how easily a change of color might 
be brought about. In other words, he can realize that many of our 
drugs are subjected to a toning process which may or may not affect 
their value for medicinal, purposes. 

At the present time, at best, and irrespective of the present 
disturbed condition of the source of supply, we seem dependent upon 
a haphazard source for our crude drugs. Under this condition the 
commercial value, the physiological action and the therapeutic value 
of a given drug may depend quite largely upon the man who removes 
it from the soil. This suggests to us that the man with the hoe or the 
man with the scythe is quite as important as the man behind the perco- 
lator, for each, in a measure, holds the life of the patient in his hands. 

The present source of drug plants seems to stand as a bar to 
progress. The raw material, the foundation of our work, collected 
from the most irresponsible and uncontrolled sources, subjected to 



Al Aug°iS; in™' } Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 347 

every variation of wind and cloud, shifted and changed by every ebb 
and flow of population and people — the product of the labor of the 
outcasts from human life', constituting the meanest of industries, 
and one in which any change in the status of the people sends the 
drug gatherer further and further Into the abyss. The living medici- 
nal plant, containing the most delicate and sensitive substances in 
materia medica, is handled by rough, coarse, destructive methods — 
mixed, sophisticated, adulterated by unscrupulous middlemen. The 
organic structure of the highest complexity, and containing the most 
delicate principles known to science, is handled more roughly than 
ore from # the mines, or lumber from the forests. 

Pharmaceutical chemistry and manufacturing pharmacy have 
made much progress in our day, and when we look into the source 
of its basic material we wonder that it has made this progress. To 
compare the history of belladonna, or any drug plant, from the field 
to the laboratory, with that of textile fibre and dyewoods, is a thou- 
sand degrees to the disadvantage of the manufacturing pharmacist. 
It seems to me that to place the supply of medicinal plants on an equal 
basis with oats, rye, wheat, or fruits, and apply to them the knowledge 
of modern horticultural and agricultural science, is to place them on 
a safe and rational basis, which will amount to a revolution in 
medicine. 

In the case of plants that have a large demand, certain scientific 
attention has been given to their source of supply, and where such 
attention has been given, as in the case of drugs which produce the 
essential oils, and such plants as cinchona, vanilla, etc., the value of 
the product obtained, as compared with haphazard methods, has been 
strikingly demonstrated. The drugs to which pharmacists and manu- 
facturers alike have given no attention along this line would, when 
taken collectively, also involve a large money value. 

Is it not true that any drug which is of sufficient importance to be 
engrafted into the Pharmacopoeia, or to be used as a life-saving agent, 
is worthy of our best attention? Would not the extension of the 
study which has been so beneficial to a few of our drugs serve for the 
benefit of all our medicinal plants? 

Practically all of the medicinal substances which dose the Ameri- 
can people, and residents in foreign lands, are either made, or in one 
way or another supplied by this Association of Manufacturers of 
Medicinal Products. The problem of the future supply of medicines 
from plants rests with us. How shall we meet it? In the past we 



34S Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. { A A*u^t' SS™ 1 ' 

have relied upon the law of supply and demand. We have not hesi- 
tated to ravish the earth to fill the drug warehouses, and when the 
drug granary was overflowing we lowered the price to choke off the 
inflow. 

For the moment the acres in Europe where drugs grow have been 
furrowed with trenches of the contending armies, and the soil has 
been enriched by the bodies of the slain. This latter statement is 
literally true in respect to portions of Belgium, France and some of 
the Polish provinces. So far as the continental drug supplies are 
concerned, we can await the faltering slow recovery in the after- 
math of the war, we can trust to favoring or unfavoring winds — we 
can let it alone. 

Manufacturers of medicine have never given serious attention to 
the cultivation of native drugs. For fifty years the husbanding of 
the supply, and cultivation, have been urged, with little avail. We 
shall find scarcely any relief from the farming industry. Drug 
plants are such a specialized crop in comparison with food products, 
and so limited in demand, that we may at once forestall any hope that 
the farmer will ever supply us with little else than packing straw. 

The suggestion made by the writer, that every pharmacist might 
cultivate drugs in his home garden, has been criticised. Continental 
druggists, by this method, as well as augmenting their supply by 
purchasing from their neighbors, fill their home demand and at times 
accumulate a surplus for the market. Were the thousands of Ameri- 
can pharmacists to raise a few pounds of drugs, the effect would be 
apparent, and if these pharmacists would apply their training in 
science to this work, we could hope for some enlightenment upon 
the drugs which we use. I do not hesitate to recommend to every 
member of this association to prepare now and put in his back yard 
a few drug plants such as he uses in his laboratory. He will possibly 
receive some pleasure and not a little edification from his effort. 

The situation seems to be that for drug plants there are no vast 
regions where millions of pounds of plants are produced industrially. 
There are less than a score of places in the world where they are 
cultivated, and from these places but little reaches our market. For 
the most* part our drugs come from the lower peasant people, includ- 
ing the " mountain whites " of our own land. By handfuls they 
accumulate at some central point, and then by a circuitous route reach 
the laboratory. There can never be a certainty or a uniformity of 
supply — there can never be an improved supply. The advance of 



Al Au-u U 8t; ms™"} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 349 

industry into a region changes and stifles even these meager sources. 
At the present time our whole drug supply of the south and middle 
west is threatened by the advent of the settlement worker, who pro- 
poses to civilize the mountain people — teach them to give up digging 
and dance the tango. Thus do the " war lords " and the missionary 
uproot the drug supply. 

It does not seem right that we should rest content to obtain the 
basic material for our industries from such haphazard sources. 
Under these conditions we are not on a par with the maker of steel 
or the hammerer of brass and copper. They can separate the elemen- 
tary product which they need — we cannot change a root or leaf. We 
are not on an equal footing with the old-time herbalist, who went into 
the field and selected from the living plants — we take it as it is sent 
to us. The records of work upon the properties of plants, their con- 
stituents, their action and uses fill volumes, but of the growing plant 
itself we know less than did the ancient herb doctor. 

To view the question rightly we must approach it from a different 
point of the circle. There must be a great change. If, for example, 
the supplies of drug plants from any source actually and permanently 
ceased, manufacturers would then begin to till the fields, and in a 
decade our supply in quantity and quality would differ radically from 
that which obtains at present. 

No catastrophe is great enough to close and keep the American 
factories closed if they were really put to it. The factor of price 
would not govern, and here is the crucial test. If we want an im- 
proved supply of medicinal plants we can get them. If we want to 
control the quality of the raw material that enters into our laboratory, 
we can do it. We can make our extractions from selected leaves and 
roots and flowers if we will, but this will mean no little outlay. It 
will require a change greater than all the world's wars, greater than 
an earthquake, pestilence or famine can bring about. It means a 
change in the spirit that guides and rules our business life. Sufficient 
home-grown medicinal plants to supply our needs will come only 
when we eliminate the factor of cost, when we approach the problem 
in the spirit of service, and for the time eliminate the spirit of gain. 
Belladonna grown by Johnson & Johnson cost in the first years one 
hundred dollars per pound ; digitalis grown in the Lilly gardens cost 
probably one thousand dollars for the first few pounds, but it has been 
worth the effort and the world has been enriched from the outlay. 

There are certain possibilities, as well as probabilities, connected 



35o 



Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 



(Am. Jour Pharm. 
\ August, 1915. 



with the cultivation of medicinal plants that are worthy of con- 
sideration by the manufacturers of products therefrom. 

First, the manufacturer who starts out with high expectations, 
and places a hundred or a thousand acres of ground under cultivation, 
without consideration of all the factors connected therewith, will be 
surprised at the small yield and the corresponding high cost of his 
product. If, without due consideration, he should induce the farmers 
and gardeners in the vicinity of his factory to put medicinal plants 
under cultivation, he would also be surprised and disappointed at the 
outcome. 

If all the manufacturers who are interested in belladonna should 
succeed in the cultivation of a considerable number of acres, the 
yield might be so large as to depress the price and discourage further 
attempts, and the whole matter would swing back to former con- 
ditions. If, at the close of the European struggle, certain supplies 
of crude drugs should come forward, and the amount, quality and 
price become satisfactory, the manufacturer would be apt to rest 
content and leave things as they are. 

On the other hand, there are possibilities which should invite the 
attention of the conscientious manufacturer. 

First, the possibility of an increased yield. Thus the drugs now 
in scant supply and low in quality might become constant. 

In the cultivation of medicinal plants there is the possibility of 
securing uniformity, which is not possible under the conditions which 
now prevail. It is a well-known fact that plants such as cinchona, 
opium and the like, under cultivation have given an increased yield of 
constituents, and there is good reason to believe that other medicinal 
plants might be made to follow the same course. 

It has been demonstrated that in certain plants, under cultivation, 
there is an increased, possibly an enhanced action. Incidentally, it 
^has been established that by destroying the diastase immediately upon 
gathering certain plants, it is possible to retain the appearance of the 
fresh plant unimpaired, especially as it relates to color value. A 
notable example of this came under the writer's observation on the 
drug farms abroad. With such plants as belladonna, hyoscyamus, 
etc., the leaves are collected in such a way that they are not allowed 
to wilt, and are carefully dried and sold at a high price per pound. 
The same part of the plant, carelessly handled, would bring only a 
few cents per pound. The power of the drug obtained from plants 
in which the diastasic ferments have been destroyed has been found 



^ugu^r^ 1 "'} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 351 

in general to be more active than those dried in the ordinary manner, 
and there are recorded results showing a different action from speci- 
mens prepared by different methods. 

Plants in life contain soluble ferments, and during the ordinary 
process of drying these ferments exert an oxidizing and hydrolyzing 
action upon the constituents ; they change in color, odor, taste and 
appearance, and it has been hinted that the action of these ferments 
resulted in the loss of a large proportion of the active principles. 

The problems quite tersely set forth by the Department of Agri- 
culture, and others, as arising in connection with the medicinal plant 
cultivation are as follows : 

Some of the lines of study and investigation which need to be 
emphasized are those surrounding the adaptation and acclimatization 
of medicinal plants ; 

The conditions under which the active principles of the plants 
are formed ; 

The behavior of the plant itself under varying conditions of 
climate and culture. 

One authority, Dr. F. A. Miller, gives the following specific 
enumeration of the problem : 

What species are best ? 

What type of soil is the most suitable for the individual plant? 

What fertilizer, if any, should be used? 

How much cultivation and irrigation is necessary? 

Which are the best months for harvesting, curing and packing? 

Particularly desirable is a practical basis and correlation of the 
study of varieties of the plant constituents, due in part to the differ- 
ence in geographical locations. 

Finally, the statement is made that the selection and breeding 
of medicinal plants not only promises to merit a reward of great 
practical and economical importance, but also affords a field for the 
widest scientific activity. 

As a tangible suggestion towards this end, I offer the following : 

Manufacturers of the class represented in this association may 
turn over to their laboratory staff the work of investigation of one 
or more plants. 

Several manufacturers, notably Eli Lilly & Co., the H. K. Mulford 
Company, and Johnson & Johnson, have in a way independently con- 
tributed much towards this end. 

Manufacturers can encourage the work by the establishment of 



352 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. { A Au^t' ml™' 

gardens devoted to medicinal plants, connected either with colleges 
of pharmacy or agricultural colleges, in which investigations and 
research can be made with industrial ends in view. This would 
necessitate either individual donations to such institutions, or the 
establishment of a joint fund to be applied to the purpose noted. 

Finally, we may assume that if the manufacturers of medicinal 
products are really interested in securing a plant drug supply, im- 
proved in quality and quantity, they can do so if they are willing to 
pay the price; that is to say, they must pay the price of years' of 
systematic, scientific investigation and experimental cultivations, 
which under the present conditions are necessary to bring about a 
successful outcome. 

Work of the Colleges of Pharmacy.' 

From reports received it would seem that only a few of the 
colleges of pharmacy were giving attention to the cultivation of 
medicinal plants. A very large number of them do not possess even 
a garden, or other facilities for the growing of medicinal plants, 
instructions being given from herbarium specimens. In other in- 
stances, however, there are gardens connected with the colleges where 
medicinal plants are grown in a small way for study and for the prep- 
aration of herbarium specimens. This work has no bearing upon 
the cultivation of medicinal plants in a commercial way. 

List of colleges of pharmacy reporting no gardens or other facili- 
ties for the cultivation of medicinal plants : 

The Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Howard University School of Medicine, Washington, D. C. 

University of Alabama, Mobile, Ala. 

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. 

Cleveland School of Pharmacy, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Ya. 

Columbia University, College of Pharmacy, New York. 

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Brooklyn College of Pharmacy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

University of Maine, Orono, Maine. 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, Boston, Mass. 

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Northwestern L T niversity School of Pharmacy, Chicago, 111. 
North Dakota Agricultural College, Agricultural College, N. D. 



Am Au"SS' i9i5 rm '} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 353 

New Orleans College of Pharmacy, New Orleans, La. 
University of Tennessee; Memphis, Tenn. 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
Medico-Chirurgical College of.Pharmacy, Philadelphia, Pa. 
College of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, Cal. 
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 
North Pacific College, Portland, Ore. 
University of Illinois, Chicago, 111. 
Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. 
South Dakota State College, Brookings, S. D. 
College of Pharmacy, Ohio Northern Pharmacy, Ada, Ohio. 
Pittsburgh College of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Colleges of pharmacy which have a garden of medicinal plants for 
student work : 

California College of Pharmacy, San Francisco, Cal. 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Fordham University, College of Pharmacy, Fordham, N. Y. 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Colleges of pharmacy which are doing practical work in the culti- 
vation of medicinal plants : 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. — 

At this institution a number of medicinal plants are propagated 
from the seed each year, both for the study of the plant by the student, 
and practical demonstration work in the drying, curing, preservation 
and preparation of the plants for the market, together with a com- 
parison of the cultivated plant with the same drug as found on the 
market. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. — 

In this institution the work of their medicinal herb garden is car- 
ried beyond being a mere adjunct to the course in pharmacognosy. 
It is practically a northern station for the cultivation of medicinal 
plants, working in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington. Its main object is to ascertain what medicinal plants 
can be cultivated advantageously in regions having a climate similar 
to that of Wisconsin. The work is done by members of the university 
staff, in conjunction with a government expert. Their reports state 
that their activities are not confined to the material raised in their 
medicinal herb garden, but have extended to breeding experiments of 
such drugs as Datura, of which fifteen or twenty species and varieties 



354 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. j Am A - Jou r- JJ^ rm - 

* J *' ' J ( August, 191o. 

have been under more or less extensive cultivation in conjunction 
with the Agricultural Experiment Station. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. — 

The work of this institution is in part the cultivation of plants for 
student work. They have recently acquired eighty-five acres of land, 
and intend to give attention to the cultivation of a larger variety of 
plants upon a more extended scale. 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. — 

This institution has established a medicinal garden in connection 
with the School of Pharmacy, which they are just developing upon 
a large scale. They hope to give attention especially to several impor- 
tant drugs which are native of Nebraska. 

University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., College of Pharmacy 
Department, have recently extended their medicinal garden with a 
view of enabling students not only to study as many as possible of the 
ordinary drug plants under cultivation, but to enable the college to 
furnish information as to what drug plants may be profitably culti- 
vated on a commercial scale in the region of the State of Washington. 

From the foregoing list it will be seen that there is a sharp line 
of demarcation between the small or teaching garden and the indus- 
trial garden, where the ultimate object in view is a commercial one. 

Dr. W. W. Stockburger, physiologist in charge of the Drug and 
Poisonous Plant Investigations, has emphasized this point. He 
states that the cultivation of medicinal plants should, at best, be 
considered as a special enterprise, requiring not only considerable 
knowledge and skill, but a general grounding in the fundamental 
uses of the plants themselves. 

Dr. Stockburger also states that there are a few cases, where 
manufacturing chemists have, themselves, undertaken to get their 
own requirements of certain plants, and in his opinion these are 
favorable conditions under which to secure an authentic and better 
supply of drugs of standard quality than those afforded by the com- 
mercial drug garden operated by the manufacturers themselves. 

He further states that the primary interest of the farmer who 
undertakes the cultivation of medicinal plants is the profit which he 
can make out of them, and the most helpful thing that manufacturers 
can do towards promoting the cultivation of medicinal plants in this 
country is to recognize the quality of the products by a correspond- 
ing advance in price. At the present time the greatest uncertainty 
prevailing in the minds of many who have considered the cultivation 



Am. Jour. Pharm. i Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 

Angust, 1915. J J 



355 



of these plants is that, prior to the present disturbance of trade, many 
of the drugs were imported and sold at prices so low that it would 
be impossible to compete with them in this country. Unless the 
agriculturist can be assured of a margin of profit at least equalling 
that which he can obtain from other crops, he cannot be expected to 
give serious attention to the growing of medicinal plants. 

Dr. Stockburger holds strongly to the consideration of the desira- 
bility of manufacturers interesting themselves directly in the produc- 
tion of medicinal plants, and of the necessity of recognizing, in a 
substantial way, the efforts which may be made in the production, 
under cultivation, of drugs of a high quality. 

The Work of Manufacturers. 

A number of manufacturers in recent years have given consider- 
able attention to the problem of the cultivation of medicinal plants. 
As reported to the writer these manufacturers include Eli Lilly & 
Company, of Indianapolis, Ind. ; H. K. Mulford & Company, of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and Johnson & Johnson, of Xew Brunswick, X. J. 

Eli Lilly '& Company — 

The work of Eli Lilly & Company has been most painstaking and 
interesting. In the year 1914 they attempted the commercial culti- 
vation of stramonium and American cannabis. These were the out- 
come of some years of experiment in the way of selection and breed- 
ing, and in an effort to increase the quality of the resulting product. 
They state the results have shown that it will be possible, through 
the use of modern breeding methods, to increase both the quantity 
and the quality of these drug plants, but unless this plan is followed 
the success of any plant growing in this country seems to be doubtful. 
One of the problems that must be overcome is the high cost of labor 
necessary in handling crops of a special nature. They believe, how- 
ever, that the improvement in the quality of the drugs would tend to 
offset the increased cost of labor. 

In respect to stramonium — they have found that it responds very 
readily to different soil conditions, and that on certain types of soil it 
would be impossible to grow the plant with profit. They believe that 
this same condition exists with numerous other medicinal plants. 

They state that they do not feel they are ready to make positive 
recommendations for the growing of medicinal plants unless one is 
prepared to carry on considerable experimental work, and is prepared 



356 



Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t August, 1915. 



to meet the loss incurred in such culture as labor, greenhouses, sheds, 
etc. 

The laboratory of Eli Lilly & Company has issued a number of 
very interesting reprints dealing with their work upon various drug 
plants. 

H. K. Mulford & Company— 

In connection with their scientific department, H. K. Mulford & 
Company maintain a small drug farm at Glenolden, Pa., devoted 
more particularly to the experimental cultivation of digitalis, bella- 
dopna, hyoscyamus, Cannabis sativa, and Hydrastis canadensis. 

In a paper by John A. Borneman, published in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, 191 2, page 546, the cultivations are described 
in detail, together with directions and suggestions in regard to the 
selection of soil, time of planting, collecting, drying, etc. The writer 
states it has been proved that cultivated plants yield as large, and more 
often a larger, amount of alkaloids or glucosides than the same species 
of the wild plant, and there should be no reason why the cultivation 
of medicinal plants should not make more rapid strides in this country. 

In reference to digitalis — he states that the first-year plants yield 
a higher percentage of glucosides than is required by the Pharmaco- 
poeia, and if the first-year plants would be admitted to the Phar- 
macopoeia it would pay to cultivate the drug, as the yield for the 
first year is about three times that of the second year. 

In reporting on the crop for the year 1914, this company states: 
" With the kind of soil that we have available, which is very rich, 
and the kind of fertilizer, of which we have plenty, and the kind of 
care that we were able to give the plants, the crop was a successful 
one. 

" Some of our crop was from field-grown seeds, and the balance 
from hot-house plants. Either method can be made successful, but 
the field-grown seeds must be planted at a time when the moisture 
in the soil is sufficient, and we should say, ought to be quite a little 
more than that required by farm crops. 

" The cost per acre for planting, weeding, cultivating and finally 
harvesting, drying, stripping the leaves, etc., makes the crop very 
much more expensive than any other farm crop that we know of, 
but our figures show that the crop as we raised it gave a fair margin 
of profit. Last year we did not raise any other drug but cannabis ; 
this year we expect to extend the line to at least digitalis and bella- 
donna. 



Am Jour. Pharm.) Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 357 

August, 191o. j J * J * J ' 

" We have some digitalis plants growing now in the hot-house 
from seeds just as an experiment, to give us some experience with the 
plants. We also have belladonna seeds planted under similar con- 
ditions, but up to this time we have no seeds germinated. With this 
one we anticipate considerable difficulty." 

In reference to Hyoscyamus niger, Mr. Borneman states that he 
has found it difficult of cultivation, owing to its destruction by insects. 
He does not think it will pay to raise these plants unless it is possible 
to bring the assay up to the standard and obtain a good price for the 
drug. 

In respect to Hydrastis canadensis, it is stated that the cultivation 
is very simple, and he believes it would pay to cultivate this drug, 
owing to the enhanced price. It is his opinion that a plant raised 
in the woodland makes a slower growth, and does not make nearly 
as good an assay as that raised by artificial shade. 

Johnson and Johnson — 

In a small and large way Johnson & Johnson have been inter- 
ested in the cultivation of belladonna since 1899, and their work 
has been more or less continuous. The experiments for the first few 
years were confined to planting in rows, and in various classes ol 
soil, with a view of studying the effect of various fertilizers, in con- 
nection with which assays were made from the plants at various 
stages of growth, as well as horticultural experiments, with a view of 
producing larger sized plants. These experiments were extended at 
one time to a fifteen-acre plot. 

The reports of their work have been published from time to time, 
an important part of which has been to the effect that they never 
succeeded, in the climate of New Brunswick, in securing plants direct 
from the planting of seeds in the ground. Their work included exam- 
ination of the various modes of curing and preservation, as well as 
physical and chemical observations in connection with their labora- 
tory. 

In all of their work it was found that the tops were destroyed 
by the fall frost, and the entire plant killed in severe winters. A 
fairly rich ground with plenty of lime gave the best results, although 
the size of the plants might be increased by the use of various 
fertilizers. 

Under the direction of Johnson & Johnson experimental plantings 
were made in many parts of the United States, they furnishing the 
seeds or plants for this purpose. A cultivation, was made in Con- 



358 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. {^ U g°™" Sg" 11 - 

shohocken, Pennsylvania, embracing a few acres of very good lime- 
stone soil, and in this section and in this soil they attained most 
remarkable results as to the size and yield of the plant. 

Through an arrangement with Prof. Albert Schneider, of San 
Francisco, Cal., very extended cultivations of belladonna were made 
in that state, beginning with small plantings in a garden of medicinal 
plants, finally extending to a plot of upwards of forty acres in Castro 
Valley, Alameda County, California. 

A report of these California cultivations has been issued in the 
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1909, page 

833- 

The results in California were interesting, but unsuccessful from 
various causes, including climatic conditions, abnormal seasons and 
lack of experience. 

Prof. Schneider's* summary of belladonna culture in the United 
States is to the effect that belladonna can be grown successfully in 
many states of the Union, and that two crops can be gathered in one 
season ; that the alkaloidal yield apparently runs high in cultivated 
belladonna ; that the plant can be grown more profitably in the warmer 
states than in the colder regions. 

The writer understands that Prof. Schneider has continued his 
work on belladonna during recent years, but the results have not been 
published. 

On the whole Johnson & Johnson have had an experience of 
fifteen years in the cultivation of belladonna in all parts of the United 
States, and while this experience has contributed very largely to the 
knowledge of the plant itself ^ and has directed attention to the culti- 
vation of this particular plant, as well as others, the results may 
be summarized by stating that it has been very expensive, and from 
a commercial point of view has been far from successful. But the 
fact has been established that belladonna can be cultivated in the 
United States, and the firm will continue their work upon this plant 
from year to year. 

Drug Plants Which May be Cultivated in the United States. 

The Department of Agriculture gives the following as a partial 
list of plants now chiefly produced in Europe which, under certain 
conditions, may be grown in the United States : 

Althaea, Anise, Belladonna, Burdock, Calamus, Caraway, Conium, 
Coriander, Dandelion, Digitalis, Elecampane, Fennel, Henbane, Hore- 
hound, Marjoram, Sage, Thyme, Valerian. 



Ar A^"st" 1915™' } Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 359 

Seeds. 

The following list of seedsmen and nurserymen in whose cata- 
logues medicinal plants and seeds are listed was compiled by Dr. 
Fred A. Miller, of Indianapolis, Indiana : 
Name of Firm. Location. 

Bash's Seed Store Indianapolis, Ind. 

P. J. Berckmans Co Augusta, Ga. 

A. T. Boddington New York City 

Bobbink & Atkins Rutherford, N. Y. 

Ernst Benary Erfurt, Germany 

Biltmore Nursery Biltmore, N. C. 

W. Atlee Burpee & Co Philadelphia, Fa. 

California Nursery Co Niles, Cal. 

John L. Childs Floral Park, N. Y. 

Henry A. Dreer Philadelphia, Pa. 

Elliott Nursery Pittsburgh, Pa. 

D. M. Ferry & Co Detroit, Mich. 

Fottler, Fiske, Rawson Co Boston, Mass. 

Edward Gillett . Southwick, Mass. 

Glen St. Mary Nurseries Glen St. Mary, Fla. 

Gregory & Son Marblehead, Mass. 

Isaac House & Son Bristol, England 

Peter Henderson & Son New York City 

Horsford's Nurseries Charlotte, Va. 

Haage & Schmidt Erfurt, Germany 

Kelway & Son Langport, England 

Medical Nursery Calcutta, India 

Livingston Seed Co Columbus, Ohio 

C. C. Morse '& Co San Francisco, Cal. 

T. V. Munson & Son Denison, Tex. 

Monroe Nursery Co Monroe, Mich. 

Henry Mette Quedlinburg, Germany 

Oregon Nursery * Salem, Ore. 

Roumanille Lafayette Pere & Fils. ... St. Remy de Provence, France 

John A. Salzer Seed Co , La Crosse, Wis. 

J. M. Thornburn & Co New York City 

Vaughan's Seed Store Chicago, 111. 

Watkins & Simpson London, England 

J. D. Webster Chichester, England 

Yokohama Nursery Co Yokohama, Japan 

(To be Continued) 



360 Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. { Am ^°u£ S™" 

THE PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA OF THE 
BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA OF 1914. 1 

By George M. Beringer. 

The appearance of a revised pharmacopoeia of one of the lead- 
ing nations is an event of general pharmaceutical interest. The im- 
portance of such a revision from an American viewpoint is greatly 
enhanced if the pharmacopoeia revised is that of a nation whose 
consanguinity, language, and practices are so closely allied to our 
own as are those of the British Isles. Hence the appearance of a 
new British Pharmacopoeia during the past year becomes one of 
the most important pharmaceutical events. 

It is apparent that any attempt to review the pharmacy and materia 
medica of the Fifth Edition of the British Pharmacopoeia within 
the time allotted for a paper presented to a pharmaceutical meeting, 
must necessarily be cursory and incomplete. Moreover, one is too 
prone to consider the volume from the viewpoint of American prac- 
tice, without realizing what has been the aim of the Medical Council 
and which, in the following statement in the preface, they claim to 
have accomplished : " Has now been able to produce a British Phar- 
macopoeia suitable for the whole Empire.'' This statement indicates 
to what extent that ideal of the British Government, the solidarity 
of all of the people of the numerous divisions of the British Empire, 
has progressed. The present edition displaces not only the edition 
of 1898, but also the Indian and Colonial Addenda of 1900. The 
dismissal in the revision of so many of the drugs used exclusively, or 
nearly so, in the Oriental British possessions indicates the advance- 
ment of the movement for uniformity of medical standards and 
practice throughout the British Empire. 

In this revision the Medical Council departed somewhat from 
the methods of the previous revisions and sought the cooperation 
of pharmaceutical, chemical, and botanical authorities by instituting 
conferences and committees on reference, and thus aimed to obtain 
information, advice, and investigation from many experts outside of 
the Council. 

In this revision the metric system of weights and measures is 



1 Presented at the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association 
Spring Lake, N. ]., June 15-18, 1915- 



An A U gu"t" Ens™"} Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. 361 

used throughout, even for the statement of doses, " in the expectation 
that in the near future the system will be generally adopted by British 
prescribers." ''At the present time students and practitioners of 
medicine are accustomed to use the metric system in connection with 
the work of chemical, physical, physiological, pathological, and phar- 
macological laboratories ; it will doubtless facilitate the application of 
science to practice when the same system is used for therapeutic 
purposes also." We sincerely trust that in this respect the British 
practitioners of medicine, veterinary medicine, and pharmacy are 
more ready to adopt this innovation than have been their American 
brethren in these professions. The term " cubic centimetre " is dis- 
placed by " millilitre," and in the statement of doses in the metric 
system this is abbreviated to " mil." and the fractional portions are 
" decimil." and " centimil." 

In the preface it is recommended that prescribers cease to employ 
the long-used symbols for drachm and ounce, as they are apt to be 
misread, and are used at times to convey different meanings. The 
symbol 5, for example, " is to represent sometimes 480 grains, some- 
times 437.5 grains, and also to represent 1 fluidounce." 

The preface likewise defines what is meant by a percentage 
solution; " thus a solution of ' 1 in 10 ' or ' 10 per cent.' means that 
one gramme of a solid or one millilitre of a liquid is contained in ten 
millilitres of the solution." This statement is not strictly accurate, 
nor is it in accord with the exact meaning of the word percentage. 

In considering synonymy, only the most important of the synonyms 
employed in prescribing have been inserted. Abbreviations of the 
Latin titles have been adopted and published as a table in the 
Appendix. In this the revisers were undoubtedly influenced by a 
foreknowledge of the intent of the U. S. P. IX in this direction. 

The acceptance of the principles of " The International Agree- 
ment " promulgated by the International Congress for the Unification 
of the Formulae for Potent Drugs and Preparations, held at Brussels 
in 1902, has necessitated some changes in this edition of the British 
Pharmacopoeia. The practice of Great Britain as well as America 
has been to measure liquids by volume and solids by weight, and this 
has been maintained instead of following the custom of continental 
practice, and endorsed by that agreement, of weighing liquids as 
well as solids. 

The substances admitted are not numerous and are covered in 
a list of 43 titles. Cantharidin replaces cantharis and mylabris, and 



362 Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. | Al ^ u i°™* \§™ m ' 

is used in all of the galenicals in which these drugs were formerly 
directed, on the basis of the average content of 0.5 per cent, of 
cantharidin in cantharides, which quite likely is the average yield 
of the pure active principle. This change has necessitated a change 
in titles of preparations to acetum cantharidini, emplastrum can- 
tharidini, tinctura cantharidini, and unguentum cantharidini. 

Diluted hydriodic acid is admitted for the purpose of making 
the syrup, which is likewise on the list of admissions. 

Cassia fructus, cassia fistula pod, is admitted for the purpose of 
giving a formula for " Cassia pulpa," which should more correctly be 
entitled an extract. 

Senna fructus, the senna pod, is another new title. Senna pods 
are official in several of the European pharmacopoeias, and their use 
is extending likewise in the United States. 

Under the title of 4> Ipomea radix " the Orizaba jalap root is 
admitted, with the synonym of Mexican scammony root. This has 
been done to permit its use as a substitute for the true scammony 
root for the preparation of scammony resin. 

Scammony resin is defined " as a mixture of resins obtained from 
scammony root or from Orizaba jalap root." This is an unfortunate 
exhibition of legalizing a specious fraud that has been extensively 
carried on in the substitution of the chemically different resin of 
ipomea for that of scammony. The requirement of " not less than 
75 per cent, soluble in ether " shows how deliberate the purpose. 

Cresol is one of the additions and as a new preparation liquor 
cresol saponatus made with castor oil and potassa soap. This is a 
good preparation with which we are not unfamiliar. 

Formaldehyde is admitted, and liquor formaldehydi saponatus is 
a soft soap (from olive oil and potassium hydroxide), hydro-alco- 
holic solution of formaldehyde, and should prove a useful addition 
to the antiseptics. 

Among ointments and ointment bases we note that a formula for 
benzoinated prepared suet has been introduced, and it is recommended 
that in India this should be employed instead of benzoinated lard in 
the making of ointments. Unguentum lanse compositum, a mixture 
of prepared lard 40, wool fat 40, paraffin ointment 20, is a recruit 
with the synonym of emollient ointment. A veteran in American 
practice, Goulard's cerate, with a modified formula with camphor 
omitted, is admitted under the title of unguentum plumbi subacetatis. 

The list of deletions is a formidable one of 168 titles. A number 



Al A U J >S' SK!™' } Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. 363 

of these are Oriental drugs that probably have gone out of use be- 
cause of the change of medical practice in the colonies. There are, 
however, in this category a number of titles of old friends, such as 
camboge, cimicifuga, coca leaves, conium fruit and leaves, crocus, 
elaterium, humulus, jaborandi, lupulin, mezereum, musk, pareira, 
physostigma, sarsaparilla, and sumbul. 

Among the preparations dismissed, we note a number of de- 
coctions and infusions and the concentrated liquors introduced in 
the edition of 1898 for the purpose of permitting of the extempo- 
raneous preparation of decoctions and infusions. It would seem that 
the " Liquores concentrati " met with little favor, and, further, that 
English practice is gradually being weaned away from the copious 
draughts of infusions and decoctions of drugs. 

Our British brethren have shown some further appreciation of 
the advantages of powdered extracts and have adopted the powdered 
form for a few additional extracts, notably the extracts of belladonna, 
hyoscyamus, nux vomica, and opium. The diluent directed in the 
extracts of belladonna and hyoscyamus is the powdered respective 
drug of determined alkaloidal content. In the extracts of nux vomica 
and opium, calcium phosphate is directed as the diluent, and in the 
extract of strophanthus, milk sugar. The degree of fineness of the 
powder specified under extract of belladonna is a No. 20 sieve. This 
certainly will yield a rather coarse powder. The menstruum directed 
for extract of belladonna and hyoscyamus is 70 per cent, alcohol. 
A stronger alcoholic menstruum is necessary to obtain a powdered 
extract of proper strength and permanent fineness of powder. Where 
formulas are given for both the liquid and the dry extracts of the 
same drug, the word " Siccum " is added to the title of the latter. 
It would seem to have been preferable to have uniformly used this 
term in the titles of all such dry extracts. 

In the Latin titles 38 changes have been made. Most of these 
are of a minor character and for the purpose of more exactly defining 
the official articles or preparations. Aloe now covers both aloe 
barbadensis and aloe socotrinse of the previous edition, and senna 
folia includes the former senna Alexandrina and senna Indica. 
Kino eucalypti replaces the less appropriate eucalypti gummi, and 
oleum Chaulmoogrse replaces oleum Gynocardise. Among prepara- 
tions, we note that tinctura iodi fortis replaces liquor iodi fortis, and 
tinctura iodi mitis replaces tinctura iodi. The stronger contains 
10 Gm. of iodine and 6 Gm. of potassium iodide in 100 millilitres and 



364 Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia, { A ™ a g°T fms™' 

corresponds closely to the tincture of iodine of the international 
agreement. The tincture of iodine of the British Pharmacopoeia of 
1898 contained only 2.5 Gm. each of iodine and potassium iodide 
per 100 millilitres ; hence this is now to be known as the " weak." 

Important changes in the strength of 41 preparations have been 
made. The reason for many of these is apparent ; for some, however, 
the reason is hot evident. The endeavor to harmonize the potent 
galenicals with the standards of the international agreement accounts 
for the changes in syrup of ferrous iodide, a number of the tinctures, 
and in mercury ointment. 

Syrup of ferrous iodide contains 5, per cent, of ferrous iodide and 
10 per cent, of glucose as a preservative. 

Tincture of aconite is about twice as strong as that of the Pharma- 
copoeia of 1898, and is directed to be made with 70 per cent, alcohol 
and then assayed and standardized so that 100 mils, contain 0.04 Gm. 
of the ether-soluble alkaloids. This formula agrees in the menstruum 
with that directed by the Brussels protocol, but starts with 150 Gm. 
of aconite, yielding doubtless a good preparation, and it would be 
difficult to establish that it is " approximately the same strength as 
the tincture of aconite of the international agreement." 

Tincture of belladonna is to be made by percolating 100 Gm. 
of the powdered leaf with 70 per cent, alcohol, and in addition is 
standardized to contain 0.035 Gm. of the alkaloids in 100 millilitres. 

Tinctures of colchicum and digitalis likewise agree closely with 
the requirements of the protocol. 

Tincture of nux vomica is to be made from the liquid extract by 
diluting, and is standardized so that 100 millilitres contain 0.125 Gm. 
of strychnine. 

Tincture of opium is made from the gum opium and standardized 
so that 100 millilitres contain 1 Gm. of anhydrous morphine. The 
product will correspond to the international agreement in alkaloidal 
(not alcoholic) content, and will be about one-third stronger than 
the laudanum of the previous edition. 

In tincture of strophanthus we have a straddle. In attempting to 
comply with the requirement of the protocol, 100 Gm. of ground seeds 
and 70 per cent, alcohol are directed, but the de- fatting of the drug 
with ether is prescribed. The footnote states that " this tincture is 
made with four times the proportion of seeds ordered by the previous 
pharmacopoeia, and it is approximately the same strength as the 
tincture of the international agreement." This formula is, how- 



Ai a u S" 193.5™'} Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. 365 

ever, subject to several criticisms. It is entirely proper to de-fat the 
drug before making the tincture, but the de-fatting should be with 
purified petroleum benzin and not with ether, because the latter 
extracts a portion of the strophanthin. The percolation with ether 
should not be " until the liquid passes through colorless," but should 
be continued until a few drops evaporated from filter paper leave no 
greasy stain. Alcohol of 90 or 95 per cent, will not entirely extract 
strophanthus in the proportion directed, and much less will alcohol of 
70 per cent, serve this purpose. A more serious error -is the direction 
to discontinue the percolation with the alcohol when 500 millilitres 
are obtained and then to add sufficient 70 per cent, alcohol to obtain 
1 litre. Under these conditions the drug will probably be not more 
than one-half extracted. 

The diluted acids, with the exceptions of diluted acetic acid 
(5 per cent. HC 2 H 3 2 ) and diluted hydrocyanic acid (2 per cent. 
HCN), are now uniformly 10 per cent, of the respective absolute 
acids, instead of the odd proportions of the 1898 Pharmacopoeia, 
which had diluted hydrochloric acid, 10.58 per cent. HQ ; diluted 
nitric acid, 17.44 per cent. HXO s ; diluted phosphoric acid, 13.8 per 
cent. HgPO^, and diluted sulphuric acid, 13.65 per cent. H 2 S0 4 . 

In the text the aromatic waters are directed to be made by 
distilling the water, in some cases with the drug and in other cases 
with the volatile oil. In Chapter XII of the Appendix, under 
" Alternative Preparations Sanctioned for Use in Tropical, Sub- 
tropical, and Other Parts of the British Empire," it is stated : " Aquae 
olei anethi, anisi, carui, cinnamomi, fceniculi, menthae piperitae, mentha 
viridis. Each of these waters may be prepared by triturating the 
corresponding oil with twice its weight of calcium phosphate and five 
hundred times its volume of distilled water and filtering the mixture. 
In tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Empire these aquae olei may 
be used in place of the corresponding aquae of the text of the 
Pharmacopoeia." 

It is exceedingly doubtful if this territorial restriction will be 
observed by the practical pharmacists of Great Britain, once they 
become as fully acquainted as are their x\merican brethren with the 
easy and practical method of preparing saturated aqueous solutions 
of these aromatic oils by the use of an insoluble distributing medium. 
It will be difficult to convince the practical pharmacist that such waters 
as peppermint and spearmint must be prepared by distilling the oil 
and water instead of a simple process of solution, or that these waters 



366 Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. [ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1915. 



of the British Pharmacopoeia are superior because of such exposure 
to heat. 

The unsatisfactory and tedious process for extract of ergot of 
the 1898' Pharmacopoeia is replaced by a process in which the ergot is 
extracted by water, the aqueous extract concentrated, and alcohol 
added; after standing, the liquid is filtered off and evaporated to 
proper consistence. 

Extractum filicis liquidum is made with ether and corresponds to 
our oleoresin of male fern. Description, tests, and assay process for 
filicin are introduced, and the product is standardized as containing 
20 per cent, of filicin. 

Extractum glycyrrhizse is to be made by macerating liquorice 
root with chloroform water, expressing and heating the expressed 
liquid to ioo°, then straining and evaporating. The liquid extract is 
made by a similar process, the alcohol being finally added only as a 
preservative. j 

Extractum hydra stis liquidum is to be prepared with 60 per cent, 
alcohol (instead of 45 per cent, in 1898) and to be standardized to 
contain 2 Gm. of hydrastine in 100 mils, of the product. 

Extractum ipecacuanha? liquidum is to be prepared by. extracting 
with 90 per cent, alcohol without the treatment with lime as directed 
in the Pharmacopoeia of 1898, and is to be standardized so that 100 
mils, shall contain 3 Gm. of alkaloid. 

Extractum nucis vomicae liquidum is to be prepared with 70 
per cent, alcohol, the fat removed by treatment with melted hard 
paraffin, and the product standardized to contain 1.5 Gm. strychnine 
in 100 mils. No attempt is made to recover the alkaloid removed by 
the paraffin de- fatting. 

Four formulas are given for hypodermic injections. While there 
may be good reason to endorse a standard formula for a hypodermic 
injection of ergot, there is a better reason that would require that this 
be directed to be dispensed in sterilized and sealed ampoules. In 
this day of universally-used, well-prepared, and stable hypodermic 
tablets it seems unnecessary to include in a modern pharmacopoeia 
formulas for hypodermic injections of morphine, strychnine, etc. 

Liquor ethyl nitrite is retained as the title for a preparation 
containing from 2.5 to 3 per cent, of ethyl nitrite in a mixture of 
95 volumes of absolute alcohol and 5 volumes of glycerine. There 
is also official the spiritus aetheris nitrosi, containing 1.52 to 2.66 



Al Augu U sf; M5 m '} Pharmacy of British Pharmacopoeia. 367 

per cent, by weight of ethyl nitrite in alcoholic solution. The need 
for both is not understood. 

The volatile oils are well defined and generally the necessary 
tests for identity and quality are clearly given. The assay processes 
are the simplest that can be satisfactorily applied.. Instead of an 
elaborate process for determining the amount of cineol, the oils of 
cajuput and eucalyptus are assayed by the phosphoric acid method, 
and for pharmacopceial purposes this is probably all that is necessary. 
In oil of lemon the citral is determined by the hydroxylamine method. 

For at least several decades the trend of pharmaceutical author- 
ities has been toward a clearer differentiation of the classes of 
galenicals; toward defining within proper lines each class of prepara- 
tions and the grouping of the individual formulas, wherever possible, 
under such defined classes. It was to be expected that in this re- 
vision these proper classifications would be respected and followed. 
Yet we find oleoresin of male fern "an oily extract," entitled " Ex- 
tractum filicis liquidum," and printed along with the extracts, despite 
the statement in the preface that " most of the liquid extracts are of 
such a strength that one hundred millilitres represent one hundred 
grammes of the drug employed." An acacia emulsion of castor oil 
is classed with the mistura and printed with such formulas as chalk 
mixture and compound mixture of iron. 

The treatment of the botanical drugs is disappointing. There is 
lacking that thoroughness of description that one would expect in a 
modern pharmacopoeia prepared by those who have every oppor- 
tunity to be acquainted with the progress of science and the great 
advances in pharmacognostic knowledge since the appearance of the 
previous edition, sixteen years ago. 

The names of the authors of the binomials adopted are given, 
but in no case is the family or other botanical classification given. 
The references to the works where the medicinal plants are figured, a 
feature of the pharmacopoeia of 1898, are omitted, and there is good 
reason to consider that such information is out of place in a 
pharmacopoeia. 

In some cases the definition of the drug assumes the style of a 
rubric and states the alkaloidal standard ; in other cases, with equally 
important drugs, this is omitted, as occurs, for example, in the 
definitions of belladonna root, hydrastis, and hyoscyamus. 

Any one who has occasion to examine crude drugs knows that 
they are very rarely free from admixtures. Sometimes these ad- 



368 Chemistry of British Pharmacopoeia. { A ^ n ^*f^ m ' 

mixtures are other portions of the plant yielding the drug, and at 
other times they are unavoidable or accidental foreign substances. 
No attempt whatever is made to either recognize the presence of 
such admixtures or to fix limitations therefor. 

The descriptions of the macroscopical characters of the drugs are 
very little improvement over those of. the former edition. It is rather 
the exception that the descriptions of the histology or microscopical 
structural characteristics of the drugs or of the powders are given with 
any degree of thoroughness, and the common adulterants and their 
characteristics are not even mentioned. 

While in some drugs a limit of ash has been added, in many 
others equally important this has been ignored. As examples, the 
ash of lobelia has been fixed in this revision at " not more than 12 
per cent.," but for hyoscyamus no limit of ash is given. 

The tenacity with which the English people adhere to the tenets 
and practices of their fathers and forefathers, their aversity to in- 
novations and the making of radical changes, is a recognized trait of 
the English character. This conservatism of the nation is reflected 
in their pharmacopoeia, and,' while we criticise in a friendly spirit 
some of its defects and lack of progress, we recognize that it is a 
safe and practical book of standards for most of the substances 
prescribed in British medical practice. 



THE CHEMISTRY OF THE BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA, 

1914. 1 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

In reviewing the chemical text of the British Pharmacopoeia, 
1914, one would naturally be prepared for some radical changes, 
inasmuch as the last edition of the book bears the date 1898, which is 
sixteen years previous. 

Undoubtedly the most radical change (and this applies to the 
book in a broad sense) is in the adoption of the metric system, 
together with the use of the word " millilitre," which is given through- 
out the text in the unabbreviated form. That this change is radical 
will be appreciated by all who know the history of the Imperial 



1 Read at the annual meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June, 1915. 



Am \ u -u u sf' i9i5. m '} Chemistry of < British Pharmacopoeia. 369 

System, but that the change was made easier by the present cordial 
relations existing between England and France is also doubtless true. 

Another radical change is that the atomic weight table is changed 
from H = 1 to o = 16 to conform with other recently-revised phar- 
macopoeias and general chemical practice. 

As in the previous edition, most of the qualitative tests and quan- 
titative methods are given in full in the Appendix, and are merely 
referred to in the text when necessity occurs. It is in connection 
with volumetric determinations that the following prefatory note is 
found, which gives an idea of the character of the knowledge and 
skill required of a pharmacist in the British Empire : " Details of 
procedure in these and other chemical operations are now left to 
the skill and judgment of pharmacists and of analysts who are 
assumed to be fully trained.'' 

In looking over the prefatory lists of additions and deletions one 
is struck by the fact that of the 42 substances which have been added 
to the official list (a very small number, considering that 168' were 
deleted), 29 are chemicals, and of these 22, or more than half the 
total, belong to the class of organic chemicals and most of them are 
synthetics. The detailed consideration of the chemical substances 
which have been added or changed is as follows : 

Acetone. — This substance, which was first made official in the 
U. S. P. VIII in our own country, is now recognized and described. 
It is used as a solvent in making liquor epispasticus, or blistering 
liquid, formerly made with acetic ether. 

Acetylsalicylic Acid. — This is described under the title " Acidum 
Acetylsalicylicum/' no mention being made of aspirin. The English 
patent laws make such independent recognition possible, which can- 
not be done in the United States, owing to the product patent. 

Diluted Hydriodic Acid of 10 per cent, strength (same as the 
U. S. P.) is recognized now and is permitted to contain 1 per cent, 
of hypophosphorus acid for preservative purposes. 

Picric Acid is now recognized, accompanied by the somewhat 
unfamiliar (to us) synonym " carbazotic acid." The rubric requires 
it to be of 99 per cent, purity. 

Adrenalin, defined as " lawomethylamino-ethanol-catechol," is 
described as being obtained from the suprarenal glands of animals 
(species and varieties not specified), and is an ingredient in liquor 
adrenalini hydrochloricus, made by dissolving 0.1 per cent, adrenalin, 
with the aid of diluted hydrochloric acid, in recently-boiled distilled 



370 Chemistry of British Pharmacopoeia. { Am ^ v J ^ Si| rm ' 

water made isotonic with sodium chloride and preserved by satura- 
tion with chloroform. 

Alum has had its official title changed from alumen to alumen 
purificatum, but for what reason is not clear, as the requirements 
for purity remain the same as in the previous edition. 

Under the Latin title Barbitonum is described diethyl-barbituric 
acid, with the synonyms " Malonurea " and " Diethyl-malonyl-urea." 
No mention is made of the proprietary title " Veronal." 

Bensamince Lactas, or benzamine lactate, is the unfamiliar name 
for beta eucaine. It is defined as the lactate of benzoyl-vinyl-diace- 
ton-alkamine," a rather unusual designation for trimethyl-benzoxy- 
piperidine, which is ordinarily given as the chemical name for beta 
eucaine. 

The title Benzol has been changed to Benzenum. There is no 
danger of confusion with petroleum benzin, which is recognized 
only in the Appendix under the unmistakable name of petroleum 
spirit, with petroleum ether as a synonym. 

The title Borax has been changed to borax purificatus. The 
reason is no more apparent than for the similar change referred to 
under alum, for the requirements are practically identical in both 
books. 

Calcium Lactate is officially recognized for the first time with a 
rubric of 93 per cent, of a salt containing 5 molecules of water of 
crystallization. 

Cantharidin, C 10 H 12 O 4 , is also recognized for the first time. It 
is described as being obtained from various species of cantharis or 
of mylabris, and the melting-point is given as 210 to 212 C. 

The title of Carbonis Bisulphidum has been changed to " Carbon 
disulphidum," the requirements remaining essentially unchanged. 

Chloral Formamidum is the official name of chloralamide, recog- 
nized for the first time. 

Cresol is recognized for the first time and is described as " a 
mixture of the isomers of the formula C 7 H 7 OH." It is used in pre- 
paring liquor cresol saponatus, also a new addition, which consists of 
50 per cent, weight in volume of cresol in a castor oil-potash soap. 

Diamorphince Hydro chloridum is the rather unusual name selected 
for the hydrochloride of heroin or diacetylmorphine. 

Ethyl Chloride is described for the first time, and in order that 
it may be advantageously made from methylated spirit it is permitted 
to contain " a small but variable proportion of methyl chloride/' 



Am (u^"t* 55™"} Chemistry of British Pharmacopoeia. 371 

although in the assay method it is required to show a saponification 
figure " corresponding to not less than 99.5 per cent, by weight of 
esters calculated as ethyl chloride." 

Ferri et Potassii Tartras is the newly-adopted name for the article 
formerly official as ferrum tartaratum. It is assayed by incinerating 
to ferric oxide, of which the yield should be not less than 30 per cent, 
by weight. 

Ferri Phosphas Saccharatus is the title of a new preparation 
defined as "ferrous phosphate more or less oxidized, mixed with 
glucose and containing not less than 60 per cent, of ferrous salts, 
calculated as F33(P0 4 ) 2 8H 2 0." It is described as "a slate-blue, 
amorphous powder, taste sweetish and chalybeate." 

Glucosum, used in the foregoing preparation and also in syrup 
of ferrous iodide, to retard oxidation, and in a syrup of glucose, is 
defined as " a mixture of dextrose and other analogous substances 
obtained by the hydrolysis of starch." It is permitted to contain 
about 0.1 per cent, of sulphur dioxide, an amount far in excess of 
that found in American glucose at the present time. 

Guaiacol and Guaiacol Carbonate are both described for the first 
time, and products of either natural or synthetic origin are permitted. 

Hexamina is the title of hexamethylenetetramine, which is re- 
quired to be of 98 per cent, purity, a method of assay being given. 

The title of Hydrargyri Oleas is changed to Hydrargyrum Olea- 
ium, and instead of being made by double decomposition and pre- 
cipitation of hard soap solution with solution of mercuric chloride, 
as was formerly the case, it is now made by direct combination be- 
tween yellow mercuric oxide and oleic acid. The product is now not 
so much a chemical compound as a pharmaceutical preparation, which 
probably accounts for the change in the title. 

Liquor Formaldehydi is now official and is required to be of from 
38 per cent, to 40 per cent, strength, weight in volume. It is used 
in preparing liquor formaldehydi saponatus, which contains 20 per 
cent, by volume of solution of formaldehyde in a solution containing 
40 per cent, by weight of soft soap and 30 per cent, of 90 per cent, 
alcohol. The official soft soap of the British Pharmacopoeia is an 
olive oil-potash soap. 

Methyl Salicylate is now recognized and is required to contain 
98 per cent, of CH 3 C 7 H 5 Oo. Oil of gaultheria is also recognized 
under its own title, and is defined as " the oil distilled from the leaves 
of Gaultheria. procumbens or from the bark of Betula lenta!' 



372 Chemistry of British Pharmacopoeia, { Km i'^'\^ m ' 

Methyl Sulphonal is the newly-coined name for trional (diethyl- 
sulphone-methyl-ethyl-methane), but why it is called methyl sul- 
phonal, when it differs from that substance by an extra ethyl group, 
is a mystery. 

Pelleterine T annate is simply defined as " a mixture of the tan- 
nates of the alkaloids obtained from the bark of the root and stem of 
Punica granatum" without attempting to specify the alkaloids by 
name, as is done in the U. S. P. VIII. 

Phenolplvthalein, of course, has recognition, owing to the phe- 
nomenal increase in its use in medicine during recent years. 

Resorcin, strange to say, although recognized in most other 
pharmacopoeias for several decades, is officially described for the 
first time. 

The title of Sodii Arsenas has been corrected to Sodii Arsenas 
Anhydrosus, and is required to contain not less than 98 per cent, 
of anhydrous sodium arsenate. 

Sodii et Potassii Tartras is now the official title of the former 
soda tartarata, and is required to be of 98 per cent, purity. 

In Sodii Phosphas Acidns, or acid sodium phosphate, we have 
probably the first official recognition that has ever been accorded 
to sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH 2 P0 4 , sometimes known as 
sodium biphosphate. It is required to contain not less than 70 per 
cent, of the anhydrous salt, and is assayed by titration with standard 
alkali. 

Strontium Bromide is recognized for the first time, although 
other pharmacopoeias have long included it among the official sub- 
stances. It is required to contain not less than 97 per cent, of 
SrBr 2 ,6H 2 0. 

Theobromine and Sodium Salicylate is another substance recog- 
nized in Great Britain for the first time, although previously given 
official recognition in continental Europe. 

Zinc Oleostearate is the official title of the product made by 
double decomposition and precipitation between a solution of zinc 
sulphate and a solution of a mixture of hard soap and curd soap. 
It is described as a "nearly inodorous, yellowish-white, or grayish- 
white powder," and corresponds closely to our own official zinc stear- 
ate, misnamed because usually made in the same manner. The curd 
soap and hard soap of the above formula are respectively animal 
fat and vegetable fat soaps with soda. 



Am \i 1 iu U s?'Sl?" m '} Pharmacy of Useful Drugs. 373 

Taking the chemistry of the. British Pharmacopoeia as a whole, 
while it shows some progress since the previous edition of 1898, the 
advance has not been as marked as will be shown in the U. S. P. IX 
over the U. S. P. VIII. 



THE PHARMACY OF USEFUL DRUGS. 1 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

Soon after the organization of the Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry of the American Medical Association, in the early spring 
of 1905, it became evident that much of the then existing misuse 
of proprietary remedies was due to the fact that by far the greater 
number of medical practitioners had received but inadequate in- 
struction regarding the possible uses and limitations of official and 
other widely-used medicines. It was also recognized that, with the 
limited amount of time that could be devoted to materia medica 
subjects in the already overcrowded curriculum of medical schools, 
it would be practically impossible to present even a superficial view 
of the four or five thousand drugs and preparations in everyday use. 

As the fundamental object of the Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry is to develop and to foster the intelligent, scientific use of 
medicinal preparations in the treatment of disease, it became neces- 
sary to consider the practicability of bringing about a change in the 
then existing condition. At the meeting of the American Medical 
Association in Boston, in 1907, the problems involved were discussed, 
and, on the recommendation of the Section on Pharmacology and 
Therapeutics, a sub-committee of the Council was appointed to con- 
sider ways and means to bring about more efficient instruction in 
materia medica subjects. This sub-committee, after due considera- 
tion, came to the conclusion that teachers in materia medica subjects 
in medical schools felt that it was necessary to impart a smattering of 
information in regard to a large number of drugs and their prepara- 
tions because members of state medical examining and licensing 
boards were likely to ask questions regarding them. Members of 
state medical examining and licensing boards, on the other hand, 
thought it desirable to ask questions regarding the many thousands of 



1 Presented at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, Forest Park, Pa., June 22-24, 1915. 



374 



Pharmacy of Useful Drugs. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1 August, 1915. 



official and non-official drugs and preparations because teachers of 
materia medica subjects referred to them in their lectures and dis- 
cussed them in their text-books. From this conclusion it became 
evident that if the members of state medical examining and licensing 
boards could be induced to restrict their examinations in materia 
medica subjects to a more limited list of articles more time could be 
devoted to their study. Conversely, if instruction in materia medica 
subjects could be restricted to the comprehensive consideration of a 
reasonably limited number of widely-used and thoroughly well-estab- 
lished articles the student could be given a thorough grounding in 
the properties and uses of the several drugs and preparations, and 
this would go far toward eliminating many, if not all, of the then 
existing abuses. 

The acceptation of such a list of useful drugs, it was further 
thought, might serve as an added incentive for the development of 
international standards of purity and strength of widely-used medica- 
ments. 

The original list was compiled in cooperation with the Council on 
Medical Education of the American Medical Association, and was 
subsequently submitted to members of the National Confederation of 
State Medical Examining and Licensing Boards. It was later sub- 
mitted to teachers of materia medica and therapeutics in medical 
schools and to members of state medical examining and licensing 
boards, and, finally, through the columns of the Journal of the 
American Medical Association, to medical practitioners generally. 

The principles guiding the inclusion of articles in the list of useful 
drugs were primarily based on the continued extensive use of a 
drug or preparation, on the reports of clinical experiments as re- 
flected in current literature, and on the reports of experimental work 
done in pharmacologic laboratories and in hospitals equipped with 
proper laboratory facilities. 

Recognizing the influence of current medical literature, even when 
evidently of an advertising nature, the Council has included in the 
list of useful drugs a number of articles not now included in the 
Pharmacopeia of the United States or to be included in the revision 
now in press. 

In round numbers the present list of useful drugs includes 450 
titles, of which 231 may be classed as drugs and chemicals, 173 as 
preparations, 43 as definitions of forms of drugs, and 13 as cross 
references. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1915. J 



Pharmacy of Useful Drugs. 



375 



As suggested above, the list. is primarily intended to be educa- 
tional and to reflect as nearly as is practicable the best medical 
practices of the time. The object is not to restrict teaching in medical 
schools to this list, but to make sure that medical students are given a 
comprehensive and satisfactory training regarding the properties and 
uses of the several articles and are duly impressed with their short- 
comings and limitations. 

It is satisfactory to note, in this connection, that teachers in 
medical schools generally have evidenced an appreciation of the 
need for devoting an additional amount of time to the consideration 
of the more important medicaments, and there is now a fair prospect 
that future graduates in medicine will be given ample instruction 
to develop an efficient therapeutic armamentarium. 

The pharmacy of this list of useful drugs has as yet not received 
the care and attention that is properly due it. Pharmacists generally 
do not appear to realize that much, if not all, of the dissatisfaction 
with established or well-known drugs is due to the fact that as these 
drugs reach the patient they are frequently not strictly in accord 
with the requirements of established standards. 

The compilation of data from the reports of state boards of 
health and of state food and drug inspectors, as presented in the 
several volumes of the " Digest of Comments on the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States and on the National Formulary/' clearly shows 
that fully 50 per cent, of the more widely-used preparations do not 
comply within reasonable limits with official requirements. The 
chemist of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, in a recent 
comment on this shortcoming, says, in part : 

" It is rather startling to find that half of the pharmaceutical 
preparations examined, which are as simple to make as a batch of 
biscuit, differ more than 10 per cent, from the standard." 

The object of pharmacy is to exercise control over the identity 
and purity of articles used as medicine, and, while it is generally 
admitted that the average pharmacist cannot well be expected to 
systematically examine all of the thousands of articles carried in 
stock, there is practically no reason why he should not concentrate 
his efforts and ability on the limited number of articles included in the 
list of useful drugs so as to assure physicians and others that the 
articles included in this list will uniformly comply with the official 
requirements. 



376 



Pharmacy of Useful Drugs. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ August, p.915. 



As noted above, the list is intended to include only such drugs and 
preparations as are in general use or are accepted as having well- 
established medicinal value or demonstrated superiority. The list at 
the present time includes practically all of the preparations of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States for which standards and assay 
processes are included, and also includes practically all of the widely- 
used household remedies that are frequently examined and reported 
on by officials entrusted with the enforcement of food and drug laws, 
and for these reasons alone pharmacists would do well to consider 
the practicability of devoting additional attention to the systematic 
examination and control of the several articles. 

With the impending revision of the Pharmacopoeia and of the 
National Formulary, the Council is about to revise the list, and 
teachers in medical schools, members of state medical examining 
and licensing boards, and others are being consulted at the present 
time in regard to the practicability or desirability of omitting from 
and adding to the list of useful drugs. 

In this connection it should be remembered that the members 
of the Council fully realize that, individually or as a body, they are 
neither omniscient nor infallible. From its very origin the Council 
has courted the cooperation and assistance of not alone medical men, 
but also of pharmacists. 

In the revision of the list under discussion it is particularly im- 
portant that pharmacists should be given an opportunity to record 
their criticisms and opinions of the list and its objects and to suggest 
ways and means for inducing pharmacists generally to prepare and to 
dispense the preparations included in the list in accord with official 
requirements. 

As has been pointed out before, we, in this country, are sadly in 
need of more energetic and more effective control of all drugs and 
medicines. The only really safe and efficient control involves honesty, 
knowledge, intelligence, and care on the part of the person dispensing 
the medicine to the consumer, so that, unless pharmacists as a class 
can be induced to devote special attention to the systematic examina- 
tion and control of drugs and preparations widely used in the treat- 
ment of disease, the manufacturers of specialties or proprietaries will 
continue to have a reasonable argument with which to approach the 
physician. In conclusion it may be stated that pharmacists as a class 
may well endeavor to secure for themselves and for their craft the 
recognition and respect that is properly their due for services .ren- 



tAuJust, 1915™'} Device for Rapid Sale of Nipples. Z77 

dered, but it will be practically .impossible to do this unless they 
collectively and individually insist that all members of their craft 
live up fully to the requirements that may be reasonably made of 
them. 

Twenty-fifth and E Streets, N. W., 
June 16, 1915. 



A DEVICE FOR THE RAPID SALE OF NIPPLES. 1 
By George M. Beringer, Jr., P.D. 

" Mister, will you please give me a nipple, right-away. I'm in a 
hurry. The baby's outside in the go-cart and I'm afraid he will fall 
out." You rush to the place where you keep your stock; hand out a 
nipple; are told " that is not the kind "; try another with equal suc- 
cess ; then pull one from each box in stock, till you have a handful 
from which the customer can select. Before you have finished wait- 
ing on her another customer demands your attention, and, without 
time to reassort them, you dump the handful of nipples into the first 
convenient box. Maybe it wasn't you, but your clerk, who " messed 
up " the nipple stock. However, the next time you wanted to sell one 
you had to hunt all through that " junk pile " to find the particular 
kind demanded. 

Here is a device that may help you to prevent such occurrences. 
It will require from one-half to three-quarters of an hour to make it, 
and you will need very few tools. 

Take a smooth piece of wood of convenient length — about one- 
half inch thick and six inches or more wide. Sand-paper this per- 
fectly smooth and mark off points one and one-half inches apart each 
way to the same number as you have styles of nipples. Attach three- 
fourths-inch, or any convenient size, wooden button moulds, which 
you can obtain at any store dealing in dressmaking goods, at each 
point, by means of small brass screws, and over each peg thus formed, 
a nipple is stretched. For larger nipples, like Hygeia, use the tops of 
turned wood boxes of convenient size, with a hole drilled through 
the middle. For smaller sizes, like the Maw style, use large, round- 
headed brass screws. The nipples can be arranged on the stock 
shelves in the same order as on the display board described. If so 



1 Presented at the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 
Spring Lake, N. J., June 15-18, 1915. 



378 Penna. Pharmaceutical Association. { Am i^i 1915™* 

desired, a small label can be put on the board in front of each nipple, 
giving the name of that particular style or its number, so that one can 
be picked from the proper box without disarranging the rest of the 
stock. The nipples should not be sold directly from the display board, 
but should be changed at frequent intervals, so as to keep them in 
good condition. 



PENNSYLVANIA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION 

With an exceptional record for the year behind it and with an 
era of exceptional promise before it, the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association, on the evening of June 24, brought to a close 
the most enjoyable annual meeting in its thirty-eight years of exist- 
ence. The sessions took place at Forest Park Hotel, Pike County, 
June 22, 23, and 24. 

From the standpoint of action, the convention was equally im- 
portant. The incoming Legislative Committee was instructed to 
prepare an Itinerant Venders' Bill. It was decided to carry on 
regularly a State-wide publicity campaign by having a Committee 
on Publicity, through the lay press, keep the public informed on all 
pharmaceutical issues of general interest, particularly of a legislative 
character. 

J. Leyden White, the Washington representative of the 
N. A. R. D., who was present and made a thrilling address on the 
Stevens price-maintenance bill, was elected an honorary member, 
while marked enthusiasm followed the decision of the meeting to 
re-affiliate with the N. A. R. D. 

The Legislative Committee was instructed to forward to Presi- 
dent Wilson and to Congress a resolution demanding a repeal or 
change of our present patent laws so as to allow free competition 
in the manufacture of preparations now monopolized by foreign 
manufacturers, and urging the proper encouragement of American 
manufacturers. 

The N. A. R. D. was requested to withdraw from the "Chamber 
of Commerce of the United States because of the belief that the 
problems of unfair competition, truth in trade, and price standardiza- 
tion will not be fairly handled by that organization and its com- 
mittees. 

The State Pharmaceutical Examining Board was asked to make 
allowance in the matter of qualifications for the experience gained by 



^uoS'Sil™ 1 '} Penna. Pharmaceutical Association. 379 

applicants for registration in hospital dispensary work, and was 
requested to classify hospital dispensaries under the State Pharmacy 
Law. The preliminary report of the Voluntary Conference for the 
drafting of modern laws on pharmacy, being conducted by the Sec- 
tion on Education and Legislation of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, was endorsed with one exception, so far as the principles 
involved were concerned. Unqualified endorsement of the Stevens 
bill was also given. 

According to the Committee on Drug Market, the standard of 
the drugs coming into the American market from abroad this year 
is equal to that of last year. The Committee on Trade Interests 
announced that something-for-nothing schemes had been one of the 
stumbling-blocks in the path to success of the retail drug trade in 
Pennsylvania during the past year, and that such schemes were 
largely responsible for the high cost of living. 

Professor Joseph P. Remington announced that the Ninth Re- 
vision of the United States Pharmacopoeia was one-third in print. 
Statistics showed- that the legitimate use of narcotic drugs by 
physicians in their practice was about the same since the Harrison 
law became effective, but that the illegitimate use and their use in 
patent medicines had largely fallen off. 

The report of Secretary D. J. Reese showed that 220 new mem- 
bers had been elected during the year and that the association mem- 
bership is now 1200. The excellent work of the Travelling Men's 
Auxiliary, which secured 191 of these members, was acknowledged. 

Departing from its rule of twenty years' standing, of holding 
the annual meetings at a summer resort, the convention decided to 
accept the invitation of the Reading Board of Trade and go to that 
city, June 20, 21, and 22, 191 6. 

Officers were elected as follows : President, Theodore Campbell, 
Philadelphia; first vice-president, Adolph Schmidt, McKeesport; 
second vice-president, Adam B. Heckerman, Port Royal ; secretary, 
David J. Reese, Philadelphia; assistant secretary, Lewis H. Davis, 
Philadelphia ; treasurer, F. H. Gleim, Lebanon ; member of the 
Executive Committee for three years, Crull Keller, Harrisburg; 
local secretary, M. W. Bamford, Reading. 

The Travelling Men's Auxiliary, whose members provided an 
excellent entertainment program, selected the following officers : 
President, A. J. Staudt; vice-president, J. Q. Reinhart; secretary, 
A. L. Wolcott ; treasurer, J. D. McFerren, all of Philadelphia. 



380 Albert Plant.— An Appreciation. | Am - Jour - pharm - 



August, 1915. 



ALBERT PLAUT. 
An Apprfxiation. 

In the death of Mr. Albert Plaut, which occurred on Thursday 
night, June 17, at the Hotel Ritz-Carlton, New York City, the coun- 
try's commerce, and particularly the drug business, lost a rare and 
powerful personality, a good and loyal friend, and a bright and 
alert intellect. 

At an age when one might look for rest and ease from what 
was practically endless achievement he has fallen a victim to his 
activities. The anxieties of these activities slowly ate into his vital 
reserve and removed from the manufacturing and wholesale drug 
business of America one of its most commanding figures. 

Mr. Plaut was born in 1857, in Eschwege, Germany, and came 
to this country when eleven years old. After attending the public 
schools, the College of the City of New York, and the New York 
College of Pharmacy, he entered the drug business with his father 
in 1872. About five years later he became associated with Lehn & 
Fink, which was then an infant business, and, after displaying his 
ability as stock clerk for a time, he was transferred to the general 
business office, where he acquired the fundamentals on which he 
was later to build the superstructure of one of the largest drug 
houses in America. In 1886 he became a partner, succeeding Mr. 
Lehn. Twelve years later his brother, Joseph Plaut, succeeded the 
remaining original partner, Mr. Fink. 

When, in 19 10, the business of Lehn & Fink was incorporated, 
Albert Plaut was made president, Joseph Plaut treasurer, and William 
J. Gesell secretary. The present fine structure at 120 William Street 
was built in 1901, after the destruction by 'fire of the company's old 
premises at 128 William Street. The general laboratory and per- 
fumery and pharmaceutical plant and drug mill were constructed 
in Brooklyn in 1906. 

Besides his task as guiding member of the firm of Lehn & Fink, 
Mr. Plaut generously lent his aid whenever and wherever the inter- 
ests of the drug business in general demanded it. 

As a member of the New York Wholesale Druggists' Association 
Mr. Plaut was elected its president in Milwaukee in October, 1912, 
and he presided at the convention the following year in Jacksonville. 



^ugS,'i9iS m '} Albert Plaut.—An Appreciation. 381 

At various periods he served as chairman of the Committee on Drug 
Markets, chairman of the Committee on the Prevention of Adultera- 
tion, Fire Insurance and Legislation, and chairman of the Committee 
on Proprietary Goods. He was twice chairman of the Committee 
on Suits against Members, and -also twice a vice-president of the 
association. 

Mr. Plaut was prominently identified with the founding of the 
Metropolitan Drug Club and the Druggists' Supply Corporation. He 
was an active member of the New York Drug and Chemical Club 
and of the Drug Trade Section of the New York Board of Trade and 
Transportation, of which he was elected chairman in 1903, and was 
also a director of the general board for more than fifteen years. 

In recent years he was vice-president of the New York College 
of Pharmacy, having been a trustee of the institution for fifteen 
years, and at the time of his death was chairman of its Committee on 
Instruction. He was also a member of the Committee of Revision 
of the United States Pharmacopoeia, being elected at the convention 
in 1910. 

In 1909 President Taft sent him as government delegate and 
chemical expert to the Seventh International Congress of Applied 
Chemistry in London, and he was instrumental in obtaining the selec- 
tion of New York City as the meeting-place for the Eighth Congress 
of Applied Chemistry, which was held in September, 1912. 

To the Princeton Chemical Club Mr. Plaut, early in 1912, pre- 
sented an endowment fund of $5000 to obtain lecturers on chemical 
subjects from other universities. 

In April, 1914, he founded the Isaac Plaut Travelling Pharma- 
ceutical Fellowship in the New York College of Pharmacy as a tribute 
to the memory of his father. 

As an indication of the affection and regard in which Mr. Plaut 
was held by all who had relations of any kind with him, we quote 
from the funeral eulogy delivered by Mr. Edmond E. Wise : 

" I stand here to-day at the bier of my good and loyal friend to pay to him 
the last tribute of respect. An inscrutable Providence saw fit to remove him 
in the fulness of his strength, when he was beginning to enjoy thoroughly the 
fruits of his past achievements, while still ambitious to strive and struggle for 
greater triumph. Rebellion against fate is futile. He has been taken away, 
and all that is left to us is to be thankful that we who honored and loved him 
were privileged to share with him some of the joys of his life, and to lighten 
some of its burdens. In whatever relation of life that we saw him, he was a 



382 Albert Plant. — An Appreciation. {"['J?™' 

man, shouldering his burdens in a manly way. From his boyhood to the day 
of his death, his ambitious, restless mind was constantly planning some honora- 
ble method to mount the next rung on the ladder of success. As an humble 
clerk he entered the firm of which he died the head. From a comparatively 
modest position in the commercial world he raised it to a position of acknowl- 
edged eminence, and he himself was recognized as one of the leading mer- 
chants of this great community, not only from the financial standpoint, but 
in every public movement which aimed to improve its business conditions or to 
protect it from attack. In large measure his success was due to his untiring 
efforts, his wonderfully keen judgment of men and matters, and, above all, 
to his indomitable courage, which enabled him calmly and with fortitude to 
face certan defeat without cramping or paralyzing his will-power or his energy. 
Never was this quality more conspicuously displayed than in his last, his final 
struggle. Barely ten days ago, an apparently trivial illness assumed a danger- 
ous aspect. His alert mind promptly recognized that he was standing face to 
face with the Angel of Death, and that he was entering upon that conflict 
which is the final destiny of all mankind. He sent for me, and as I stood by 
his bed of pain he held out his hand in greeting and, in a calm but earnest voice, 
he exclaimed, ( Moriturus saluto ' (' Dying, I greet you ')• He then proceeded 
with an unclouded and an untroubled mind to discuss various matters in most 
minute detail. He dwelt with sincere appreciation upon the loyalty of a large 
group of .his old employees to whose efficiency he attributed much of his busi- 
ness success, and finally acknowledged his debt of gratitude to his old em- 
ployer for the kindness and consideration shown to him at the beginning of 
his career. How many men under such circumstances would have shown such 
thoughtfulness and given to others such credit? And yet his ability to appre- 
ciate both the good and the evil that resides in every man was one of his 
characteristics. Though he saw blemishes, he also saw virtues behind them. 
Though he fully recognized the faults of his friends, he did not therefore alto- 
gether condemn them, nor did it diminish his esteem of them. 

" Nor was he himself without fault. He was a strong man and he had all 
the failings of his strength. He delighted in the glitter and glory of public 
honors; yet he placed honor above all honors. His very strength made him 
at times appear quick and ruthless, yet none more than he regretted the pain 
he inflicted, for he was large of heart as well as broad of mind. 

" Taking it all in all, his life was a happy one. He enjoyed progressive 
prosperity, and before age had withered his faculties or dulled his sensibili- 
ties he died surrounded by a loving family and mourned by a host of friends. 
Indeed, he realized the good wishes of the ancient sage who wrote : 

" ' The hour that ushered thee to life, my child, 
Saw thee in tears whilst all around thee smiled ; 
Oh, may the hour that summons thee to thy eternal sleep 
See thee in smiles whilst all around thee weep.' " 



The Board of Directors of the Merchants' Association of New 
York held a special meeting and adopted the following minutes : 



Am iug u l s[;m a 5™'} Albert Plant.— An Appreciation. 383 

" The members of the Board of Directors of The Merchants' Association 
of New York hereby record their de^p sorrow at the death of Mr. Albert 
Plaut, which occurred on Thursday, June 17, 191 5, in this city. 

" Although charged with the cares and responsibilities of a large and 
successful business, Mr. Plaut never iailed to respond generously to every 
demand made upon him in connection with the welfare of the promotion of 
the trade of New York. His unfailing energy and zeal have been important 
factors in developing the capacity for usefulness on the part of The Mer- 
chants' Association of New York, and in creating its ability to serve the city. 
The confidence reposed in him was indicated by the fact that he was elected a 
director of the association on February 25, 1909, in which capacity he has 
since served continuously, and by the fact that he was elected successively 
to each of the three grades of the office of vice-president of this association. 

" As our associate on this Board, Mr. Plaut has commanded the respect' 
and affection of its members. Although he possessed a strong personality 
and was tenacious in his support of what he regarded as right, he was always 
generous toward the opinions of others ; was invariably a friend of prog- 
ress and improvement, and took a keen interest in all projects for the better- 
ment of conditions both at home and abroad. The wide range of his active, 
vigorous, and well-informed mind made his counsel of high value. 

" Mr. Plaut loved the city in which he lived, rendered his services freely 
and unselfishly, and represented the best type of worthy citizenship, both in 
his business career and in the performance of his civic duties. 

" To the members of the family we extend our sincere sympathy in their 
loss." 

Mr. William A. Marble made a brief address to the Board in 
which he said that during his term as president of the association no 
member had proved more helpful to him than Mr. Plaut, upon whose 
assistance and judgment he was always able to rely. In expressing 
his sorrow at Mr. Plaut's death, Mr. Marble applied to him the words 
of the poet Halleck : 

" None knew him but to love him, 
None named him but to praise." 

Mr. Plaut possessed a keen intellect and was exceptionally well 
informed with regard to all efforts for progress, social, political, and 
commercial, throughout the world. Although one of the city's most 
active business men, his interests took a wide range and his views 
and opinions were strongly individual. He was a tireless worker, 
and with the growth of his business the burden which he carried 
increased to such an extent that he often complained that it left him 
so little time for himself. 

By his will Mr. Albert Plaut directed that $25,000 be divided 
among twenty-seven employees who had been associated with the 



384 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { An £ u J°g t r - f^™ 1 ' 

firm of Lehn & Fink for twenty years and over, and $25,000 to be 
distributed among those who had been in the company's employ 
for ten years and up to twenty years, of which there are fifty-three. 
Bequests of $54,000 were made to charitable societies, hospitals, and 
educational institutions. 

His stockholdings in Lehn & Fink were distributed among his 
children, but all of his common stock was bequeathed to his son, 
Edward Plaut, to whom he also gave the company's buildings on 
William Street and John Street, New York City. 

His other real estate holdings were given to his daughters, Amy 
Plaut Falk and Constance Plaut. Large bequests of cash were given 
to his children and other members of his family, and $5000 was left 
to Frederick William Fink, one of the original partners in the firm 
of Lehn & Fink, " in recognition of the kindness and consideration 
shown me in the early days of my employment by him." 

The executors of the will are his brother, Joseph Plaut ; his son, 
Edward Plaut, and his son-in-law, Milton J. Falk. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Quarterly Meeting. 

The quarterly meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
was held June 28, 1915, at 4 p.m., in the Library, the president, 
Howard B. French, presiding. 

The minutes of the annual meeting held March 29 were read and 
approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for March, April, and 
May were read by the registrar, J. S. Beetem. and approved. 

Mr. George M. Beringer, for the delegates to the New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Association, reported verbally that the meetings were 
held June 15 to 18, at Hotel Essex, Spring Lake, <N. J. The meetings 
were well attended, numerous papers were read, and the amount of 
work accomplished was phenomenal. A new charter was provided 
because of legislation repealing the old charter. A good spirit pre- 
vailed, resulting in one of the best meetings ever held. 

Dr. A. W. Miller, for the delegates to the Delaware Pharma- 
ceutical Association, reported verbally. The meeting was held at the 
Hotel Dupont, Wilmington, Del. The association is a small one ; 



AX Auiu8t'm" m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 385 

there were about thirty members present. Only one session was held. 
No scientific papers were offered, but Professor E. Fullerton Cook, 
of the College, was present and delivered a lecture that was much 
appreciated. The routine reports of the officers were read and 
considered. After dinner the entertainment provided was of a 
pleasing character. 

Professor Remington, for the delegates to the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association, reported verbally that legislative matters 
occupied much of the time of the meeting. A very exhaustive and 
interesting report of the secretary of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Examining Board, L. L. Walton, was read. Future legis- 
lation was discussed. There were not so many papers presented as in 
former years. The entertainments provided by the Travelling Men's 
Auxiliary were unique and much enjoyed. The recent alumni sup- 
per given at the Hotel Walton in Commencement Week was referred 
to by many as the best they had ever attended The recent changes 
and additions in the courses of lectures at the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy appeared to be fully understood and concurred in. On 
the whole, the meeting can be considered a very successful one. The 
association will meet next year at Reading, Pa., thus making a 
change in the custom for a number of years past of meeting at summer 
resorts. Theodore Campbell,, our fellow-member, was elected presi- 
dent. 

Professor Henry Kraemer, for the Committee on Necrology, re- 
ported the death of the following members : 

Charles G. Dodson, March 16, 191 5. Member since 1891. 

Charles L. Eberle, October 5, 1914. Member since 1867. 

Henry C. Eddy, August 29, 1914. Member since 1869. 

William E. Lee, July 20, 19 14. Member since 1907. 

Edward H. Hance, December 14, 1914. Member since 1857. 

William H. Lacey, September 30, 1914. Member since 1886. 

George J. Scattergood, July 20, 19 14. Member since 1859. 

Professor Kraemer also reported the death of Honorary Mem- 
ber Professor Charles E. Bessey and the death of Dr. Jacobus 
Polak, of Amsterdam. 

The President made the following appointments: 

Committee on Nominations — Joseph W. England, Warren H. 
Poley, F. P. Stroup, John K. Thum, and E. Fullerton Cook. 

Committee on Necrology — Henry Kraemer, Edwin M. Boring, 
and C. A. Weidemann. 



386 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { KT \ x ^Z'l^ m ' 

Delegates to the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation to be held at San Francisco, Gal., August 9 to 14 — Joseph P. 
Remington, Joseph W. England, and F. P. Stroup. 

Dr. A. W. Miller, for the Committee on Relief of Pharmacists 
in Belgium and other places, reported that, in response to the circular 
sent to members of the College, contributions to the amount of one 
hundred and forty dollars had been received. The contributors are 
H. A'. Amy, George M. Beringer, John E. Carter, E. G. Eberle, 
George B. Evans, Howard B. French, L. Gerhard, John F. Hancock, 
Henry Kraemer, H. Matusow, Alfred Mellor, A. W. Miller, F. F. 
Muller, Warren H. Polev, Joseph P. Remington, Frank G. Ryan, 
L. E. Sayre, R. M. Shoemaker, C. C. Sniteman, H. P. Thorn, and 
A. H. Weightman. The money has been deposited in the Continental 
Equitable Trust Company, in the name of Henry Kraemer, Treasurer, 
War Relief Fund. 

Mr. J. S. Beetem, for the Committee on Membership (in the 
absence of the chairman, Professor La Wall), read the annual report. 
In the discussion that followed the reading, Professor Kraemer 
said, in view of the losses in membership by death, some measures 
should be taken with a view to increasing the membership of the 
College. 

President French, in the name of James Hansell French 2d, pre- 
sented an old lignum vitse mortar and pestle. The history of it was 
known for many years — probably as far back as 1740. The thanks 
of the College were tendered the donor. 

Much interest was shown in examining the certificate of W. W. 
Glentworth as a Fellow of the College of Apothecaries (the early 
name of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy), bearing date Octo- 
ber 5, 1821. The signatures of the officers were still very distinct. 
In the discussion that followed, Messrs. Beringer, Cook, French, 
Kraemer, Miller, and Remington participated. Many interesting 
items were mentioned in connection with the early history of the 
College, and regrets were expressed that so little space was available 
at present for the display and proper care of the many historical 
records and relics in the possession of the College. 

A letter was read from Mr. William Mittelbach acknowledging 
the receipt of the diploma of Master in Pharmacy. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



^AugS; 1915™* } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 387 

ABSTRACTS FROM THE* MINUTES OF THE BOARD 
OF TRUSTEES. 

March 2, 1915. — Seventeen members were present. The amend- 
ment to Section 3, Article 8 of the By-Laws, which was proposed 
January 5, 191 5, was adopted. Edwin M. Boring said he recently 
came across some interesting letters relative to Edward B. Garrigues, 
for many years a member of the College and a former treasurer. 
This caused him to think that a picture of Mr. Garrigues would be 
a suitable memorial to present to the College. Others also spoke of 
events that occurred years ago in connection with Mr. Garrigues. 
The photograph was accepted with thanks of the Board. 

March 16, ipi 5. — Adjourned meeting. Fifteen members were 
present. The Committee on Instruction presented two reports gov- 
erning the course of Instruction ; after discussion, participated in by 
Messrs. Beringer, Boring, Cliff e, Evans, French, Leedom, Foley, 
and Sadtler, action was deferred. 

April 6, 191 5. — Seventeen members were present. A communi- 
cation was received from the Secretary of the College announcing 
the election of officers for the ensuing year and three Trustees for 
three years (see this Journal, p. 238). George M. Beringer was 
reelected chairman of the Board ; Walter A. Rumsey, vice-chairman, 
and Jacob S. Beetem, registrar for the ensuing year. Committee on 
Property reported the building in good condition. The reports of 
the Committee on Instruction were again considered, and, after re- 
marks by Messrs. Beringer, Cliffe, French, Lemberger, and Mulford, 
action was deferred until the next meeting. 

May 14, 191 5. — Fourteen members were present. The reports 
of the Committee on Instruction were considered and further action 
postponed until an adjourned meeting to be held May 25. 

The Standing Committees were then announced as follows : Com- 
mittee on Property, Howard B. French, chairman ; Committee on 
Library, Samuel P. Sadtler, chairman ; Committee on Museum and 
Herbarium, O. W. Osterhmd, chairman ; Finance Committee, 
Howard B. French, chairman ; Committee on Supplies, H. K. Mul- 
ford, chairman ; Committee on Accounts and Audit, C. A. Weide- 
mann, chairman ; Committee on Instruction, George M. Beringer, 
chairman (with the Faculty ex-officio members) ; Committee on 
Scholarships, Joseph P. Remington, chairman ; Committee on Ex- 



388 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^^"1915™' 

animations, W. L. Cliff e, chairman ; Committee on Theses, Joseph W. 
England, chairman; Committee on Discipline, Howard B. French, 
chairman ; Committee on Announcement, Joseph W. England, chair- 
man; Committee on Commencement, W. A. Rumsey, chairman; 
Committee on Alumni, Joseph W. England, chairman. 

The Committee on Instruction submitted the annual reports from 
the teaching departments of the College for the consideration of the 
Board. 

Department of Pharmacy reports that the extra lectures on 
pharmaceutical subjects have been of great interest. The Department 
requests a projecting lantern for use in lectures. The work in this 
department, as well as in the other departments of the College, 
requires the use of large quantities of distilled water, and a larger 
apparatus is a necessity. The committee recommended that a larger 
apparatus be installed. The matter was referred to the Committee 
on Property. 

Department of Chemistry. — Professor Sadtler has submitted an 
outline of a plan for the didactic instruction in chemistry, which 
he would recommend for the second-year course for the Ph.G. 
degree and for the third year or post-graduate year. In the latter 
year it is proposed to give a series of thirty or more lectures devoted 
to manufacturing and industrial chemistry, and fifteen lectures 
covering food adulteration and examination. 

Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy. — Professor Kraemer 
suggests improvements in desks and illumination when new labora- 
tories become available. He further points out the limitations of the 
greenhouse and the roof garden as a source of study of the medicinal 
plants, and the need of the College having a piece of ground where 
medicinal plants may be grown and more thorough experimental 
work and study given. He recommends the reappointment of Philip 
Fackenthall as instructor in pharmacognosy, and Anton Hogstad, Jr., 
as instructor in botany, and William Alexander Wallace as student 
assistant in the work of the first year. 

Department of Materia Medica. — Professor Lowe reports that 
the work of the department has not differed from that of recent years. 
The report of Professor Lowe, as also that of Professor Roddy, 
refers to the Department of Physical Culture. 

Department of Analytical Chemistry. — Professor Frank X. 
Moerk reports that the changes in the curriculum whereby it is pos- 
sible to give the first-year class some elementary chemical laboratory 



A AnjS; IJr} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 389 

instruction is a distinct improvement, as it gives the students the 
important fundamentals of qualitative analysis prior to the third 
year and places them in a position to commence thesis work on 
chemical subjects prior to the third year. 

Department of Bacteriology.— Professor John A. Roddy reports 
that two special courses were given in the laboratory this year. 

Special Lectures. — The Sub-committee on Special Lectures re- 
ported the number of lectures given, and the committee is of the opin- 
ion that these lectures should be continued for the year 1915-1916. 

Committee on Examinations reported that Mr. Robert Truman 
Beardsley had satisfactorily passed his examination and was recom- 
mended to receive the certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry. It 
was so ordered. 

May 2 j, ipi 5. — Twenty members were present. Adjourned 
meeting. As a result of further deliberation, and because of addi- 
tional information, the Committee on Instruction submitted a report 
for consideration, as follows : 

First. — We recommend that there be established a two years' 
course of instruction leading to the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy 
(Ph.G.). That the requirements for admission to this course be: 
(1) a minimum age of seventeen years; (2) each matriculant must 
have had a preliminary education equivalent at least to one year's 
instruction in a high school, and a certificate to that effect, to be 
approved by the Department of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania. 

Second. — We recommend that a post-graduate course of one year 
be established leading to the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy 
(Phar.D.). A student qualifying for this degree must present: (1) 
a diploma as a graduate in pharmacy from this College or from some 
approved school of pharmacy; (2) must have had a preliminary 
education equivalent to at least the completion of a four years' course 
in a high school, and must present a certificate to that effect issued 
or approved by the Department of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania. 

Third. — That the course leading to the degree of Pharmaceutical 
Chemist (Ph.C), as now given, be discontinued after those students 
whom we have matriculated for this course have completed it. 

Fourth. — That a post-graduate course of two years be established 
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Chemistry and Phar- 
macy (B.Sc), and that this course be especially arranged for the 
education of analysts and food and drug chemists. A student quali- 
fying for this degree must present : (1) evidence of having completed 



390 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, j 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1915. 



two years of study in an approved pharmacy school or its equivalent 
in scientific education; (2) must have had a preliminary education 
equivalent at least to the completion of a four years' course in a 
high school, and must present a certificate to that effect issued or 
approved by the Department of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania. 

Fifth. — We recommend that each candidate for the degree of 
Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.) must have had not less than four 
years' experience in the drug business, and that the time actually 
spent in the College in attendance upon lectures and laboratory in- 
struction shall be considered as part of the time required for such 
drug store experience, but the credit allowance for such college attend- 
ance, shall not exceed sixteen months. The candidate may be admitted 
to the final examinations after the expiration of three years and six 
months of such practical experience. 

Sixth. — We recommend that the changes proposed by these 
recommendations be announced at an early date, and that they be 
inaugurated with the College session of 191 5-19 16, and that the 
degrees as proposed be given in course ; also that any student who 
has matriculated prior to 1915 and' has been in attendance must com- 
plete the instruction in accordance with the conditions of matricu- 
lation and the course for which he or she was entered. 

Seventh. — We recommend that for the ensuing term the instruc- 
tions to the first- and third-year students be given on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, and to the second-year students on Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and that the Committee on Roster be 
requested to prepare the roster in accordance with this understanding. 

Eighth. — We recommend that the tuition fees shall be $120 for 
each term of the Ph.G. course and $150 per term for the three and 
four years' courses, and that the payments be made payable one half 
at the beginning of the first semester and the other half at the 
beginning of the second semester of each term. 

Ninth. — We recommend that a fee of $5 be charged each student 
per term for laboratory materials and use of instruments, including 
microscopes. 

The report was adopted. 

Committee on By-Laws proposed amendments to the By-Laws. 



THE AMEEICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



SEPTEMBER, 1915 



THE COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY, TAXONOMY, AND 
DISTRIBUTION OF THE MYRICACEjE OF THE 
EASTERN UNITED STATES^V 



/v 

By Heber W. Youngken, Ph.Ip. 




Along the eastern seaboard of the United St\tes^ther< 
good species of Myricacew, and a hybrid between ft 

Myrica cerifera, Linne, varies from a low shrub to a tree 12 metres 
high, and extends northward, contrary to past statements, as far as 
Tuckahoe, New Jersey. The writer finds this species to be strictly 
evergreen and wholly confined to coastal regions within sight of 
the sea. 

Myrica Caroliniensis, Miller, with which the previous named 
species has often been confounded, is strictly deciduous, except when 
strong basal shoots are formed. The leaves on these may be sub- 
evergreen. 

The lanceolate leaves of Myrica cerifera drop without assuming 
a copper-red color. The elliptic-obovate leaves of Myrica Carolini- 
ensis assume a greenish-brown hue on an extensive scale in October 
and November, previous to leaf-fall. This species is of wide dis- 
tribution along the coastal plain, and even ascends to 1200 feet at 
Mount Desert. 

A hybrid between the two above species, Myrica Macfarlanei, 
Youngken, is frequent where both parents abound. Its characteristics 
follow : 

Root (secondary structure). — The hybrid root resembles both 
parents in respect to its cork, its cells containing gummy lignin. 
Actinomyces in ducts, barred septa and crystal fibres accompany- 

* Abstract of a thesis presented by the writer to the Faculty of the 
Graduate School, University of Pennsylvania, May, 1915, in partial fulfil- 
ment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

(39i) 



39 2 Myricacece of Eastern United States. { ^pi^msT' 

ing the hard bast. It resembles M. Caroliniensis in the number of 
primary medullary rays and in having comparatively broad medul- 
lary ray cells. It differs from both parents by having larger in- 
tercellular air-spaces in the cortex, more crystals of calcium oxalate 
in both cortex and phloem, broader and more numerous sclerenchyme 
elements in cortex, and narrower tracheae. The primary medullary 
rays are 1-6, occasionally 1-7, rows of cells in width. 

Stem (gross structure). — A shrub rising to a height of 2 to 
2.5 metres, with very crooked branches, the younger of which fre- 
quently appear stunted in habit. The shoots of the first year's 
growth are somewhat intermediate in nature with those of M. 
cerifera and M. Caroliniensis. They are of a greenish- to reddish- 
brown color, more thin hairy than those of M. cerifera, somewhat 
less hairy than 4 those of M. Caroliniensis, but showing numerous 
yellow and a few orange-red glandular hairs. Upon them appear 
the buds of next season's leaves and flowers. The branchlets of 
two years' growth are dull reddish brown and devoid of thin 
hairs, but possess a few golden-yellow glands. Lenticels are present 
which vary from 0.5 to 0.7 mm. in length and are arranged longi- 
tudinally. Alike with similar branchlets of M. cerifera and M. 
Caroliniensis, staminate or pistillate flowers are borne on special 
catkin axes, which, in the case of the pistillate, persist for a long 
time after the fruits have fallen. The writer observed these also 
present on stems of the third, fourth, and fifth year's growth at 
Wildwood, New Jersey, January 31, 191 5. The older stems are 
brownish gray to ash gray color and have numerous circular to 
oval somewhat raised lenticels arranged both longitudinally and 
transversely, and varying from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. in length. The 
crooked underground stem creeps through the soil for long distances 
and gives off numerous branches. These send up tufts of spreading 
suckers at different nodes which frequently serve to propagate the 
species. These suckers grow downward and then upward in 
arcuate fashion. They are of a whitish to reddish-white aspect 
when recently dug up. 

Aerial Stem (histology) . — The aerial stem of the hybrid resembles 
that of M. cerifera in the following structure details: (a) A con- 
tinuous sclerenchyme zone in the pericycle ; (£>) the tendency of the 
phloem masses to become arched in their outer portions, due to 
the broadening out of the medullary rays at their extremities; (c) 
the presence of many bast- fib res accompanied by crystal fibres as 



^ptem U ber P i9iT'} Myricacece of Eastern United States. 393 

well as stone cells in the phloem; (d) the uniformity in distribution 
of the tracheae. It resembles the aerial stem of M. Caroliniensis in 
the size and relative number of tracheae found in the protoxylem. It 
differs from both parents as follows : The autumnal wood is inter- 
mediate in thickness ; the pitted tracheae are fewer than in M. cerifera, 
more numerous than in M. Caroliniensis ; the mean diameter of the 
tracheae is intermediate between that of both parents. The primary 
medullar}* rays are 1-3, rarely 1-4, rows of cells wide; the secondary, 
1-2 rows in width. Other stem structures common to both parents 
are likewise seen in the hybrid. 

Subterranean Branch (histology). — Compared with the aerial 
stem of the same age, it shows fewer cork layers and a broader cortex. 
The cells of the cortex are generally larger, less angular, and contain 
more starch grains. The bast-fibres of the phloem are about twice as 
numerous and in larger groups. The tracheae are fewer and generally 
broader, while the woody fibres are more numerous and more lignified. 
The pith is narrower, its elements smaller and more lignified. The 
primary medullar}* rays are broader and frequently show 1-5, less 
often 1-6, rows of cells in width. The secondary medullar}* rays vary 
in width .from 1-2 to 1-3 rows of cells. Cortical parenchyme, phloem, 
and tracheal elements with a gummy lignin content are more frequent 
than in the above-ground stem. Compared with the rhizomes of its 
parents, it shows intermediate characters in respect to the number 
and mean diameter of the tracheae and woody fibres. 

Leaves (gross structure) . — The leaves of this hybrid show* several 
striking macroscopic characters which are intermediate between those 
of its parents. For instance, they vary from lanceolate-cuneate to 
elliptic-obovate in shape, many of them being a mean between these 
two forms. In duration they are semi-evergreen, and usually fall 
during February and March, by which time they have often assumed 
a slight copper}* tint. In size they vary from 25 to 58 mm. in length 
and from S to 20 mm. in width. They have numerous orange- red and 
golden-yellow glandular hairs on their lower surface, with merely a 
few of each of these on their upper surface. (M. cerifera leaves 
have numerous orange-red and golden-yellow glandular hairs on both 
surfaces, while the leaves of M. Caroliniensis are devoid of orange-red 
glandular hairs, have numerous golden-yellow* glandular hairs on 
their lower surface, and a mere scattering of these on their upper 
surface) . Simple hairs are found on both surfaces and margin, as on 
the leaves of M. Caroliniensis, but relatively fewer in number. The 



394 Myricacece of Eastern United States. {^Xrf mT' 

texture of the leaves is sub-coriaceous. In color the leaves have 
blended the color characteristics of both parents. The margin is more 
incurved beneath than M. Caroliniensis, less than M. Cerifera. 

Leaf Histology. — The microscopic characters of the leaf of this 
hybrid are intermediate between those of its parents. For instance, 
the upper epidermis is composed of cells whose vertical walls are more 
curvilinear than M. cerifera, less curvilinear than M. Caroliniensis. 
Their mean dimensions in surface view are 26-7/x x 16.89/x. Their 
outer walls are less projecting than those of M. cerifera, more so 
than M. Caroliniensis. The cuticle is thinner than that of M. cerifera, 
thicker than that of M. Caroliniensis. The palisade region of the 
mesophyll is 3-4 layers wide, and so is intermediate between this 
region in M. cerifera and M. Caroliniensis. The lower epidermis 
consists of cells whose vertical walls are more curvilinear than those 
of M. cerifera, less curvilinear than those of M. Caroliniensis. The 
mean dimensions of these cells in surface view are 26.46/x x 13-59/* 
which is likewise an intermediate character. The stomata are fewer 
in number than on M. Caroliniensis, more numerous than on M. 
cerifera. The upper surface shows a scattering of orange- red, bowl- 
shaped glands and golden-yellow balloon-shaped glands, or sometimes 
the latter only. The lower surface shows numerous orange-red, 
bowl-shaped and golden-yellow, balloon-shaped glands, both of which 
are often fewer than on the similar epidermis of M. cerifera. The 
tendency for the head of the bowl-shaped gland in the hybrid to 
become saucer-shaped is very striking. Simple unicellular trichomes 
and the sclerotic bases of these are common on both lower and upper 
epidermis, but intermediate in number between those, on the leaves 
of the parents. Finally, the average thickness of the lamina of the 
hybrid outside of the mid-rib is 201. 6fi, while that of M. cerifera is 
268.8/x and of M. Caroliniensis, 168.96^. 

Inflorescence and Flowers. — The characteristic inflorescence is a 
catkin. The catkins are partly formed the year before flowering 
below the leaves on last season's growing branches. The staminate 
catkins are borne on different plants from those which bear the 
pistillate catkins, and so the plants are dioecious. Both staminate and 
pistillate catkins possess orange-red, bowl- to saucer-shaped and 
golden-yellow, balloon-shaped glands on the catkin axis as well as the 
bracts. Other characters are still under investigation by the writer. 

Fruits. — The hybrid fruits are ceriferous nuts which are inter- 
mediate in size, apex, weight, and duration between those of M. ceri- 



A s™ptember, P i9iT'} Myricacece of Eastern United States. 395 

fera and M. Caroliniensis. Their diameter varies from 3 to 4 mm. 
The apex of each mature fruit is" pitted. Two hundred fruits which 
the writer gathered at Palermo, New Jersey, November 7, 1914, 
weighed 6.7 Gms. The fruits of^one season past and several of the 
previous season adhere to the persistent catkin axes. 

Myrica Gale, Linne, is distributed through northern regions, from 
Labrador and Newfoundland as far south as Warren County, New 
Jersey; from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in eastern mountain 
regions to Virginia. Its leaves are strictly deciduous. 

Myrica inodora, Bartram, from the statement of authors, is ever- 
green. In height and aspect it somewhat resembles M. cerifera, 
Comptonia asplenifolia, Aiton, is distributed from Nova Scotia to 
Saskatchewan, and southward to North Carolina and Tennessee. Its 
leaves are strictly deciduous. 

Seedlings are for the first time described and figured from the 
cotyledonary stage onward for M. cerifera, M. Caroliniensis, and M. 
Macfarlanei. Their comparative morphology has been traced. The 
author shows that from the seedling primary root of five to six 
months' growth, and from thence onward, characteristic root tubercles 
are formed on M. cerifera, M. Caroliniensis, M. Macfarlanei, and 
Comptonia asplenifolia, The organism is found in all these to be an 
Actinomyces (which was isolated according to Koch's postulates in 
pure culture, first described by the writer and named by him Actino- 
myces Myricarum) that abundantly fills infested cells in the cortex 
of the tubercles, which owe their origin as arrested and modified 
roots to its irritant and invading action. As a result of cultures made 
from tubercles, the author concludes that good cultures of the 
organism can be secured in the depth of nutrient agar. 1 

Since Actinomyces is frequently a virulent pathogenic organism in 
cattle and other domestic animals up to man, because the swellings it 
produces on plants are analogous to those on animals, since the forms 
of the organism as shown by Jordan in the infested lesions of animals 
are similar to those which the writer has described in the lesions of 
Myrica; and since the cultural characteristics of the organism isolated 
from the lesions of animals by Wright, Wolff, and Israel are in many 
respects similar to those isolated from the Myricas and described by 
the writer, he would regard the organism as a parasite and suggest 

1 The writer has recently been successful in growing Actinomyces' 
Myricarum on coagulated horse serum in sealed tubes kept at a temperature 
of 37-5° C. 



396 Myricacece of Eastern United States. { ^™ p JXv P i&iT' 

its possible pathogenic relation to such animals. The Actinomyces 
not only confines itself to the cortex of the tubercular roots ; it later 
works its way into the tracheae of those structures, passes into the 
pitted vessels of the main roots, thence into those of the stems, and, 
conveyed by the transpiration stream gradually upward, is carried 
through the axes of catkins so as finally to reach the flowers, bracts, 
and fruits. In these it confines its existence to the part corresponding 
to the mediocortex of the root tubercles ; namely, the mesophyll and 
outer mesocarp regions respectively. It has been observed by the 
writer in its most luxuriant form in the cells of the middle fruit wall 
of the various species studied. Here it can be recognized best in thin 
hand sections stained with safranin and methyl green in the form of 
rosettes, almost filling the cell lumina. When the fruits fall to the 
ground and subsequently break open their walls, the organism proba- 
bly makes its way from the infected cells into the soil, where it spreads 
through wide areas, infecting the roots and stems of other Myricas 
and producing characteristic lesions. 

In Comptonia asplenifolia, while Actinomyces Myricarutn is the 
primary infecting agent responsible for the tubercles, there often 
appears in older tubercles a mycelium-producing fungus with non- 
septate hyphae probably belonging to the Oomycetes. 

As for the roots, so for the stems of M. cerifera, M. Caroliniensis, 
M. Gale and Comptonia asplenifolia, a careful histological study has 
been made and details recorded. 

In the study of the leaves various new structural details have 
been observed, but special interest attaches to the presence now re- 
corded of orange-red, bowl- to saucer-shaped glandular hairs specifi- 
cally characteristic of M. cerifera and in a reduced degree of M. 
Macfarlanei, intermingled with golden-yellow glandular hairs of 
Chevalier. The latter only are present in M. Caroliniensis. 

Exact phytophenological records have been made as to the matura- 
tion of the floral parts and the period of blossoming in April and May. 
Spore mother-cell formation is completed by autumn of one year, 
but formation of tetrads proceeds in the different species studied 
from mid- April to mid-May in the Philadelphia neighborhood. 

Careful study has been made by the writer of stages in the 
development of the fruits of M. cerifera, M. Caroliniensis, and M. 
Macfarlanei. These will be described as one category, seeing that 
they closely agree with each other. 

In early June the maturing wall of each ovary has already de- 



^ P teXr P i9i5 m '} Myricacece of Eastern United States. 397 

veloped a series of striking and complex glandular hairs of the nature 
of the tubercular emergences. Each is a knob-like expansion of the 
fruit wall into which a copious prolongation of subjacent mesocarp 
tissue has spread, but farther, from an abundant and densely anas- 
tomosing complex of vascular bundles that ramify through the outer 
half of the maturing mesocarp, fine vascular diverticula, composed of 
two or three spiral tracheae, along with delicate, elongated, seive-like 
elements, pass through the stalk of the emergences and end in a 
slight swelling in its middle. The epidermis at this time is compara- 
tively shallow and thin-walled, while from the junction of the epi- 
dermis with the base of each emergence elongated unicellular hairs 
spring which form a basket-like system round and upon which 
copious wax exudations subsequently become aggregated. 

At this time the mesophyll is divisible into two recognized zones, 
viz, an outer irregular and large-celled region consisting of about 
12 or 13 layers, and an inner smaller and more round-celled tissue of 
more numerous layers. Prolonged into the former from the point of 
attachment of the fruit with the axis is a vascular tissue that on 
entering the outer layer ramifies abundantly and, as above stated, 
gives off delicate diverticula to the different emergences. At this time 
only slight indication is observed of a difference in cell contents, 
between the outer and the inner zone. The endocarp is a shallow 
and delicate layer that from now on becomes less and less conspicuous. 

By mid- June, or soon thereafter, striking changes begin to appear. 
The epidermis, as well as the mesophyll cells of the emergences the 
general epidermal (epicarp) cells of the fruit wall and the outer 
zone of the mesocarp have all enlarged steadily and become filled up 
with an abundant secretion which assumes a bizarre coloration when 
stained with saf ranin and methyl green. Tints varying from neutral 
gray through pink, crimson, crimson-green, green-blue, yellow, and 
brown are all present in distinct but neighboring cells, and, though 
the writer has as yet been unable to apply abundant tests, the above 
coloration suggests the formation and presence already of the pal- 
mitic myristic, and stearic acids already tested for and recorded by 
pharmacists and synopsized by Chevalier. 

At this time the inner layer of the mesocarp contracts conspicu- 
ously with the last, its cells remaining small, thin-walled, rounded, 
and its cavities filled with delicate protoplasm. A further stage in 
the maturation of the fruits is noted by the middle or latter part of 
July. Each knob-shaped emergence has developed around itself an 



398 Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxy pineries. \^t*mte*\lu' 

abundant waxy layer which, by hardening, gives a bluish-white color 
to the fruit surface. The mesophyll cells of these hairs, as well as 
3 to 6 of the innermost cell layers of the outer zone, become loaded 
with cell contents that assume a uniform red or reddish-green hue 
which even heightens the bizarre coloration noted above. By this 
time, also, the cells of the inner zone have become largely thickened 
from within outward by lignified thickening and the cells themselves, 
having increased greatly in size and become markedly sinuous in 
outline, assume a bright red staining with safranin. 

The thickening process clearly proceeds in centrifugal fashion, for 
in mid- or late July the inner walls, surrounding the ovarian cavity, 
may be highly lignified and stained a bright red hue. while as yet 
the external cells adjacent to the outer zone are little, if at all, altered 
in shape or lignified. Progressive lignification of this area gives rise 
by mid-August to the extremely hard scleroid fruit layers that 
efficiently protect the enclosed seed. 

Meanwhile steady excretion of wax takes place over the cells of 
each emergence, and these later have so grown together as to form a 
complete coating around the fruit wall proper. So between the 
abundant wax excretion and the close apposition of the wax-secreting 
emergences the entire surface of each emergence assumes a uniform 
blue-gray color, and is coated over by a rather brittle waxy investment 
that readily crumples to pieces when slightly pressed between the 
fingers. This investment forms an admirable defensive covering 
alike against intense insulation, the attack of fungoid spores, and the 
destructive action of caterpillars and other animal enemies. 

New and more exact taxonomic descriptions than have hitherto 
been submitted by authors are presented, and, in particular, the diag- 
nostic characters of M. cerifera, M. Caroliniensis, and their hybrid 
have been fully elucidated. 



SOME HISTORICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON 
THE THERAPEUTICS AND CHEMISTRY OF 
THE OXYPINENES. 

By J. Emile Blomen, A.M., Ph.D. 

Since my article on the oxypinenes appeared in the May number 
of this Journal I have received numerous inquiries regarding the 
chemistry of the pinene-ozonide in particular and other oxypinenes 



A ^ptember P i9iT"} Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. 399 

in general. This must be my excuse for again touching on their chem- 
istry in an article which I had promised should deal only with the 
therapeutical history of the oxypinenes. 

Of all oxypinenes — by which term are understood all pinene com- 
pounds containing oxygen in some form or other— the ozonide is 
undoubtedly the most interesting, since from this form are developed 
the peroxides, aldehydes, ketones, and acids of pinene. Whenever 
oxidation or oxidation products of organic substances of ozone and 
its chemistry is mentioned, our mind reverts to the great chemist 
Schoenbein, the discoverer of this puzzling allotropic modification 
of the element oxygen, without which life could not be sustained. 

Christian Friederich Schoenbein was born in Metzingen, 
Wiirtemberg, October 18, 1799; studied chemistry under the most 
celebrated chemists of his time, and became professor of chemistry 
in Basel, where he proved himself one of the most industrious and 
resourceful chemists of his age. He has written not less than 337 
scientific treatises. Besides his discovery of ozone, his invention of 
gun cotton is best known. This later eventually became the basis for 
the photographic film, the celluloid, the artificial leather and silk, and 
the smokeless powder industries. He died in Wildbad, August 29, 
1868. 

In 1839, while investigating the relations between electrical and 
-chemical forces, following the lead of the great Swedish chemist 
Jons Jacob Berzelius in this line, Schoenbein discovered a new modi- 
fication of oxygen, to which he gave a distinct name, " ozone " — the 
word being derived from the Greek o$w 3 "I smell," thereby indicating 
one of its most notable characteristics, which is that, in contradistinc- 
tion to the ordinary oxygen, which is perfectly odorless, it has a very 
strong and peculiar odor. (For a full account of Schoenbein's dis- 
covery see Smithsonian Institution's Report, p. 166, 1864.) 

Schoenbein's work was received with little favor by the scientific 
world, but he was not dismayed, and he contined his experiments 
for almost thirty years. The results of his labors can be found in 
Comptes rendus . . . de VAcademie des Science, Paris, for 1840-69. 

Before considering the action on animal tissues of the two 
strongest oxidizers known, ozone and peroxide of hydrogen, and 
particularly of the most important of the oxy-pro ducts of pinene — 
the ozonide of pinene — it will be necessary to mention Schoenbein's 
work on them at some length. 

Schoenbein found that if a few drops of acetate of lead are 



400 Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. { A s ™ptember P i9iT' 

added to dilute peroxide of hydrogen, or if ozonized oil of turpen- 
tine is shaken with this lead salt, peroxide of lead is formed. If, 
however, in the first case the peroxide of lead thus formed remains 
in contact with the peroxide of hydrogen, both are reduced, resulting 
in water, protoxide of lead, and oxygen. 

From this Schoenbein concluded that the oxygen in the peroxide 
of hydrogen and the lead salt exists in opposite condition of purity, 
+ 

thus HoO.O and PbO.O, and that by union of these molecules or- 

+ - 

dinary inactive oxygen, O.O, is formed. Schoenbein called those 

bodies containing negatively active oxygen (or O) " ozonides," and 

+ 

all such bodies as peroxide of hydrogen (H 2 O), barium oxide 
+ 

(BaO.O), and all oxygen compounds which contained oxygen in a 
positively active condition, " antozonides." This form of oxygen 
he called " antozone." 

From this we may draw the conclusions, first, that ozone and per- 
oxide of hydrogen and ozone can not exist together — a fact which 
was definitely proved by Schoene in 1879, 1 and, secondly, that ozone 
can not be absorbed or held in solution by water, but will gradually 
oxidize this to peroxide of hydrogen, which again, in contact with 
oxidizable substances, will liberate positively active oxygen and re- 
form water. 

The importance of these deductions lies in the fact that when an 
ozonide such as pinene ozonide meets a moist surface such as the 
moist animal tissue the result must necessarily be the formation of 
peroxide of hydrogen and an oxy-compound, containing molecular 
oxygen, and when the peroxide meets anything capable of being 
oxidized by positive oxygen it will give up one atom of positively ac- 
tive oxygen and form water. 

On these reactions is the therapeutic value of pinene ozonide 
founded, and we may now return to the consideration of this com- 
pound, for, as was pointed out in my previous article, turpentine is 
one of the best ozone carriers known. This was very forcibly brought 
out by Chas. W. Wetherill in an article which appeared in the Smith- 
sonian Institution Report, 1864, p. 174, and following, where he — 
besides the quotation in my previous article — also states : " Upon 



1 Annalen, vol. 196. 



A sTptember P i9iT' } Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. 401 

the animal organization ozonized oil of turpentine acts more ener- 
getically than oil not ozonized." ' 

Since turpentine, when exposed to air, always absorbs ozone and 
oxygen, forming ozonide and other oxypinenes, it is safe to say that 
when the therapeutical value of turpentine is discussed — particularly 
in the older literature, to which the absorbing property of turpentine 
was unknown — this value, in equal or even higher degree, pertains 
to the oxypinenes. 

The oxidation of turpentine in sunlight was first mentioned by 
Sobrero in 1851. 2 Later, H. E. Armstrong, in the course of his 
studies on the terpenes and camphor, became interested in the ex- 
periments of Sobrero and reached the same conclusion as he, that 
" when turpentine is exposed to sunlight in the presence of moisture 
and oxygen a crystalline substance is formed, which has a composi- 
tion represented by the formula C 10 H 16 O 2 , and that this substance 
is decomposed when boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, an oil being 
formed which has a powerful odor, resembling both that of camphor 
and that of turpentine." 

This product, which was named " Sobrerol " in honor of Sobrero, 
is probably always the initial product of oxidation of turpentine. 3 

Sobrerol can also be prepared from a cold solution of pinene in 
acetic acid by the action of mercuric acid, but if a heated solution is 
used the resulting oxidation product is hydroxylketone. 

The turpenes have been used for therapeutical purposes as early 
as the time of Hippocrates, and they were extensively employed by 
the ancients. Pliny appears to have recommended them in many 
diseases and Aretaeus was also an enthusiastic advocate of their use. 
Ever since then the turpentines have continued to keep their place 
in medical practice. 4 

Although the ancients knew nothing of ozone and its absorption 
by pinene, and that until 1840 nothing had been heard of this life- 
giving substance, it had, of course, existed since the beginning of 
time and been conducive to the health of man. 

The distilled oil of turpentine first made its appearance in the 
pharmaceutical literature in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In the Augsburg Pharmacopoeia of 1648 are given the direc- 
tions for its preparation, under the title " Oleum Terebenthina." 

2 Compt. rend., vol. 33, p. 66. 

3 Jour. Chem. Soc, London, 1890. 

4 Med. and Phys. Jour., London, vol. 46, p. 186. 



402 Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. {^™p te J mbeV P i9iT" 

In 1678' there appeared a published account of oil of turpentine 
in a little book by James Yonge, of Plymouth, where he describes its 
use for arresting hemorrhages. His book bears the title " Currus 
Triumphalis, e Terebintho ; or an account of the many admirable 
virtues of the oleum therebenthinae, etc., in two letters, the one to 
James Pearce, Esq., Surgeon to H. R. H. the Duke of York and 
Surgeon- General to his Majesty's Royal Navy; the other to Mr. 
Thos. Hobbs,^Chirurgeon, in London." 

In the reign of Charles II a Plymouth practitioner praises the 
varied virtues of the oxidized oil of turpentine as " the best, if not the 
only, styptic in the time of John Hunter." 5 

The resin, — that is, the oxidation products of pines and firs, — 
was known to the ancients. Kopp, in his " Geschichte der Chemie" 
1874 vol. 1, p. 392, says that the essential oils of turpentine were 
known to Marcus Grsecus, who termed them " Aqua ardens." 

In "Die Mtherische CEle'' by Gildemeister and Hoffman, it is 
stated that " the oils obtained by the distillation of the oleoresins of 
various Abietincese were known to the ancients as " itiaas. ew } " and 
later became known as turpentine oil, which name seems to have been 
introduced during the period of Greek civilization. 

The early observations made in connection with oil of turpentine 
which had been exposed to air mostly concerned its behavior at low 
temperatures. Margueron in Journ. de Chim. et de Phys., 1794, t. 2, 
p. 178, states that the oil solidifies into a crystalline mass when re- 
duced to a temperature of — 22 R. 

Already in 1727 I. Joseph Geoffrey had observed crystals in the 
neck of the retort when distilling oil of turpentine. These needle- 
like crystals, which were without doubt pinol hydrate, were then 
called " turpentine camphor." 

In an abstract of a paper by Theophilus Thompson, M.D., in Roy. 
Med. and Chir. Soc. Proc., vol. 3, London, 1858-61, p. 106, entitled 
"Observations on the Medical Administration of Ozonized Oils," the 
author describes the results obtained from the administration of 
ozone in association with oils ; the oils being ozonized by exposure 
for a considerable time to the direct rays of the sun after having been 
saturated with gaseous oxygen according to the process of Air. D. 
Campbell. 

Fourteen consumptive patients were subjected to this treatment 



5 Med. Times and Gaz., London, 1875, vol. 1, p. 414. 



A s™ptem U ber P i9i5 1 ' } Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. 403 

and the cases were described in detail by the author. He arrived at 
the conclusion that " the administration of ozonized oils has a re- 
markable tendency to reduce the frequency of the pulse." He goes 
on to say : " If ozonized oil can reduce the rapidity of the circula- 
tion — a feature of great prominence in phthisis — this remedy pos- 
sesses a most valuable property, rendered still more valuable by its 
contributing at the same time to improve the general health." The 
author makes a special point of having used ozonized oil of turpen- 
tine with marked and prompt advantage in some cases of haemoptysis. 

In the same journal, same year, p. 330, Dr. E. Symes Thompson, 
son of the doctor quoted above, gives the results of some experiments 
of the effect produced on the pulse by use of ozonized oils. He re- 
cords the cases of seventy patients to whom ozonized oils were admin- 
istered with good effect. He draws special attention to the impor- 
tance of these experiments in their relation to the treatment of 
phthisis, since, as he says, " anything that could retard the excessive 
rapidity of the vital changes would likewise check the development 
and progress of the disease." 

He mentions several remedies that had been used to this end, all 
greatly inferior to the ozonides, for those, unlike the other remedies in 
their action, also did not exert a depressing influence on the health, but 
rather a strengthening and invigorating one. The author also alludes 
to a paper published in i860 by a French physician " On the Use of 
Ozonized Oil of Turpentine in Haemoptysis," in which the sugges- 
tions made by his father in 1859 had been followed with good results. 

In a letter to the London Medical Times and Gazette, 1875, vol. 1, 
p. 25 and following, Dr. Thomas Wood, of Wilmington, N. C, says : 
" I would like to make a remark upon the influence which the turpen- 
tine distilleries have upon the town in which I live. Wilmington, 
N. C, the town spoken of, is the great export market for oil or spirits 
of turpentine. . . . During the late Civil War all the turpentine dis- 
tilleries were closed and not put into operation again until from 1866 
to 1870. 

" It had long been a popular theory that the health of the com- 
munity was due to the resiniferous odors from these stills, and this 
opinion was shared by medical men also. In 1862, after the ceasing 
of the operations of these distilleries, a violent epidemic of yellow 
fever broke out. . . . True to the theory as to the health-giving 
virtues of the resin and other products of the pine tree, barrels of 
resin were burned day and night in the streets. The only other nota- 



404 Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. { K ^i^ v v \Hf' 

ble epidemic was that of spotted fever, which broke out in 1865, be- 
fore the operations of the stills were recommenced. Previous to the 
establishment of the distilleries in our midst malarial fevers were very 
rife, but since that time they prevail to much less extent. 

" Another fact bearing a relation to the above statement is that 
during the Civil War, when quinine was scarce, the Surgeon-Gen- 
eral of the Confederate States ordered experiments to be instituted 
at several of the large military forts to prove whether or not oil of 
turpentine applied to the body by means of a broad band saturated 
with it and worn around the abdomen had any effect in cutting short 
the paroxysms of ague. Its effects were described as ' marvelous ' 
and endorsed by many observers." 

In " The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Re- 
bellion," Washington, 1879, issued by the United States War Depart- 
ment, it is stated : " During our Civil War the oil of turpentine was 
pretty extensively employed in the treatment of flukes." 

In speaking of the treatment of remittents this book says : " Tur- 
pentine emanations were frequently used in the diarrhoea accompany- 
ing these cases," and in the chapter on continued fevers it is stated : 
" Turpentine was extensively used." 

In the splendid work, " Treatise on Therapeutics," New York, 
1880, vol. 3, by Troasseau and Bindome, the treatment with the oxy- 
pinenes are recommended for the following complaints : rheumatism, 
vesical catarrh, diabetes, diarrhoea, neuralgia, hemorrhages, iritis, 
amenorrhcea, and for all disinfectant purposes. 

L. S. Pilcher, in his book " The Treatment of Wounds," New 
York, 1883, recommends the " washing of wounds with turpentine 
preparations immediately before the first incision," when preparing 
the skin for an operation. 

In Billrath's work on " Surgical Pathology," 1871, p. 31, the use 
of turpentine is strongly recommended for the treatment of wounds, 
because it is " capable of exciting a peculiarly energetic contraction 
of the divided capillaries." 

H. C. Wood, in his celebrated treatise on " Therapeutics : Its 
Principles and Practice," New York, 1883, states that certain prep- 
arations of turpentine containing ozone or antozone have been 
recommended in medicine. 

Dr. W. Gilman Thompson, in the Medical Record, March 3, 1894, 
says : " The very great value of peroxide of hydrogen and other 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
Septembe 



; r p ^™-j Therapeutics and Chemistry of Oxypinenes. 405 



ozonizing preparations as local antiseptics and cleansing agents are 
freely admitted. It is abundantly proved by constant clinical experi- 
ence and record." 

In a pamphlet by Dr. Cyrus Edson " Hydrogen Peroxide in Con- 
tagious Diseases," 1893, he recommends the free administration of hy- 
drogen peroxide, both by the stomach and intestinal irrigation. He 
says : " It is my opinion that this treatment will prove to be par excel- 
lence the treatment for cholera morbus, dysentery, typhus and typhoid 
fevers. As oil vehicles may carry as high as twenty-five volumes per 
cent, of ozone, it is obvious that they likewise may be effectually em- 
ployed in the same diseases." 

Dr. W. J. Morton, in an article in the New York Medical Journal, 
June 23, 1894, entitled "Ozone and its Uses in Medicine," says: 
" That oils absorb ozone in very large quantity and part with it slowly 
indeed, requires no special corroboration, since it has been well known 
for a long time. The combination is not an oxidation, as one might 
expect, but the ozone is taken up by the oil as 3 and yielded up as 3 . 
The oil preparations give up their ozone when taken internally, and 
equally so when applied to ulcers, diphtheritic membranes, and when- 
ever a wound dressing is required. It is noted that ozonized oils re- 
lieve pain more quickly than if they did not contain ozone." 

Of course we know now that the ozone is not given up as 3 but 
as H 2 2 , when the ozonide comes into contact with moist animal 
tissues, but this does not in the least detract from Dr. Morton's con- 
clusions, which strongly bear out the contention that when pinene 
ozonide is decomposed in contact with animal tissues the intermediary 
oxypinenes formed have a greater therapeutic value than oil of tur- 
pentine itself. 

Sir William A. Tilden, in " The Chemical History of the Ter- 
penes," 6 states : " A few of the derivatives of turpentine were known 
to chemists long before they were able to determine their composition. 
Nearly two hundred years ago terpene hydrate was described, and as 
early as 1803 hydrochloride was obtained by passing hydrogen chlor- 
ide gas into turpentine oil." 

Since 1885 the number of researches into the character and re- 
actions of the terpenes has greatly increased. The most important 
contributions to our present advance state of knowledge of these 



G Science Progress in the Twentieth Century, vol. 6, London, 1912, pp. 
46-61. 



406 



Wine of Beef and Iron. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 

( September, 1915. 



compounds are those of O. Wallach, 7 A. von Baeyer, 8 and W. H. 
Perkins, Jr. 9 

In conclusion I will only quote Lewkowitzck's classical work, 
published in 1909, " Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats 
and Waxes," vol. 3, p. 139: " Oil of turpentine absorbs oxygen from 
the air (this is termed 'auto-oxidation'), and, judging from the 
iodine value, oil of turpentine should be able to absorb two molecules 
of oxygen. Whether these are present in the form of oxygen or 
ozone does not appear settled yet. The oxygen is ' activated ' by the 
oil of turpentine (and contained in old oil of turpentine to a con- 
siderable extent)." 

His doubts — as pointed out in my previous article on this sub- 
ject — have been entirely dispelled by the splendid work of Harries 
and his pupils. 

From the standpoint of a mere chemist it seems that an ozonide 
of pinene prepared from pure pinene and freshly-generated ozone 
would be an ideal therapeutic agent. When such a compound comes 
in contact with a moist animal tissue hydrogen peroxide is gradually 
and slowly developed, and the intermediary oxypinenes (the alde- 
hydes and ketones) are generally conceded to have greater thera- 
peutic value than the too active turpentine itself. 



WINE OF BEEF AND IRON. 1 
By George M. Beringer. 

The formula in the National Formulary, Third Edition, for wine 
of beef and iron has been the subject of considerable criticism. The 
manipulation directed is both wasteful of time and alcohol, and, 
withal, does not yield a preparation that is stable. Copious and 
continued precipitation which affects both the proteid and iron con- 
tent of the preparation takes place. Moreover, shortly after making 
it not infrequently happens that gas develops, and often this is in 
sufficient quantity to burst the bottles. I have attributed this to fer- 

7 Annalen, vol. 225 and following. 

8 Berichte, vol. 26 and following. 

9 Chem. Soc. Transactions, 1904 and following. 

1 Presented at the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 
Spring Lake, N. J., June 15-18, 1915. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 1915. j" 



Wine of Beef and Iron. 



407 



mentation due to insufficient alcohol in the sherry wine directed to 
act as a preservative. 

As wine of beef and iron is of considerable commercial impor- 
tance, a circular letter was directed to the principal pharmaceutical 
houses, inquiring if they had found the N. F. formula satisfactory; 
if not, what were the difficulties or defects, and requesting suggestions 
for improvements. The answers received from a number of these 
manufacturers show that their experience with the N. F. formula 
was similar to my own, and that an improvement in the formula was 
absolutely necessary. 

In the course of correspondence, Dr. John M. Francis, of Detroit, 
has advanced an ingenious explanation as an opinion as to the cause 
of the decomposition. He attributes the decomposition to the ferric 
salt (tincture ferric citro-chloride directed in the formula). He 
writes : 

" I am not prepared to recommend the use of ferric chloride or 
ferric citro-chloride ; in fact, I would not recommend the use of any 
ferric salt in this or similar preparations, for the simple reason that 
where a ferric salt is associated with citric acid chemical decom- 
position will take place on exposure to sunlight or a very bright light, 
resulting in a reduction of the ferric salt and the formation of car- 
bonic acid gas, which sometimes is present in sufficient quantity to 
blow the cork or burst the bottle." 

" It took us some little time to figure out this reaction, as we sup- 
posed that the gas produced was due to fermentation. We are fully 
convinced now that it is a chemical reaction brought about by light." 
He recommends the use of the soluble citrate of iron to replace the 
tincture ferric citro chloride. 

In a subsequent communication Dr. Francis writes : 

" Our conclusion is that, regardless of which particular one may 
be employed, any ferric salt will decompose in beef, iron and wine to 
a greater or less extent when exposed to bright light, with the con- 
sequent formation of gas which is liable to blow the cork or burst 
the bottle. If the beef, iron and wine is made very nearly neutral a 
product can be manufactured which will meet all practical purposes, 
as very little gas is produced, even in severe conditions. If one uses 
ferric chloride or the tincture of ferric citro-chloride or ferric citrate 
and has an excess of acid in the beef, iron and wine, the formation of 
gas and the danger of explosion will increase in direct proportion to 



408 



Wine of Beef and Iron. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ September, 1915. 



the amount of free acid present. The best and safest plan would be 
to use a ferric citrate and to reduce the free acid to a minimum." 

Manufacturer S responded : " We have not found it very 

satisfactory, because it continues to precipitate indefinitely." 

" On June 14, 1910, we made a gallon of beef, iron and wine by 
N. F. method, and one gallon by simply mixing the ingredients of 
the formula without using alcohol. These were filtered on July 6 
and again on December 14, 1910; at that time we thought the one 
made by N. F. method slightly better than the other, but on examin- 
ing them at this time (11/11/11) we find both have heavy precipi- 
tates." 

" There may be some beef extracts on the market which would 
cause less precipitation than the others, but all that we have tried 
have given this trouble." 

Manufacturer L replied : " We have had to virtually abandon 

the marketing of this preparation owing to — 

" First. It does not meet the revenue requirements as to nitrogen 
content. This may be due to the rather high alcoholic percentage, 
approximately 25 per cent." 

" Second. There is a copious precipitation which soon renders 
the preparation unsightly, and the profession will not accept it, 
sending it back to the manufacturer about as fast as it can be sent 
out." 

" Evidently the preliminary treatment in the N. F. of adding 
alcohol to the solution of beef extract, filtering and distilling off the 
alcohol, is given for the purpose of avoiding subsequent precipitation 
in the finished product. Whether it accomplishes this I am unable 
to say definitely, but my impression is that it does not. However, it 
does cause such a loss of albuminous material that the product falls 
short of the revenue requirement for nitrogen, and consequently it 
should be omitted or modified." 

The above abstracts from correspondence with some of the large 
manufacturers show conclusively the necessity for a formula that 
will overcome the defects in the present N. F. formula. Without 
going into all of the details of my experiments, the conclusions only 
are here presented : 

The preliminary treatment precipitates out considerable proteid 
matter and removes only a portion of the sodium chloride. It has no 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
September, 1915. J 



Wine of Beef and Iron. 



409 



effect in preventing subsequent precipitation. It is wasteful of 
time and alcohol and is unnecessary. In a good grade of beef extract 
the sodium chloride present and entering into solution in the wine 
of beef is not objectionable. 

On the addition of a ferric salt, either the tincture of citro- 
chloride of iron or the ferric and ammonium citrate, (the latter being 
the salt originally used and still preferred by many manufacturers), 
there is produced at once a brown precipitate containing iron, and, 
even after filtering, further precipitation continues to form with 
reduction in both iron and proteid content. This precipitation is not 
influenced by the preliminary treatment and occurs if this direction 
be followed or omitted. 

It was found that this precipitate was largely organic salts of 
iron, probably the albuminate, with, at times, some peptonate, and 
that on adding sodium hydroxide or ammonia water to neutral or 
just alkaline reaction to litmus paper the precipitate very largely 
redissolved, and, further, that if the preparation be then filtered, 
further precipitation did not occur if alcohol was present in suffi- 
cient amount to prevent fermentation. 

The sherry wine is usually decidedly acid, and the amount of 
alkali needed to obtain neutrality is larger than one would expect. 
Either sodium hydroxide or ammonia will answer equally well for 
neutralizing, but the latter is preferred, because an excess is more 
readily detected. 

The present N. F. formula yields a preparation containing only 
from 13 to 15 per cent, of alcohol. This varies with the thoroughness 
with which the alcohol is distilled off in the preliminary treatment 
and the loss of alcohol occurring at the same time and also with the 
alcoholic content of the sherry wine added, which commonly is from 
18 to 20 per cent. It was found that the decomposition did not 
occur if the alcoholic content in the finished preparation was in- 
creased to not less than 20 per cent. 

125 Cc. of syrup likewise appears as excessive, and this can be 
reduced to 100 Cc. without affecting the palatability. The quantity 
of extract of beef now directed, 33 Gm., can be rounded off to 30 
Gm., or approximately 3 per cent. 

Based on these facts and experiments, I submit the following 
improved formula for wine of beef and iron : 



4io 



Inversion of Cane Sugar in Syrups. j 




Vinum Carnis et Ferri. 



Wine of Beef and Iron. 

Extract of beef 

Water, hot 

Iron and ammonium citrate , 

Syrup 

Alcohol 

Compound spirit of orange 

Ammonia water, a sufficient quantity, 
Sherry wine, a sufficient quantity, 



Beef, Wine and Iron. 



30 Gm. 

60 Cc. 

10 Gm. 

100 Cc. 

50 Cc. 

1 Cc. 



To make 



1000 Cc. 



Dissolve the extract of beef in the hot water, add the syrup and 
then the compound spirit of orange and alcohol previously mixed. 
Dissolve the iron and ammonium citrate in 750 Cc. of sherry wine, 
and add this solution to the other mixture, then add sufficient am- 
monia water to make the solution neutral or only very faintly alkaline 
to litmus paper, then add sufficient sherry wine to make 1000 Cc. 
If acid, now add, drop by drop, ammonia water untihneutral or very 
faint alkaline reaction is obtained. Set aside for two days and then 



On June 25, 1912, a type sample of wine of beef and iron for the 
N. F. Revision was made by the above formula. An eight-ounce 
bottle of this has been kept under observation since that date. For 
a time it was kept in the cellar, and has more recently been in the 
laboratory, subjected to the varying changes of temperature and 
more or less exposed to the light. At this date, nearly three years 
after preparation, it is still clear, free from precipitation, and is 
entirely satisfactory. 



In the February, 1902, issue of the Druggists' Circular (page 27), 
in an article, " Fallacious Tests for Glucose in Cane Sugar Syrup," I 
showed that syrupus made according to the official formula by the 
hot process did not contain more than a very faint trace of reducing 



filter. 



INVERSION OF CANE SUGAR IN SYRUPUS. 1 



By Joseph L. Mayer. 



1 Read before the New York State Pharmaceutical Association, June 29, 
I9I5- 



%dZl^' } Inversion of Cane Sugar in Syrups. 41 1 

sugar, but, after being stored for five months in a corked bottle 
which had been placed in a cool", dark place, yielded a very heavy 
precipitate of cuprous oxide when tested with Fehling's solution, 
indicating that much of the cane sugar had been inverted. 

The tests made at that time being qualitative only, the thought 
occurred to me recently to make a series of quantitative tests to 
determine exactly how much of the cane sugar was converted into 
reducing sugar, and the following work was therefore undertaken. 

On January 28, 1915, 1000 Cc. of syrupus were made, following 
the directions on page 435 of the U. S. P. VIII for the cold per- 
colation process, and the same day 1000 Cc. of syrupus were made 
by the method on page 435 of the U.S. P. VIII for the hot process,, 
each sample being placed in a sterilized glass-stoppered bottle. 

The syrup made by percolation had a specific gravity of 1.3 148 
at 25 C, and the sample made by the hot process had a specific 
gravity of 1.3 126 at 25 °. 

A quantity of syrup from each bottle was immediately weighed 
in tared 100 Cc. graduated flasks and water added to make 100 Cc, 
and the reducing sugar in 50 Cc. of this solution determined by the 
following method of Walker and Munson : 



( 1 ) Preparation of Solutions and Asbestos. 

(a) Solutions.— Use solutions (a) and (b) and (c) as given on 
page 42, under Soxhlet's modification of Fehling's solution. 

(b) Asbestos. — Prepare the asbestos, which should be the amphi- 
bole variety, by first digesting with 1 : 3 hydrochloric acid for two or 
three days. Wash free from acid and digest for a similar period 
with soda solution, after which treat for a few hours with hot alka- 
line copper tartrate solution of the strength employed in sugar 
determination. Then wash the asbestos free from alkali, finally 
digest with nitric acid for several hours, and, after washing free 
from acid, shake with water for use. In preparing the Gooch 
crucible, load it with a film of asbestos one- fourth inch thick, wash 
this thoroughly with water to remove fine particles of asbestos ; finally 
wash with alcohol and ether, dry for thirty minutes at ioo° C, cool in 
a desiccator, and weigh. It is best to dissolve the cuprous oxide with 
nitric acid each time after weighing and use the same felts over and 
over again, as they improve with use. 



412 Inversion of Cane Sugar in Syrups. { A s ™ptem U ber P i9iT' 

(2) Determination. 

Transfer 25 Cc. each of the copper and alkaline tartrate solutions 
to a 400 Cc. Jena or Non-sol beaker and add 50 Cc. of reducing 
sugar solution, or, if a smaller volume of sugar solution be used, add 
water to make the final volume 100 Cc. Heat the beaker upon an 
asbestos gauze over a Bunsen burner, so regulate the flame that 
boiling begins in four mirtutes, and continue the boiling for exactly 
two minutes. Keep the beaker covered with a watch-glass through- 
out the entire time of heating. Without diluting, filter the cuprous 
oxide at once on an asbestos felt in a porcelain Gooch crucible, using 
suction. Wash the cuprous oxide thoroughly with water at a tem- 
perature of about 6o° C, then with 10 Cc. of alcohol, and finally with 
10 Cc. of ether. Dry for thirty minutes in a water oven at ioo° C, 
cool in a desiccator, and weigh as cuprous oxide. 

N. B. — The number of milligrammes of copper reduced by a 
given amount of reducing sugar differs when sucrose is present and 
when it is absent. In the tables following, the absence of sucrose is 
assumed, except in the two columns under invert sugar, where one 
for mixtures of invert sugar and sucrose (0.4 gramme of total sugar 
In 50 Cc. of solution) and one for invert sugar and sucrose when the 
50 Cc. of solution contains 2 grammes of total sugar are given, in 
addition to the column for invert sugar alone (U. S. Dept. of Agr., 
Bur. of Chem., Bull. 107, rev., pages 241 and 242). 

The cold percolation process sample contained 0.174 per cent, 
invert sugar. 

The hot process sample contained 0.138 per cent, invert sugar. 

The cane sugar from which the syrups were made was tested by 
the same method and contained 0.111 per cent, invert sugar, thus 
indicating that in the process of making the samples very little 
inversion had taken place. 

The syrups were then placed in a cool, dark place, samples being 
taken from them at frequent intervals and tested, with the following 
results : 

Cold Hot 

January 28, 1915 (the day the samples were prepared) 0.174% 0.138% invert sugar 

February 10, 1915 0.172% 0.171% invert sugar 

February 25, 1915 0.292% 0.170% invert sugar 

March 9, 1915 0.559% 0.401% invert sugar 

March 23, 1915 1.123% 1.061% invert sugar 

April 2, 1915 1.807% 1.595% invert sugar 



Am. Jour. Pharm, ) 
September, 1915. j 



A Medley. 



413 



April 9, 1 91 5. 
April 15, 1915 
May 6, 1915. . 
May 19, 1915. 
June 3, 1915. • 



2.029% 1-905% invert sugar 
2.367% 2.354% invert sugar 
3.411% 3.566% invert sugar 
4.978% 4735% invert sugar 
6.586% 5-75i% invert sugar 



These remarkable results not only disprove the statement very 
frequently made that in' making syrupus by the hot process much 
of the sugar is inverted, a statement which my original article above 
referred to disproved, but they also conclusively show that making 
the samples by either the cold or hot process practically no inversion 
takes place. They show that, upon standing, the sugar in both 
samples become inverted, the inversion being greater in the cold- 
process syrup than in that where heat is employed in the manufacture. 

I am still at work on the samples and hope in my next paper on 
the subject to report further results of the investigation. 

Research and Analytical Department, Riker Laboratories. 



Few men have so many problems and difficulties presented to 
them in their daily work as does the pharmacist. Accidents happen, 
preparations go wrong, materials are spoiled or rendered unfit for 
further use, by what, to the casual observer, would seem the sheer 
perversity of the things themselves. To him who yields without 
struggle to such conditions, life is but "an empty dream." To him 
who, by the application of some almost insignificant bit of knowledge, 
conquers them, there comes the wild joy of wresting from an apparent 
defeat an assured victory. 

An illustration is furnished by a happening of a few months ago. 
A barrel of potassium bicarbonate, of German manufacture, had 
been on hand for some time. It was lined with parchmentized 
paper. Through some defect in the manufacture of the paper or 
the action of the salt upon it, the paper began to disintegrate. The 
more one tried to v separate the salt and the paper the more they mixed. 
A boy was put to work spreading it on a table and picking out the 

1 Presented at the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 
Spring Lake, N. J., June 15-18, 1915. 



A MEDLEY. 1 



By George M. Beringer, Jr., P.D. 



414 



A Medley. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ September, 1915. 



bits of paper. It looked all right, but the first pound sent out was 
returned in a hurry. The paper was still there. 

With the facilities at hand, recrystallization was out of the 
question, but nearly two hundred pounds of material could not be 
wasted, especially in the face of a rising market. Then came the 
magic inspiration of the electric fan. A small fan was set awhirl at 
one end of a long, narrow table. The table was covered with clean, 
heavy paper, and along the edges was placed a row of wooden boxes 
to prevent the potassium bicarbonate from rolling to the floor. The 
end was left open. 

Through the swift current of air, passing along this narrow 
channel, the material was allowed to drop, a handful at a time. Away 
went the paper — big bits and little bits — in a merry whirl, while the 
heavy chemical, bright and clean, dropped on the table, freed from 
its troublesome companion. Scarcely a pound of material was lost. 

How do you clean capsules after you have filled them with 
powdered material? Do you wipe them on the towel at the pre- 
scription counter — whether that towel is clean or otherwise? Well 
— don't confess what you do — just try this. Take a piece of absorbent 
gauze of such size that it can be folded into a square of eight or 
ten inches, having four thicknesses of material. Place the capsules 
to be cleaned in the centre of this. Gather up the corners and edges 
of the gauze square into one hand, in such a manner that the capsules 
are suspended in a loose, bag. Now rub this bag across the palm of 
the other hand a few times, pressing firmly. Each capsule is rubbed 
between the layers of gauze, and every particle of powder is removed, 
leaving it bright and clean. 

You are in a hurry for some camphorated oil. You crush the 
camphor into coarse lumps and throw it into the oil, put the mixture 
on a water-bath for an hour or so, and return to find lumps of 
camphor still in evidence. Then, if you are of that temperament, 
there follow a few splutters, dashes, blanks, and exclamation points, 
but the camphorated oil is still unfinished. Before you try it again, 
go to your hardware dealer and spend from 75 cents to $1.25 for an 
almond grater. Put your camphor into this machine, a few lumps 
at a time, turn the handle, and have the camphor in an almost uni- 
formly fine granule. Add this to your oil. Put it on the water-bath 
and have your preparation — less the dashes, etc. — in fifteen minutes. 

Speaking of the almond grater, you will be surprised at the 



A sT P temb r CT f i9™' } Number and Kind of Drug Addicts. 415 

number of uses you will find for it. You can granulate castile soap 
for making soap liniment; you can granulate opium, if you make 
preparations of that drug; and you can granulate almonds and make 
your almond meal from real almonds. 



THE NUMBER AND KIND OF DRUG ADDICTS. 1 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

In recent years social workers, reformers, and newspaper writers 
generally have vied with each other in the presentation of startling 
data regarding the number and kind of drug addicts in this country. 
In doing so they have established the general impression that those 
engaged in the various branches of medicine, and particularly those 
engaged in the practice of pharmacy, have been delinquent in that 
they have failed to safeguard the sale and distribution -of habit-form- 
ing drugs with the care that properly should have been exercised. 

Among the statements frequently met with in current papers and 
periodicals the following are representative : 

" More than two per cent, of the people of this country are 
addicted to the use of opium and cocaine, and this number is being 
augmented at the rate of 100,000 a year." 

• "Fully ninety per cent, of the opium we import is used for 
illegitimate purposes." 

" For every ounce of cocaine employed legitimately there are 
200 ounces consumed illegitimately." 

" Physicians are responsible for at least ninety-five per cent, of 
the habitual users of opium, its compounds and alkaloidal salts." 

" More dope fiends have been created by the refilling of prescrip- 
tions than in any other way." 

" At least ten per cent, of the 45,000 drug stores in the country 
exist largely upon the illegitimate sale of habit-forming drugs." 

" Many of the proprietary remedies sold to the laity contain a 
sufficient amount of dope to develop and to maintain a drug habit." 

" The use of heroin as a ' kicker ' in patent medicines is com- 
paratively common." 

" The Harrison law, excellent so far as it goes, is effectively 



1 Presented at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, Forest Park, Pa., June 22-24, 191 5. 



416 Number and Kind of Drug Addicts. {^dm***™™. 

negatived by the exceptions included in Section 6. The most exact- 
ing dope fiend could not ask for a larger hole in the law. If he can 
get an unlimited amount of his favorite drug in a nostrum form, 
anything else that the Harrison or any other law may or may not 
provide is a matter of indifference to him." 

As has been pointed out before, 2 some, at least, of these state- 
ments are not based on reliable data, while others, having the elements 
of truth, are misleading, either because of their incompleteness or 
because of the partial misstatement of fact. While it is unfortu- 
nately true that the number of drug addicts in the United States is 
disgracefully large, it does not, and of necessity can not, even ap- 
proximate the maximum that has been stated. 

Practically all of the opium and coca used in this country is 
imported through legitimate channels, and because of the com- 
paratively high import tax considerable care is exercised to insure 
the reporting and recording of all of the product at our disposal, so 
that we have fairly reliable data on which to base an estimate of the 
amount of either drug that is available for all purposes. 

Converting 'the recorded quantities of the several drugs imported 
into average doses, as presented in the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States, we find that for some years the total amount of these drugs 
imported has been fairly uniform and will aggregate an average of 
approximately 2,500,000,000 doses of opium, its derivatives and alka- 
loids, and 325,000,000 doses of coca leaves and cocaine. These 
figures serve to definitely fix the amount of available material, and, 
quite regardless of the proportion of the several drugs that may be 
used legitimately or illegitimately, the sum-total of illegitimate use 
cannot well exceed the sum-total of the available material. 

A rather interesting source of information regarding the actual 
number and kind of drug addicts is available through the enforce- 
ment of the Tennessee anti-narcotic law of 1913. Lucius P. Brown, 
the State Food and Drugs Commissioner of Tennessee, in a recent 
report 3 says that after twelve months of operation there were 
registered in the State of Tennessee under the provisions of the anti- 
narcotic law 2370 persons of all ages and years These included 784, 
or 33.1 per cent., males and 1586, or 66.9 per cent., females. 

The average consumption per day of the morphine addicts was 
8.5 grains, or approximately 1000 doses each month, or 12,000 doses 

2 P. H. Rep., 1914, vol. 29, p. 3180. 

3 Am. J. Public Health, 1915, vol. 5, pp. 323 and 333. 



^pteZeVfmT' } Number and Kind of Drug Addicts. 417 

a year. The State of Tennessee contains slightly more than two 
per cent, of the total population 'of the United States, and, on the 
supposition that the same ratio of addicts and the amount of material 
consumed will hold good throughout the country, we would have a 
total of something more than nS,ooo drug habitues consuming ap- 
proximately 1,416,000,000 average doses per year. 

Granting the somewhat improbable assertion that ninety per cent, 
of the opium imported is used illegitimately at the rate that it is said 
to be consumed in the State of Tennessee, we could have as a 
maximum not more than 187,000 users of opium, its derivatives and 
alkaloids, in all parts of the United States. 

In regard to the use of cocaine, a recent authority asserts that one 
ounce of cocaine is enough to keep fifty fiends thoroughly well doped 
for a week, or, in other words, that one ounce of cocaine is enough 
to keep one fiend thoroughly well doped for a year. 

Granting that all of the vailable 150,000 ounces of cocaine were 
used illegitimately, there could be, at this rate, a total of 150,000 
cocaine fiends in the United States. 

That this estimate is somewhat high would appear from the 
report by C. G. Steinmetz, Jr., 4 who made a study of fifteen cases of 
cocaine habit acquired by men employed where the drug was manu- 
factured. The daily quantity taken varied from twenty to sixty 
grains ; the method of taking was solely by snuffing it. Even on the 
basis of the lower quantity the consumption per annum would be in 
the neighborhood of fifteen ounces and thus reduce the possible 
number of cocaine fiends very materially. 

Pharmacists who have been unfortunate enough to meet with 
patients addicted to the use of cocaine will appreciate that the figures 
given by Steinmetz are much more nearly in accord with actual prac- 
tices than are the figures previously quoted. Taking all the available 
facts into consideration, it would appear that the estimate made by 
the committee of the American Pharmaceutical Association, some 
years ago, that the drug addicts in this country do not exceed 200,000 
in number is approximately correct even at the present time. 

That other previously-made estimates of the number of drug ad- 
dicts in this country were altogether erroneous is further evidenced by 
the published reports on hospital admissions since the Federal anti- 
narcotic law came into effect. It had been predicted that the result 



4 J. Am. M. Assoc., 1915, vol. 64, p. 1271. 



418 Number and Kind of Drug Addicts. { ^ptember^iT' 

of the enforcement of this law would be a besieging of hospitals by 
drug addicts and a crime wave of national scope, accompanied by a 
trail of suicide and death. While the effect of the enforcement of 
the Federal anti-narcotic law has been clearly evidenced by hospital 
reports, the results have been by no means so far-reaching or so 
startling as had been expected. 

The most shocking of the several available reports is that of 
Wm. D. McNally, Coroner's Chemist, Cook County, Chicago, 5 who 
states that during the month of March seven deaths occurred in Cook 
County that were indirectly due to the sudden cessation of the use of 
morphine. Four died from taking an overdose of morphine. One 
of the four died from taking an overdose of " Dr. Weatherby's 
Remedy," a morphine cure containing over seventeen grains of mor- 
phine sulphate per ounce. During the month of December, 1914, 
not a single death occurred in Cook County from morphine. During 
January and February the record shows one death for each month. 

Clifford B. Farr 6 reports that since the enactment of the Harrison 
law the number of admissions to the Philadelphia General Hospital 
of cases of morphine and heroin addiction has markedly increased. 
In the first sixty-eight days of 1915, eighty-six patients addicted to 
heroin were admitted, while in 191 1 there was not one. 

Other cities have reported similar results, but, so far as known, 
the amount of suffering has not in any way measured up to the results 
that were predicted by newspaper writers and others when the 
Federal anti-narcotic law was under consideration. 

Now just a word in regard to the origin of drug addiction. 
C. E. Terry, City Health Inspector of Jacksonville, Fla., in the report 
of a study of local conditions, 7 states that of 213 cases of drug 
habituation studied by him personally their origins, in the order of 
their frequency, were as follows : 

Through physicians' prescriptions or treatment personally ad- 
ministered, 54.6 per cent. 

Through the advice of acquaintances (for the most part them- 
selves users), 21.6 per cent. 

Through dissipation and evil companions, 21.2 per cent. 



5 J. Am. M. Assoc., 1915, vol. 64, p. 1264. 

6 J. Am. M. Assoc., 1915, vol. 64, p. 1270. 

1 Am. J. Public Health, 1914, vol. 4, p. 32. 



^ P ,eSr P mT'} Number and Kind of Drug Addicts. 419 

Through chronic and incurable disease, 2.4 per cent. 

The conclusions reached by Terry agree very well with those 
enunciated by Brown, that from ninety to ninety-five per cent, of the 
persons habitually using narcotics do so entirely unnecessarily. 

It should be remembered that the figures quoted above refer 
solely to the number and kind of addicts, generally recognized as 
such, who use narcotic drugs in comparatively large amounts. There 
is still another, and a very pathetic, side to the drug addict problem 
that has as yet received altogether too little attention. This problem 
involves the ways and means of generating the habit and also in- 
cludes a consideration of the unfortunates who for one reason or 
another feel compelled to continue the use of comparatively small 
amounts of a narcotic drug. 

Practically all authorities are agreed that the continued use of 
cocaine is a vice rather than a disease, and the Federal, as well as 
State, anti-narcotic laws appear to recognize this fact and provide 
special safeguards to prevent the indiscriminate sale or distribution of 
even small amounts of cocaine or of preparations containing it. 

With opium, morphine, and related products, on the other hand, 
no such precautions have been taken, despite the fact that addiction 
to the use of these things is generally recognized as a condition over 
which the individual patient has little or no control. 

Up to the present time altogether too little authoritative informa- 
tion is available regarding the origin and subsequent progress of the 
condition commonly described as morphinism, because physicians 
usually see only the fully-developed cases or the, at times, spectacular 
end results. 

The morphine or opium addict, as a rule, is secretive and gen- 
erally seeks relief in ways that are destined to make him an easy prey 
for the charlatan or advertising quack who promises a positive cure 
with secrecy. 

Lambert, Towne, and others who have made a study of drug 
addiction agree with the conclusions of Terry, quoted above, that a 
very large proportion of the persons addicted to the use of opium 
and its alkaloids have acquired their habit from the thoughtless 
renewal of prescriptions containing narcotics or by self -medication 
with preparations containing comparatively small quantities of an 
opiate. 

In this connection it may be said that it is not generally realized 



420 Number and Kind of Drug Addicts. { ^ptembe/igiT' 

that the taking of even small doses of opium or morphine, at regular 
intervals, for a continued length of time will be more likely to 
develop the opium habit than the occasional indulgence in large 
quantities. 

It has been asserted s that the average person will develop an 
addiction to opium or one of its alkaloids after thirty days of daily 
use, and that after the continued use of such a drug for three months 
or more it is practically impossible to discontinue its use without 
medical aid. 

With these several possibilities fairly well established, it would 
appear to be unfortunate to endorse or even to countenance ex- 
ception clauses in anti-narcotic laws, such as Section 6 of the Federal 
law, which permit of the indiscriminate sale or distribution of 
preparations that not alone may, but positively will, establish a 
habit that, once established, cannot readily be overcome. 

In the Federal anti-narcotic law we have the possibility of an 
accurate survey of existing conditions in connection with the use and 
abuse of certain narcotic drugs. The findings, if they can be made a 
matter of record, will place the blame for the illicit use of the pro- 
scribed drugs where it rightfully belongs, and will suggest ways and 
means for correcting existing abuses. 

To secure efficient restrictions on the sale and distribution of 
narcotics, and to demonstrate that they are not primarily to blame for 
the generation and continuation of the addiction referred to, phar- 
macists individually should not alone be willing to comply with 
existing requirements under the law, but should see to it that others 
engaged in the same line of business comply fully with the spirit as 
well as the letter of existing laws and regulations. 

There can be no gainsaying the fact that the amounts of opium 
and of coca consumed annually in this country are out of all pro- 
portion to the actual need for medicinal purposes, but to locate the 
existing leaks the followers of all branches of medicine, and par- 
ticularly the men engaged in the practice of pharmacy, must make 
consistent and persistent efforts to purge themselves of' even the 
suspicion of being directly or indirectly to blame for existing abuses. 



Pettey, G. E., /. Am. M. Assoc., 1913, vol. 61, p. 566. 



A s^pteXr P i9iT'} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 421 

THE CULTIVATION JDF MEDICINAL PLANTS. 1 
By Dr. Fred. B. Kilmer, New Brunswick, N. J. 
{Continued from page 359.) 

Botanic Gardens. 

A review of the World's Botanic Gardens, by Prof. Albert 
Schneider (Amer. Jour. Pharm., January, 1904, 1-30), points out 
the significance and value of such gardens to the progress of phar- 
macy and medicine. 

From this review we learn of the mythical gardens of antiquity 
and tradition, including the Garden of Paradise and the Royal 
Gardens of Egypt and Rome. From this article it appears that as 
early as 1545 medicinal herbs were cultivated in the Italian gardens 
at Padua. The " Jardin des Plants " of Paris, founded in 1610, 
added millions of dollars to the wealth of the French nation. The 
" Jardin Botanique de la Faculty la Medicine," which is a part of 
this garden, is the largest and most complete garden of medicinal 
plants in the world. 

France, England, Germany, Austria, Italy, Holland, Russia and 
the United States have extensive botanic gardens in which, to some 
extent, medicinal plants are cultivated. The list of botanic gardens 
in the United States is given as follows : New York Botanic Gardens ; 
Shaw Botanic Gardens, St. Louis ; Philadelphia Botanic Gardens ; 
Ann Arbor, Mich. ; Indiana State University ; San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. 

Prof. Schneider suggests a co-operative agreement among the 
authorities of these different gardens as to the scope of the work done 
by each. 

So far the American Botanic Gardens have done but little in the 
way of cultivation of medicinal plants that can be considered as of 
economic value. Their work in general is limited to other problems. 
The resources of these gardens could be made of great value for the 
furtherance of this work. To bring it about would require requisite 
funds and intelligent direction. 



x Read before the National Association of Manufacturers of Medicina 
Products, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City, February 8, 19 15. 



422 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. {^timber* it™' 

Factors in Drug Plant Production. 

The following note by W. W. Stockberger summarizes the situa- 
tion from the agricultural point of view, and incidentally throws an 
important light upon the whole problem : 

The first essential for successful drug plant production on a 
commercial scale is the existence of a market for the product. For 
some crude drugs the demand is constant and steady, while for 
many others it is variable, or exceedingly limited. In the case of 
drugs for which there is a limited demand, numerous or extensive 
plantings may easily result in overproduction, with a consequent de- 
cline in the market price. The prospective grower of drugs would 
do well to acquaint himself with the market, and to make sure that 
the cost of production, plus packing and shipping expenses, do not 
make the total cost so great that the drugs cannot be grown at a profit. 

It is also essential to know that the species selected for cultivation 
will do well under the conditions of soil and climate existing where 
the planting is to be made. Drug plants vary widely in their require- 
ments with respect to these conditions, and satisfactory yields can 
be expected only when the requirements of these plants are under- 
stood and properly met. 

The economic situation is another weighty factor. Assuming that 
the soil and climate are suitable, it does not follow that drugs can be 
grown at a profit. They must yield returns equal to, or greater, than 
those from other crops which may be grown on the same land. Since 
much handwork is necessary in the production of most drugs, a suffi- 
cient labor supply must be readily available. The price of land, the 
cost of labor and the distance from market, are additional items to 
be fully considered before attempting to grow drugs commercially. 

The prospective grower of drugs who has not had some practical 
experience in gardening, and who lacks a knowledge of the require- 
ments of crude drugs, should proceed cautiously. Although some 
medicinal plants may be grown as easily as ordinary garden crops, 
others require the special knowledge and skill of the practiced gar- 
dener, if good results are to be secured. The valuable constituents 
of many drug plants vary in quantity, according to the time of gather- 
ing and method of drying; hence a knowledge of the right time for 
harvesting and the proper methods of curing is necessary for the 
production of drugs of high quality. 



A s^ P tember P i9i5 n ' } Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. . 423 

Literature on Drug Culture. 

For more than twenty-five years just past, considerable literature 
has been published on the subject of medicinal plants and their 
culture. Within the past few .years this literature has greatly in- 
creased and is assuming a modern and practical trend. For the con- 
venience of those who may desire to more thoroughly study the sub- 
ject a list of important references are here given. It may be noted 
that in addition to this list there is available extensive literature on 
the soil, its chemistry, fertility, tilling, etc., as well as upon seeds, 
seed testing, and for the student of the morphology and chemistry of 
medicinal plants and kindred subjects may be perused with profit. 
The citations here made have a more or less practical bearing upon the 
subject of drug culture. 

A very extensive list of literature on medicinal plants and drug 
culture by Prof. Albert Schneider, may be found in the Pharmaceu- 
tical Review for July and August, 1908. 

Augustin, B., " Uber Safrankultur in Urgarn," Ztschr. d. Allg. 
osterr. Ap,oth. Ver., No. 26, 1914. 

John A. Borneman, " Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Pennsyl- 
vania," gives the details of the cultivation of certain plants at Glen- 
olden, Pa., in connection with the laboratories of H. K. Mulford & 
Company. The list of plants cultivated includes Digitalis, Bella- 
donna, Cannabis Sativa, Hyoscyamus, Hydrastis Canadensis. Ameri- 
can Journal of Pharmacy, December, 191 2, p. 546. 

" The Cultivation of Belladonna in Philadelphia," Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., vol. 81, p. 1. 

" Note on Growing Medicinal Plants," Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
vol. 81, p. 45. 

John O. Baldwin, " Cultivation of Hydrastis," Amer. Journ. 
Pharm., April, 1913, p. 148. 

C. R. Buckalew, " The Cultivation of Cinchonas in the United 
States," Amer. Journ. Pharm., 31, pp. 475, 476, 1859. 

W. A. Bush, " Essential Oil Prospects in California," The Amer. 
Perfumer, 1914. Abst. Perf. and Essential Oil Rec, 5, 41, 1914. 

Francis H. Carr, F. I. C, " Experimental Work in an English 
Herb Garden," Am. Journ. Pharm., November, 1913, p. 487. 

" Effect of Cultivation on Alkoidal Content of Belladonna," Sta- 
tistical Tables, etc., Internat. Cong., Applied Chem., Chem. and 
Drugg., 81, 432, 1912. 



424 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. { 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
eptember, 1915. 



V. K. Chestnut, " Some Poisonous Plants of the Northern Stock 
Ranger," Yearbook Dept. Agriculture, 1900. 

" Thirty Poisonous Plants of the United States," U. S. Dept. Agr., 
Farmer's Bui. No. 86, 1898. 

" Principal Poisonous Plants in the United States," U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Bui. No. 20, 1898. 

" Some Common Poisonous Plants," Yearbook Dept. of Agr., 
pp. 1896. 

J. W. Colcord, " Rhubarb : Its History, Habitat, Culture, and 
Preparation with Reference to its Cultivation in the United States," 
Proc. A. Ph. A., 32, pp. 463-483, 1884. 

Elise Day, " Drug Plant Cultivation — Proceedings Nebraska 
Pharmaceutical Association," Meeting 1914. 

G. R. Durant, " Insect Powders of Commerce," Am. Journ. 
Pharm., 69, pp. 359-366, 1897. 

De Vry, " Cultivation of Cinchona in Java," Am. Journ. Pharm., 
33, pp. 47, 48, 1861. 

C. R. Eckler and F. A. Miller, " A Study of American Grown 
Cannabis in Comparison with Samples from Various Other Sources," 
Am. Journ. Pharm., vol. 84, p. 499. 

O. A. Farwell, " American Grown Belladonna," Bull. Phar., 1905, 
19: 258. Cit. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 1914, 41, 128. 

David G. Fairchild, " Spanish Almonds and their Introduction into 
America," Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 1902. 

Frederick T. Gordon, " Notes on the Culture of Drugs, with 
Special Reference to Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Carthamus, and 
Aconite," are also mentioned. Am. Journ. Pharm., vol. 72, p. 534. 

D. M. Grosh, " The Cultivation of the Castor Oil Bean," The 
Druggists' Cir., 1914, 58, 197-200. 

L. A. Haber, " Exportation of American Drugs," Proc. A. Ph. A., 

33, PP. 492-495, 1885. 

Alice Henkel, " American Medicinal Leaves and Herbs," Bureau 
of Plant Industry, U. S. Department Agriculture, issued December 8, 
1911. 

" American Medicinal Barks," Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. 
Department Agriculture, issued June 5, 1909. 

" Wild Medicinal Plants of the United States," Bureau of Plant 
Industry, issued January 16, 1906. 

" Weeds Used in Medicine," U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Farmer's 
Bulletin No. 188, 1904. 



^itSferfiQ™".} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 425 

Manly H. Haynes and E. L. Newcomb, Minneapolis, Minn., " The 
Production and Valuation of Belladonna in Minneapolis." " Atropa 
Belladonna can be successfully cultivated in Minnesota, if due care is 
taken in the germination of seeds, and the handling of young plants." 
Journal A. Ph. A., vol. 2, p. 431I 

E. Happensberger, " Cinchona Culture in California," Proc. Calif. 
Pharm. Soc., 1882 (abstract). 

C. A. Heinitsh, " Culture of Saffron in Pennsylvania," Proc. A. 
Ph. A., 14, pp. 254, 255, 1866. 

C. W. Johnson and Edith Hindman, " Rhaninus Purshiana — its 
History, Growth, Methods of Cultivation, and Bibliography," Am. 
Journ. Pharm., September, 1914, p. 387. 

J. R. Jackson, " Cultivation of Vanilla," Proc. A. Ph. A. (ab- 
stract), 23, pp. 138-140, 1875. 

Johnson & Johnson, " American Grown Belladonna," Red Cross 
Notes, series iv, p. 266. 

" Belladonna Cultural Experiments at Belleview Farms," Red 
Cross Notes, series iv, pp. 271-273. 

" Belladonna : a Study of Constituents, with Special Reference to 
its Alkaloidal Content at Different Periods of Development," Red 
Cross Notes, series iv, p. 278. 

" New Era Belladonna," Red Cross Notes, series v, pp. 33, 112, 
122, 178. 

" Change in Belladonna during its Preparation," Red Cross Notes, 
series v, p. 34, belladonna crop, 1904. 

" Belladonna Analytical Data Showing Percentage of Alkaloid 
at Various Stages of Growth," Red Cross Notes, series v, p. 35. 

" Belladonna Field Experiments," 1905, Red Cross Notes, series 
v, p. 91. 

" Belladonna Seeds and Plants," Red Cross Notes, series v, p. 92. 

" American Belladonna Seed," Red Cross Notes, series v, p. 209. 

" Experimental Cultivation of Belladonna at Salinas, Cal.," Red 
Cross Notes, series vi, p. 164. 

" Belladonna Cultivation in the San Francisco Garden of Medici- 
nal Plants," Red Cross Notes, series v, p. 234. 

" Belladonna Cultivation at Conshohocken, Pa.," Red Cross Mes- 
senger, vol. iv, p. 385. 

"Belladonna: The Cultivation in the United States, 1900," 
Red Cross Messenger, vol. iii, p. 142. 

" Drugs in War Time," Red Cross Messenger, vol. vii, p. 171. 



426 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. { ^ptemberfigiT* 

" Growing Belladonna," Red Cross Messenger, vol. vii, p. 227. 

F. B. Kilmer, " In Lands Where Drugs Grow," Am. Journ. 
Pharm., vol. 72, p. 155. " Drug Culture," Am. Journ. Pharm., vol. 
73, p. 10. 

" Desirability and Possible Necessity of Drug Culture in the 
Future," Am. Journ. Pharm., 73, p. 10, 1901. 

" The Story of the Paw Paw," Am. Journ. Pharm., pp. 272-312, 
33^383- 

" The American Pharmacist's Opportunity," Practical Druggist, 
Oct., 1914, p. 433. 

D. W. Kennedy, " Oil of Birch Bark and Oil of Wintergreen," 
Proc. A. Ph. A., 31, pp. 397-399, 1883. 

Henry Kraemer, " The Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Amer- 
ica," Journal A. Ph. A. } vol. 3, p. 111. 

" The Conservation and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants," Am. 
Journ. P'harm., 1903, 75, 553, 569. Cit. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 
1914, 41, 129. 

" The Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in America," /. Am. Pharm. 
Assn., Columbus, 1914, Hi, 111-122. 

" The Cultivation of Medicinal Plants," Am. Journ. Pharm., 
1900, vol. 72, 536, 543. 

" Cheap Drugs, or Some of the Factors Influencing the Quality 
of Vegetable Drugs," Am. Journ. Pharm., 74, pp. 311-323, 1902. 

"The Conservation and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants," Am. 
Journ. Pharm., vol. 75, p. 553. 

" Applied and Economic Botany," by Henry Kraemer, 806 pages, 
published 1904. 

As among the most recent text-books which should be consulted 
by those interested in the study and cultivation of medicinal plants, 
I recommend " Applied and Economic Botany," by Henry Kraemer. 
(Published by the author.) This work covers the technical study of 
plants and plant life with special study of medicinal plants. 

One chapter is devoted to the discussion of the cultivation of 
medicinal plants. In this section practical observations are given to 
medicinal plants grown from seed : " Propagation by Cutting," " Col- 
lection and Drying of Drugs," " Relative Value of Drugs from Culti- 
vated and Wild Plants," " Progress of Medicinal Plant Cultivation in 
the United States." From this work the following is extracted : 

" When our forests and woods were full of wild medicinal plants 
that could be easily gathered, there was hardly an incentive to con- 



A s^ P terber P i9i5 m '} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 427 

sider the farming of them. Now, that they are becoming scarcer, 
the need is especially apparent. Our interest in the cultivation of 
medicinal plants, however, is not primarily because there is a growing 
scarcity of the sources of supply, but in order that drugs of uniform 
quality and increased value may be had. Fortunately, there is a 
tendency on the part of some manufacturing pharmacists to concen- 
trate their efforts upon a few drug-yielding plants and to study them 
in relation to their active principles throughout different periods of 
the season. In addition to these actual experiments, there are numer- 
ous inquiries made regarding the possibilities of the successful farm- 
ing of medicinal plants. 

"If one is satisfied that it is worth while to take up the cultivation 
of any particular plant, its geographical range should be studied, 
both as to where it is indigenous and where it has become naturalized. 
The literature should be gone over not only for facts regarding the 
cultivation and distribution of the particular plant in view, but also 
of some of the related plants. 

"At the same. time that these preliminary studies are made, a 
careful survey should be taken of the plants which are indigenous 
and in cultivation in the particular locality where one is proposing 
to locate the farm. Then, of course, everything should be done on a 
small scale at first. If there is no information available, then he must, 
on the basis of the general principles laid down for the cultivation 
of medicinal plants, proceed with their culture, conducting parallel 
experiments with propagation by both seeds and cuttings. 

" Then when the crop is harvested he must, by analytical and other 
means, satisfy himself as to the value of his product compared with 
the commercial article, and with these facts in hand submit specimens 
and request quotations from the dealer in crude drugs, and the 
wholesale druggist. On this basis he will arrange for all future crops 
with some certainty as to their market value. Experience has shown 
that cultivated crops command a higher price than the drugs obtained 
from wild plants, even though their superiority cannot be demon- 
strated by analytical means. For instance, no one is trying to 
determine by an analytical process whether any given lot of tobacco, 
tea, or coffee is of superior value, and yet the competent dealer and 
the discriminating public even recognize the qualities of the grades 
that are offered. This is even more marked with the products that 
have been derived thus far from cultivated medicinal plants, and are 
appreciated by some pharmacists and physicians." 



428 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. {^pteZer^JiT' 

Charles H. La Wall, " The Drug and Herb Vendors of the Side- 
walks of Philadelphia," Am. Journ. Pharm., vol. 72, p. 59. 

M. Timbal-Lagrave, " On the Influence of Cultivation upon 
Medicinal Plants," Am. Journ. Pharm., 34, pp. 268-273, 1862. 

Clement B. Lowe, " Medicinal Plants of the Philippine Islands," 
Am. Journ. Pharm., vol. 73, p. 491. 

John U. & C. G. Lloyd, " Drugs and Medicines of North Amer- 
ica," issued 1885. 

John U. Lloyd, " Cultivation of Hydrastis," Proc. A. Ph. A., 1905, 
p. 307 ; Journal A. Ph. A., vol. 1, p. 5. 

Charles A. Lee, " A Catalogue of Medicinal Plants, Indigenous 
and Exotic, Growing in the State of New York," 1848. 

F. L. Lewton, " The Cultivation and Economics of Agaves," Am. 
Journ. Pharm., 72, pp. 327-334, 1900. 

Joseph L. Lemberger, " The Cultivation of Saffron in Lebanon 
County, Pennsylvania," Am. Journ. Pharm., May 17, 1904. (See 
also National Druggist, 35, pp. 357, 358, 1905 ; Pharm. Journ. Trans., 
14; Am. Journ. Pharm., 1848.) 

Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind. : This house has issued in its Scien- 
tific Bulletin series a number of bulletins in which the cultivation of 
medicinal plants is discussed. Its list includes the following : 

F. A. Miller and R. N. Reed, " A Study of American Grown 
Belladonna, with Assay Tables." 

" The Improvement of Medicinal Plants, with Special Reference 
to Stramonium, Belladonna and Digitalis." 

F. A. Miller and J. W. Meader, " The Assay of Individual Plants 
of Datura Stramonium L., Datura Tatula L. and Other Species and 
Varieties." 

F. A. Miller, " Breeding of Medicinal Plants." 

C. F. Millspaugh, " American Medicinal Plants " (2 large octavo 
volumes with colored plates), Boericke & Tafel, New York and Phila- 
delphia, 1887. 

F. A. Miller, Indianapolis, Ind., " The Commercial Possibilities in 
Growing Medicinal Plants " : " It is now time to reduce the work on 
drug cultivation to an exact science, and to determine the commercial 
possibilities of the most promising forms in the same manner as has 
been done for agricultural and other economic forms." 

The author corrects many misstatements which have been made in 
respect to the culture of medicinal plants, and believes the time has 
arrived for the accumulation of practical data and its circulation 



i?ptember P m™'} Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. 429 

under the most conservative and guarded statements. Journal A. Ph. 
A., vol. 3, p. 34. 

" The Propagation of Medicinal Plants," a thesis presented to the 
Purdue University toward the degree of Master of Science, pub- 
lished in the Bulletin of Torrey Botanical Club, No. 41, pp. 105-129, 
March 23, 1914. 

This paper in a degree covers the entire subject of medicinal 
plants in five divisions, as follows : 

Commercial samples and shipment of drugs. 
Crude drug merchants. 

Individuals living in or near the producing regions or others 
carrying on investigations of similar plants. 

Public and private botanical gardens, experimental stations, and 
other institutions. 

Commercial seedsmen and nurserymen. 

The paper includes germination tests, and a list of commercial 
seedsmen and nurserymen from whom seeds and plants may be 
obtained. 

The writer states that open-field methods of seeding have been 
found impracticable and in many cases impossible for many medicinal 
plants. 

The author is of the opinion that more data are required upon 
the propagation of the most important drug plants which are adapted 
in this country; that methods would have to be developed to suit 
conditions of soil and climate and at the same time be varied to meet 
the purposes of the work. 

He believes that commercial drugs might be possible under a 
system which would be worthless for experimental work or plant 
breeding improvements. 

The paper will be found instructive to all who may be interested 
in the subject. 

" Influence of Soil Composition on Medicinal Plants," /. Am. 
Pharm. Assn., 1914, iii, No. 3, 308. 

" Drug Plant Collection in the United States," Am. Druggist and 
Pharm, Rec, N. Y., 1914, lxii, No. 10, 27. 

C. R. Markham, " Cinchona Culture in India," Pharm. Journ. 
Trans., 4 (11), p. 27. 

F. E. Mafat, " Plants Capable of Yielding Tanning Materials," 
Am. Journ., 64, pp. 526-532, 1892. 



430 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. {^ptember^iT* 

J. M. Maisch, " Indigenous Remedial Plants/' Am. Journ. 
Pharm., 6i, pp. 55 2 -554, 1889. 

" California Opium," Am. Journ. Pharm., 46, p. 105, 1874. 

" Lycopodium Clavatum L. and Other North American Sp